Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 30
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(2): 519-527, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604072

RESUMO

Turkey is a rich source of European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) germplasm with nearly 400 accessions in the national collection. This genetic material encompasses cultivars, landraces and wild genotypes which were characterized for 12 nut and 13 kernel traits over 2 years in the 1990s. Analysis of these attributes revealed both the positive and negative impacts that human selection and breeding have had on hazelnut. Thus, while selection has resulted in larger nuts and kernels, cultivars have fewer nuts per cluster and kernels with larger internal cavities. Breeding has also resulted in a propensity for cultivars to have higher proportions of double kernels and empty nuts, two traits which reduce quality and yield. In addition, it is clear that while selection has successfully increased hazelnut fat content it has not impacted overall flavor, a much more complex trait. The nut and kernel phenotypic data were combined with genotypic data from 406 simple sequence repeat marker alleles for association mapping of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the traits. A total of 78 loci were detected in the population with the highest proportions for nut (24%) and kernel (26%) appearance parameters followed by quality (19%), shell thickness (16%) and yield-related (15%) traits. It is hoped that some of the identified QTL will be useful for future breeding of hazelnut for improved nut and kernel yield and quality.


Assuntos
Corylus/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Seleção Genética , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Domesticação , Genótipo , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Nozes , Fenótipo
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 84, 2018 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hazel (Corylus spp.) exhibits ovary differentiation and development that is initiated from the ovary primordium after pollination, conferring the plant with a unique delayed fertilization. Failure of development of the ovary and ovule after pollination can lead to ovary abortion and blank fruit formation, respectively, with consequent yield loss. However, the genes involved in ovary and ovule differentiation and development are largely unknown. RESULTS: In unpollinated pistillate inflorescences (stage F), the stigma shows an extension growth pattern. After pollination, a rudimentary ovary begins to form (stage S), followed by ovule differentiation (stage T) and growth (stage FO). Total RNA was obtained from pistillate inflorescences or young ovaries at stage F, S, T and FO, and sequencing was carried out on a HiSeq 4000 system. De novo assembly of sequencing data yielded 62.58 Gb of nucleotides and 90,726 unigenes; 5524, 3468, and 8714 differentially expressed transcripts were identified in F-vs-S, S-vs-T, and T-vs-FO paired comparisons, respectively. An analysis of F-vs-S, S-vs-T, and T-vs-FO paired comparisons based on annotations in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes revealed six pathways that were significantly enriched during ovary differentiation, including ko04075 (Plant hormone signal transduction). Auxin level increased after pollination, and an immunohistochemical analysis indicated that auxin was enriched at the growth center of pistillate inflorescences and young ovaries. These results indicate that genes related to auxin biosynthesis, transport, signaling, the floral quartet model, and flower development may regulate ovary and ovule differentiation and development in hazel. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of ovary differentiation and development after pollination in this economically valuable plant.


Assuntos
Corylus/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/genética , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corylus/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Polinização , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transdução de Sinais
3.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195408, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608620

RESUMO

The growing area of European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is increasing, as well as the number of producing countries, and there is a pressing need for new improved cultivars. Hazelnut conventional breeding process is slow, due to the length of juvenile phase and the high heterozygosity level. The development of genetic linkage maps and the identification of molecular markers tightly linked to QTL (quantitative trait loci) of agronomic interest are essential tools for speeding up the selection of seedlings carrying desired traits through marker-assisted selection. The objectives of this study were to enrich a previous linkage map and confirm QTL related to time of leaf budburst, using an F1 population obtained by crossing Tonda Gentile delle Langhe with Merveille de Bollwiller. Genotyping-by-Sequencing was used to identify a total of 9,999 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. Well saturated linkage maps were constructed for each parent using the double pseudo-testcross mapping strategy. A reciprocal translocation was detected in Tonda Gentile delle Langhe between two non-homologous chromosomes. Applying a bioinformatic approach, we were able to disentangle 'pseudo-linkage' between markers, removing markers around the translocation breakpoints and obtain a linear order of the markers for the two chromosomes arms, for each linkage group involved in the translocation. Twenty-nine QTL for time of leaf budburst were identified, including a stably expressed region on LG_02 of the Tonda Gentile delle Langhe map. The stability of these QTL and their coding sequence content indicates promise for the identification of specific chromosomal regions carrying key genes involved in leaf budburst.


Assuntos
Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corylus/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Agricultura , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Food Chem ; 252: 349-355, 2018 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478553

RESUMO

In studies of secondary metabolites in nuts, many constituents in the kernel remain unidentified due to a high content of phenolic compounds in the pellicle. In the present study, we focused on the investigation of the phenolic and dicarboxylic acid profiles of walnut and hazelnut pellicle-less kernels. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD-MSn) was used to carry out the determination of individual phenolics and dicarboxylic acids in brown and red-pellicle walnut and hazelnut. Results show that hexahydroxydiphenic acid (HHDP) di-galloyl hexose isomer, vanillic acid hexoside, quinic acid derivative and catechin are the main constituents of the phenolic profile of walnut, while galloylquinic derivative, caffeoyl hexoside and catechin are the main constituents of the hazelnut kernel. Even though both walnut and hazelnut kernels have a considerably lower content of phenolic compounds and dicarboxylic acids in comparison to the pellicles, when calculated as a percentage of the total mass, the kernel makes a significant contribution to the total phenolic content of the whole nut.


Assuntos
Juglans/química , Nozes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Catequina/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Corylus/química , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Juglans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectrometria de Massas , Nozes/química
5.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15598, 2017 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29142273

RESUMO

Paclitaxel is a powerful antimitotic agent with excellent activity against a range of cancers. Hazel has been described as a paclitaxel-producing species among angiosperms. Fast-growing callus is a prerequisite for the success of callus production and then paclitaxel production. Therefore, optimizing the medium culture for enhancing callus growth is a crucial step for paclitaxel production. In this research, Murashige and Skoog (1962) (MS) medium was optimized for improving callus growth of hazel (Corylus avellana L.). The M10 medium (MS medium with pH 6.0 and supplemented with 1000 mg l-1 spirulina powder, 1000 mg l-1 casein hydrolysate and 3 g l-1 gelrite) significantly improved hazel callus growth. This modified MS medium increased callus fresh weight (55.8%) as compared to the control. M10 medium increased fatty acids yield of callus (66.7%) as compared to the control. Liquid M10 medium maintained growth over a longer period of time and also increased slightly, the paclitaxel production as compared to the control. This novel medium is promising for facilitating the mass production of hazel callus as a source of valuable metabolites including paclitaxel, linoleic and oleic acids.


Assuntos
Calo Ósseo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Calo Ósseo/efeitos dos fármacos , Corylus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Nutr Neurosci ; 20(6): 317-326, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26808646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Corylus avellana L. (hazelnut) is known to be a delicious and nutritious food. This study was carried out to evaluate the use of hazelnut as a therapy for memory impairment because in Iranian traditional medicine, it is recommended for those suffering from a particular type of dementia, with symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: In this study, rats were fed with hazelnut kernel [(without skin) 800 mg/kg/day] during 1 week before stereotaxic surgery to 24 hours before behavioral testing (in general, for 16 consecutive days) and the effect of hazelnut eating on memory, anxiety, neuroinflammation and apoptosis was assessed in the amyloid beta-injected rat. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that feeding with hazelnut improved memory, (which was examined by using Y-maze test and shuttle box apparatus), and reduced anxiety-related behavior, that was evaluated using elevated plus maze. Also, western blotting analysis of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein, and caspase-3 showed that hazelnut has an ameliorating effect on the neuroinflammation and apoptosis caused by Aß. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that hazelnut, as a dietary supplement, improves healthy aging and could be a beneficial diet for the treatment of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Corylus , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Alimento Funcional , Memória , Neuroproteção , Nozes , Doença de Alzheimer/imunologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Animais , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Apoptose , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Comportamento Animal , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Etnobotânica , Hipocampo/imunologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Medicina Tradicional , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/imunologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Nozes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar
7.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0147584, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26840951

RESUMO

Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav) has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions) and contributing factors (Pav). Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD).


Assuntos
Corylus/microbiologia , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Proteção de Cultivos/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas syringae/classificação , Pseudomonas syringae/patogenicidade , Clima , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Itália , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Pseudomonas syringae/genética , Pseudomonas syringae/isolamento & purificação
8.
Environ Pollut ; 206: 382-9, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26253312

RESUMO

Pollution adversely affects vegetation; however, its impact on phenology and leaf morphology is not satisfactorily understood yet. We analyzed associations between pollutants and phenological data of birch, hazel and horse chestnut in Munich (2010) along with the suitability of leaf morphological parameters of birch for monitoring air pollution using two datasets: cumulated atmospheric concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone derived from passive sampling (short-term exposure) and pollutant information derived from Land Use Regression models (long-term exposure). Partial correlations and stepwise regressions revealed that increased ozone (birch, horse chestnut), NO2, NOx and PM levels (hazel) were significantly related to delays in phenology. Correlations were especially high when rural sites were excluded suggesting a better estimation of long-term within-city pollution. In situ measurements of foliar characteristics of birch were not suitable for bio-monitoring pollution. Inconsistencies between long- and short-term exposure effects suggