Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.668
Filtrar
1.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(9): 1369-1374, 2019 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564078

RESUMO

We isolated Lactobacillus mucosae NK41 and Bifidobacterium longum NK46 from human feces, which induced BDNF expression in corticosterone-stimulated SH-SY5Y cells, and examined their anti-depressive effects in mice. NK41, NK46, and their (1:1) mixture significantly mitigated immobilization stress (IS)-induced anxiety-like/depressive behaviors, hippocampal NF-κB activation, BDNF expression, Iba1+ cell population, and blood corticosterone, TNF-α, IL- 6, and lipopolysaccharide levels. Furthermore, they inhibited colitis marker NF-κB activation, and TNF-α expression in mice with IS-induced anxiety/depression. They additionally suppressed gut Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes populations and bacterial lipopolysaccharide production. These findings suggest that NK41 and NK46 may alleviate anxiety/depression and colitis by suppressing gut dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/dietoterapia , Bifidobacterium longum , Depressão/dietoterapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/sangue , Ansiedade/microbiologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , Colite/patologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Depressão/sangue , Depressão/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/patologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/microbiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
2.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1428-1441, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501614

RESUMO

Psychological distress has long been suspected to influence cancer incidence and mortality. It remains largely unknown whether and how stress affects the efficacy of anticancer therapies. We observed that social defeat caused anxiety-like behaviors in mice and dampened therapeutic responses against carcinogen-induced neoplasias and transplantable tumors. Stress elevated plasma corticosterone and upregulated the expression of glucocorticoid-inducible factor Tsc22d3, which blocked type I interferon (IFN) responses in dendritic cell (DC) and IFN-γ+ T cell activation. Similarly, close correlations were discovered among plasma cortisol levels, TSC22D3 expression in circulating leukocytes and negative mood in patients with cancer. In murine models, exogenous glucocorticoid injection, or enforced expression of Tsc22d3 in DC was sufficient to abolish therapeutic control of tumors. Administration of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist or DC-specific Tsc22d3 deletion reversed the negative impact of stress or glucocorticoid supplementation on therapeutic outcomes. Altogether, these results indicate that stress-induced glucocorticoid surge and Tsc22d3 upregulation can subvert therapy-induced anticancer immunosurveillance.


Assuntos
Imunidade Celular , Neoplasias/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Ansiedade/sangue , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Ansiedade/imunologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Células Dendríticas/transplante , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Camundongos , Monitorização Imunológica/métodos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/psicologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/sangue , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/imunologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 323, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transport stress not only causes physiological changes but also induces behavioral responses, including anxiety-like and depression-like behavioral responses in animals. The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays a pivotal role in transport stress. This study aimed to investigate the effects of acute transport stress on the expression of nNOS and the distribution of nNOS-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus in rats and to explore the neuroendocrine mechanism of transport stress. RESULTS: In this study, for the first time, we investigated the effects of transport stress on nitric oxide (NO)-NOS in the hypothalamus. After simulated stress, rats exhibited behavioral changes in the open field test (OFT), increased serum corticosterone (CORT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels, and increased NO content in the hypothalamus. In addition, nNOS expression in the hypothalamic PVN was upregulated, and its distribution was altered in stressed rats compared with that of unstressed rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that simulated transport stress increases nNOS expression and alters its distribution in the PVN of the rat hypothalamus.


Assuntos
Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Corticosterona/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/sangue , Neurônios/enzimologia , Óxido Nítrico , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/genética , Norepinefrina/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
Endocrinology ; 160(10): 2215-2229, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398249

RESUMO

The circadian glucocorticoid (GC) rhythm is dependent on a molecular clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and an adrenal clock that is synchronized by the SCN. To determine whether the adrenal clock modulates GC responses to stress, experiments used female and male Cyp11A1Cre/+::Bmal1Fl/Fl knockout [side-chain cleavage (SCC)-KO] mice, in which the core clock gene, Bmal1, is deleted in all steroidogenic tissues, including the adrenal cortex. Following restraint stress, female and male SCC-KO mice demonstrate augmented plasma corticosterone but not plasma ACTH. In contrast, following submaximal scruff stress, plasma corticosterone was elevated only in female SCC-KO mice. Adrenal sensitivity to ACTH was measured in vitro using acutely dispersed adrenocortical cells. Maximal corticosterone responses to ACTH were elevated in cells from female KO mice without affecting the EC50 response. Neither the maximum nor the EC50 response to ACTH was affected in male cells, indicating that female SCC-KO mice show a stronger adrenal phenotype. Parallel experiments were conducted using female Cyp11B2 (Aldosterone Synthase)Cre/+::Bmal1Fl/Fl mice and adrenal cortex-specific Bmal1-null (Ad-KO) mice. Plasma corticosterone was increased in Ad-KO mice following restraint or scruff stress, and in vitro responses to ACTH were elevated in adrenal cells from Ad-KO mice, replicating data from female SCC-KO mice. Gene analysis showed increased expression of adrenal genes in female SCC-KO mice involved in cell cycle control, cell adhesion-extracellular matrix interaction, and ligand receptor activity that could promote steroid production. These observations underscore a role for adrenal Bmal1 as an attenuator of steroid secretion that is most prominent in female mice.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/metabolismo , Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Corticosterona/sangue , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico , Animais , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/genética , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Proteínas Circadianas Period/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Fisiológico
5.
J Therm Biol ; 84: 111-120, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466743

RESUMO

Temperature influences many physiological processes including antioxidant defense and immunity. The hypothesis that air temperatures has no effects on antioxidant defense and innate immunity in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was tested. Thirty-three male gerbils were randomly divided into the 4 °C (n = 11), 23 °C (n = 11) and 32 °C groups (n = 11), in which the treatment course lasted for 27 days. We found that air temperatures had no effects on body mass. At lower temperature, gross energy intake and the masses of most organs were higher, whereas fat free dry carcass and body fat were lower. H2O2 titres increased in liver but decreased in small intestine, and remained unchanged in heart, kidney and testis upon cold exposure. At lower temperature, malonaldehyde (MDA) content was higher in the liver, lower in kidneys and testis, and did not differ in the heart and small intestine. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in liver were higher in 4 °C group than 23 °C group, while liver catalase (CAT) activity was lower in the 4 °C group than in the 23 °C group. No significant difference was observed in the activities of SOD, CAT and T-AOC in the heart, kidney, testis and small intestine among the 4 °C, 23 °C and 32 °C groups. As expected, bacteria killing capacity indicating innate immunity, white blood cells and thymus mass were all not affected by air temperatures. Similarly, air temperatures had no effect on the levels of testosterone and corticosterone, both of which were not correlated with innate immunity, H2O2 and MDA levels, the activity of SOD, CAT, and T-AOC in all the detected tissues. In conclusion, air temperature affected antioxidant capacity, but not immune responses or serum concentrations of corticosterone and testosterone. Overall, up-regulation or maintenance of antioxidant defenses and immunity might be an important mechanism for gerbils to survive highly variable temperature.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Gerbillinae/imunologia , Gerbillinae/metabolismo , Animais , Composição Corporal , Catalase/metabolismo , Corticosterona/sangue , Ingestão de Energia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Contagem de Leucócitos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue
6.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 92(5): 496-504, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393208

RESUMO

Corticosterone is the primary metabolic steroid in birds and is vital for maintaining homeostasis. However, the relationship between baseline corticosterone and reproduction is unclear, and we lack an understanding of how differences in baseline corticosterone at one stage of the breeding cycle influence reproductive effort at later stages. In a wild population of house wrens, we quantified the concentration of corticosterone in yolks of freshly laid eggs as an integrated measure of maternal physiology and related this to a behavioral measure of stress reactivity made during the nestling period, namely, the latency with which females resumed parental activities following a standardized disturbance at their nest (setting up a camera to record provisioning). Females that recently produced eggs containing higher corticosterone concentrations, which were significantly repeatable within females, took longer to resume activity related to parental care (i.e., feeding and brooding young) following the disturbance. Moreover, a female's latency to resume parental activities negatively predicted her provisioning of nestlings with food and the condition of these young at fledging but did not predict the number fledged. We cross-fostered offspring prior to hatching so these effects on maternal behavior are independent of any prenatal maternal effects on nestlings via the egg. These results are consistent with earlier findings, suggesting that females with higher baseline corticosterone during egg laying or early incubation tend to prioritize self-maintenance over reproduction compared with females with lower baseline corticosterone and suggest that a female's latency to return to her nest and resume parental care following a disturbance might represent a simple, functional measure of maternal stress reactivity.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Aves Canoras/sangue , Aves Canoras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Corticosterona/química , Gema de Ovo/química , Feminino , Gravação em Vídeo
7.
BMC Mol Cell Biol ; 20(1): 41, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microtubule proteins are able to produce electromagnetic fields and have an important role in memory formation, and learning. Therefore, microtubules have the potential to be affected by exogenous electromagnetic fields. This study aimed to examine the comparison of microtubule polymerization and its structural behavior in brain and sperm affected by 50 Hz extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELEF). RESULTS: Twenties adult male rats were randomly and equally divided into control and experimental groups, to evaluate the effect of 50 Hz ELEF on the sperm and brain functions. Plus-maze, serum testosterone and corticosterone, and sperm evaluation were performed. Next, the semen and brain samples were obtained, and they were divided into four experimental groups for investigation of microtubule polymerization. There was no significant difference in testosterone and, corticosterone levels, anxiety behaviors, and sperm morphology between control and ELEF-exposure groups. The sperm viability, total and progressive motility were significantly higher in the ELEF-exposed group than that of the control group. The microtubule polymerization in sperm ELEF was significantly higher than in other groups. The secondary and tertiary structures of tubulins were significantly affected in the brain, and sperm ELEF groups. CONCLUSION: It seems that the polymerization of microtubules and conformational changes of tubulin dimers are improved by ELEF application.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Microtúbulos/química , Polimerização , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal , Peso Corporal , Forma Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Corticosterona/sangue , Fluorescência , Masculino , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Ratos Wistar , Espermatozoides/citologia , Testosterona/sangue , Tubulina (Proteína)/química , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
8.
Zool Res ; 40(4): 305-316, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310064

RESUMO

Ambient temperature is an important factor influencing many physiological processes, including antioxidant defense and immunity. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that antioxidant defense and immunity are suppressed by high and low temperature treatment in Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii). Thirty male voles were randomly assigned into different temperature groups (4, 23, and 32 °C, n=10 for each group), with the treatment course lasting for 27 d. Results showed that low temperature increased gross energy intake (GEI) and liver, heart, and kidney mass, but decreased body fat mass and dry carcass mass. With the decline in temperature, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration, which is indicative of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, increased in the liver, decreased in the heart, and was unchanged in the kidney, testis, and small intestine. Lipid peroxidation indicated by malonaldehyde (MDA) content in the liver, heart, kidney, testis, and small intestine did not differ among groups, implying that high and low temperature did not cause oxidative damage. Similarly, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the five tissues did not respond to low or high temperature, except for elevation of CAT activity in the testis upon cold exposure. Bacteria killing capacity, which is indicative of innate immunity, was nearly suppressed in the 4 °C group in contrast to the 23 °C group, whereas spleen mass and white blood cells were unaffected by temperature treatment. The levels of testosterone, but not corticosterone, were influenced by temperature treatment, though neither were correlated with innate immunity, H2O2 and MDA levels, or SOD, CAT, and T-AOC activity in any detected tissues. Overall, these results showed that temperature had different influences on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, and immunity, which depended on the tissues and parameters tested. Up-regulation or maintenance of antioxidant defense might be an important mechanism for voles to survive highly variable environmental temperatures.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arvicolinae/imunologia , Arvicolinae/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Biomarcadores , Composição Corporal , Catalase/metabolismo , Corticosterona/sangue , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue
9.
Exp Oncol ; 41(2): 130-137, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262156

RESUMO

Stress during puberty and obesity can represent conditions that facilitate the long-term development of diseases, especially for stress-related disorders that depend on neuroendocrine and immune responses. The prostate is prone to diseases that result from neuroendocrine or immune challenges, such as cancer. AIM: In the present study, we assessed the long-term effects of an acute pubertal stressor (immune-challenge) or obesity on the development of precancerous lesions in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pubertal male rats received a single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline during puberty (5 weeks of age). In adulthood (8 weeks old), subgroups of males were fed with hypercaloric liquid diet to induce obesity. This resulted in a total of six subgroups: (1) intact-non obese, (2) intact-obese, (3) saline-non obese, (4) saline-obese, (5) LPS-non obese, and (6) LPS-obese. At 16 weeks of age the rats were sacrified for prostate histology (hematoxylin and eosin stain) and hormone analysis (testosterone, corticosterone and prolactin). RESULTS: As compared to intact-non obese rats, males treated with LPS and those with obesity expressed histological alterations in both the dorsolateral and ventral portions of the prostate. Only prolactin was altered in LPS-treated males, whereas corticosterone was altered in LPS-obese rats. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that puberal exposure to an immune challenge or obesity facilitate the development of prostatic lesions in adult male rats. We discuss the role of hormones in the development of precancerous lesions.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Obesidade/patologia , Prolactina/sangue , Próstata/patologia , Testosterona/sangue , Animais , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Masculino , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia
10.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 2127-2134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308626

RESUMO

Purpose: Episodes of acute emotional or physical stress can have significant adverse effects on the hippocampus. Ginsenoside Rb1, the most predominant ginsenoside present in Panax species, has been reported to show a neuroprotective effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of ginsenoside Rb1 on plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) levels in rats subjected to acute immobilization stress. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into controls treated with saline only (N), rats exposed to stress only (M), and rats pretreated with Rb1 (40 mg.kg (-1)) thirty minutes prior to stress exposure (R). In the model, animals were restrained in a plastic immobilizer for 2 h of acute immobilization stress at room temperature. ELISA was used to determine plasma levels of CORT and ACTH. The effect of Rb1 pretreatment on the expression of BDNF and TrkB was determined by immunofluorescence, real-time PCR, and Western blotting analysis. Results: The R group showed significantly increased plasma CORT and ACTH levels compared to the N and M groups. Acute stress stimulation suppressed BDNF and TrkB protein and mRNA expression in the hippocampus; otherwise, Rb1 pretreatment reversed the decreases. Conclusion: The results from this study demonstrate that Rb1 pretreatment reverses the decreases in hippocampal BDNF/TrkB and increases the plasma levels of CORT and ACTH, indicating a potential neuroprotective effect of Rb1 against acute stress.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Imobilização , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptor trkB/genética , Estresse Psicológico , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Corticosterona/sangue , Ginsenosídeos/administração & dosagem , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
11.
Phytother Res ; 33(10): 2726-2736, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353678

RESUMO

20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) is a basic aglycone of the dammarane triterpenoid saponins and exerts antidepressant-like effects on behaviour in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) and in rat olfactory bulbectomy depression models. However, the antidepressant effects of PPD have not been studied thoroughly. The objective of the present study was first to investigate the effect of PPD on depression behaviours induced by chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) in mice. The results showed that CSDS was effective in producing depression-like behaviours in mice, as indicated by decreased responses in the social interaction test, sucrose preference test, TST, and FST, and that this effect was accompanied by noticeable alterations in the levels of oxidative markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation) and monoamines (5-HT and NE) in the hippocampus and serum corticosterone levels. Additionally, western blot analysis revealed that CSDS exposure significantly downregulated BDNF, p-TrkB/TrkB, p-Akt/Akt, and p-mTOR/mTOR protein expression in the hippocampus. Remarkably, chronic PPD treatment significantly ameliorated these behavioral and biochemical alterations associated withCSDS-induced depression. Our results suggest that PPD exerts antidepressant-like effects in mice with CSDS-induced depression and that this effect may be mediated by the normalization of neurotransmitter and corticosterone levels and the alleviation of oxidative stress, as well as the enhancement of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated BDNF/TrkB pathway.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Sapogeninas/farmacologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Animais , Doença Crônica , Corticosterona/sangue , Depressão/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Sapogeninas/uso terapêutico
12.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357443

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to explore the antidepressant-like effects of vitamin D3 at different doses (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg sc) on a model of depression produced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 28 days in long-term (3 months) ovariectomized (OVX) adult rats. Sucrose preference (SPT), forced swimming (FST) and open-field (OFT) tests were conducted to examine the depression-like state. Serum corticosterone/adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) levels and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin (NT)-3/NT-4 expressions by ELISA kits and/or western blotting were determined to assess the possible mechanisms of the vitamin D3 effects on the depression-like profile in long-term OVX rats subjected to CUMS. The results showed that vitamin D3 (5.0 mg/kg), as well as fluoxetine treatment, considerably reversed the depression-like state in the SPT and FST, decreased serum corticosterone/ACTH levels, and increased BDNF and NT-3/NT-4 levels in the hippocampus of long-term OVX rats compared to OVX rats with CUMS (p < 0.05). Thus, a high dose of vitamin D3 (5.0 mg/kg sc) could improve the depression-like profile in long-term OVX adult female rats subjected to the CUMS procedure, which might be mediated by the regulation of BDNF and the NT-3/NT-4 signaling pathways in the hippocampus, as well as the corticosterone/ACTH levels of the blood serum.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/sangue , Neurotrofina 3/sangue , Ovariectomia , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Crônica , Corticosterona/sangue , Depressão/sangue , Depressão/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Endocrinology ; 160(7): 1719-1730, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166572

RESUMO

The control of steroidogenesis in the neonatal adrenal gland is of great clinical interest. We have previously demonstrated that the postnatal day (PD) 2 rat exhibits a large plasma corticosterone response to hypoxia in the absence of an increase in plasma ACTH measured by RIA, whereas the corticosterone response to exogenous ACTH is intact. By PD8, the corticosterone response to hypoxia is clearly ACTH-dependent. We hypothesized that this apparently ACTH-independent response to hypoxia in the newborn rat is due to an increase in a bioactive, nonimmunoassayable form of ACTH. To evaluate this phenomenon, we pretreated neonatal rats with a novel, specific, neutralizing anti-ACTH antibody (ALD1611) (20 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg IP) on the morning of PD1, PD7, and PD14. Twenty-four hours later, we measured hypoxia- or ACTH-stimulated plasma ACTH and corticosterone. For long-term effects, ALD1611 was given on PD1 and pups were studied on PD8 and PD15. Pretreatment with ALD1611 significantly decreased baseline corticosterone and completely blocked the corticosterone response to hypoxia and exogenous ACTH stimulation at all ages. The effect of 1 mg/kg ALD1611 on PD1 had dissipated by PD15. The decrease in corticosterone in ALD1611-treated pups was associated with decreases in baseline and hypoxia- and ACTH-stimulated adrenal Ldlr, Mrap, and Star mRNA expression at all ages. The adrenal response to hypoxia in the newborn rat is ACTH-dependent, suggesting the release of nonimmunoassayable, biologically active forms of ACTH. ALD1611 is useful as a tool to attenuate stress-induced, ACTH-dependent adrenal steroidogenesis in vivo.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Masculino , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo
14.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(10): e4619, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177559

RESUMO

Hypertension is a common chronic disease, and it is the strongest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, the number of patients with hypertension-related complications has increased significantly, adding a heavy burden to the public health system. It is known that chronic stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and stroke. However, the impact of hypertension on the dysfunctions induced by chronic stress remains poorly understood. In this study, using LC-MS-based metabolomics, we established a chronic stress model to demonstrate the mechanisms of stress-induced hypertension. We found that 30 metabolites in chronically stressed rats were changed; of these metabolites, seven had been upregulated, and 23 had been downregulated, including amino acids, phospholipids, carnitines and fatty acids, many of which are involved in amino acid metabolism, cell membrane injury, ATP supply and inflammation. These metabolites are engaged in dysregulated pathways and will provide a targeted approach to study the mechanism of stress-induced hypertension.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/sangue , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doença Crônica , Corticosterona/sangue , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Norepinefrina/sangue , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
Life Sci ; 232: 116605, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254588

RESUMO

AIM: The present study was designed to investigate the possible role of T-type Ca2+ channels and HCN channels in the development of stress adaptation in cold-water immersion stress-subjected mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The mice were subjected to cold-water immersion stress by placing them individually in a water tank (depth = 15.5 cm; temperature = 15 ±â€¯2 °C) for 5 min. The mice were subjected to single episode of cold-water immersion stress for inducing acute stress; while for inducing stress adaptation, mice were subjected to repeated episodes of homotypic stressor (5 min) for 5 consecutive days. Animals were administered with ethosuximide (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and ivabradine (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) before subjecting them to stress for five days. The stress-related behavioral alterations were assessed using the actophotometer, the hole board, the open field and the social interaction tests. The plasma corticosterone levels were quantified as a biochemical parameter of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation. RESULTS: Acute stress altered the behavioral and biochemical parameters of the animals. However, repeated stress significantly restored the behavioral and biochemical alterations signifying the development of adaptation. Administration of ethosuximide and ivabradine abolished the restoration of behavioral and biochemical changes in the animals subjected to repeated stress. CONCLUSION: The ethosuximide and ivabradine mediated attenuation of stress adaptation demonstrates that the opening of T-type Ca2+ channels and activation of HCN channels are involved in inducing stress adaptation in repeated stress-subjected animals.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/fisiologia , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Corticosterona/sangue , Etossuximida/farmacologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Ivabradina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
16.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035471

RESUMO

The consumption of high levels of dietary caffeine has increased in children and adolescents. Human and animal studies have shown that chronic intake of high doses of caffeine affects serum glucocorticoid levels. Given that glucocorticoids play a role in peripubertal organ growth and development, chronic high doses of caffeine during puberty might impair maturation of the adrenal glands. To evaluate any effects of caffeine exposure on growing adrenal glands, 22-day-old male (n = 30) and female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 30) were divided into three groups (n = 10/group); group 1 received tap water (control) and groups 2 and 3 received water containing 120 and 180 mg/kg/day caffeine, respectively, via gavage for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, adrenal glands were weighed and processed for histological analysis. Relative adrenal weights increased in both groups of caffeine-fed males and females, whereas absolute weights were decreased in the females. In the female caffeine-fed groups the adrenal cortical areas resembled irregularly arranged cords and the medullary area was significantly increased, whereas no such effects were seen in the male rats. Our results indicate that the harmful effects of caffeine on the adrenal glands of immature rats differ between females and males. Although female rats seemed to be more susceptible to damage based on the changes in the microarchitecture of the adrenal glands, caffeine affected corticosterone production in both female and male rats. In addition, increased basal adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in caffeine-fed groups may reflect decreased cortical function. Therefore, caffeine may induce an endocrine imbalance that disturbs the establishment of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis during puberty, thereby leading to abnormal stress responses.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/efeitos dos fármacos , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Maturidade Sexual , Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Animais , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Corticosterona/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4416-4425, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065721

RESUMO

In commercial layer poultry farming, molt induction is an important tool used by egg producers to prolong the production cycle of laying hens. Conventional molt induction programs involve total feed withdrawal, which raises questions about animal welfare and increased infection susceptibility. The high incidence of paratyphoid salmonellosis infections in commercial poultry farming is still an important health challenge because in addition to affecting the birds, such infections also cause public health problems. In this context, experiments were performed with laying hens at 79 wk of age to compare the conventional forced molting method (fasting) with an alternative method (free wheat bran supply) and determine their effect on the persistence of vaccine antibodies against Newcastle disease, the control and reduction of experimentally inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis, and the performance and egg quality of hens. A reduction (P < 0.05) of Salmonella Enteritidis in the crop and lower production of corticosterone were observed in the birds that received wheat bran compared with those subjected to total fasting. Moreover, a better performance (P < 0.05) with regard to egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion/kg and dozen eggs was observed in the hens that received the alternative treatment compared to the conventional forced molting method. Thus, the use of wheat bran for forced molting was found to be feasible and met the welfare needs of the hens.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Galinhas , Corticosterona/sangue , Muda , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Privação de Alimentos/fisiologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/fisiologia
18.
Horm Behav ; 113: 95-102, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077709

RESUMO

According to the cort-fitness hypothesis, glucocorticoid levels correlate negatively with fitness. However, field studies found mixed support for this hypothesis, potentially because the association between glucocorticoids and fitness might depend on prevailing environmental conditions. Based on the long-term monitoring of a natural rodent population, we tested whether individuals with elevated corticosterone levels were more likely to disappear, accounting for individual condition and among-year variation in food availability, population density and predation pressure. We used basal corticosterone levels measured at the onset of the pre-breeding season in 331 African striped mice from six generations. While basal corticosterone levels were highly repeatable within individuals, between-individual variation was large. Survival analysis revealed that disappearance risk over the pre-breeding season increased with elevated basal corticosterone levels for light but not for heavy individuals. High levels of corticosterone may be more deleterious to smaller individuals (i.e. through allostatic overload), eventually increasing their mortality risk, and disappearance would represent actual death. An alternative non-exclusive explanation could be that high levels of corticosterone selectively trigger dispersal in light individuals, and disappearance would rather reflect their departure from the population. Although environmental conditions varied considerably among generations, none of the interactions between corticosterone and environmental variables were significant. Disappearance probability was positively correlated with both predation pressure and with food availability, a factor favoring dispersal. In sum, elevated basal corticosterone levels increased disappearance in light striped mice, either directly via reduced survival prospects and/or indirectly via dispersal.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Longevidade/fisiologia , Roedores/fisiologia , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Glucocorticoides/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Roedores/sangue , Estações do Ano , África do Sul , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
Neurol Res ; 41(8): 762-769, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092145

RESUMO

Objectives: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of permanent disability worldwide. Inflammation has been reported to play an important role in the progression of CVD. Neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression are associated with increased incidence of CVD epidemiologically, although the mechanisms underlying this association are not clear. In this study, we assessed the effect of the acute repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) and chronic restraint stress (CRS) on neuroinflammation in mice. Methods: A total of 40 6-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were divided into RSDS, CRS, and corresponding control groups. In the RSDS group, male C57BL/6J mice were repeatedly subjected to bouts of social defeat by a larger CD-1 mouse for 10 min daily for 10 consecutive days. In the CRS group, the mice were exposed to restraint stress for 6 h per day for 28 consecutive days. Depressive behavior was evaluated by conducting sucrose preference test over 24 h. Peripheral blood serum and brain tissues were collected for measurement of corticosterone (CORT), epinephrine (EPI), and inflammatory factors (TNF-α and IL-6) using ELISA or real-time PCR 24 h after the sucrose preference test. Results: Both RSDS and CRS decreased the sucrose preference ratio. The acute stress increased serum CORT and EPI, while the chronic stress did not significantly influence them. Both stress models induced an inflammatory response in peripheral serum and the brain. Conclusions: RSDS and CRS are two effective models of depressive behavior, and both models cause neuroinflammation, which may be responsible for the increased risk of CVD seen in patients with depression.


Assuntos
Encefalite/sangue , Encefalite/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Animais , Corticosterona/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epinefrina/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Restrição Física , Comportamento Social , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
20.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 6046-6052, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111949

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of guinea fowl hatching eggs storage time on embryo parameters and post-hatch juvenile growth. A total 1,800 eggs of guinea fowl were used. They were numbered, weighed, and divided into four groups of 450 eggs each according to storage time of 3, 7, 11, and 15 D before storage at a temperature of 18°C. Then, they were incubated at 37.7°C and 55% relative humidity for 28 D in a forced-draft incubator. Egg weight loss, albumen pH and weight, embryo weight, hatching events, and keet growth up to 7 D post-hatch were recorded. In addition, thyroid hormone and corticosterone levels were determined. The results indicate that during storage, relative egg weight loss increased with storage duration. However, albumen pH increased with storage time up to 11 D of storage and remained unchanged between 11 and 15 D. In addition, from 19 to 22 D of incubation, albumen weight was higher for eggs stored for 15 D compared to that of eggs stored for 3 to 11 D. But, from 16 D of incubation, embryos from eggs stored for 3 D grew faster than those from eggs stored for 7 to 15 D. Incubation durations up to internal pipping (IP), external pipping (EP), and hatching events increased with egg storage duration. At IP, corticosterone and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations of eggs stored for 15 D had the lowest (P < 0.05) compared to those of eggs stored for 3 to 11 D. Moreover, the levels of thyroxine (T4) decreased with storage duration (P < 0.05). At hatch, corticosterone levels increased while T4 levels decreased with storage duration (P < 0.05). Also, hatchability decreased with egg storage duration. In addition, 7-day-old keets from eggs stored for 3 and 7 D had comparable weight and were heavier than those from eggs stored for 11 D. It was concluded that storage of guinea fowl hatching eggs more than 7 D negatively affects egg quality and subsequently depresses embryo and post-hatch growth.


Assuntos
Corticosterona/sangue , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Galliformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/fisiologia , Galliformes/embriologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA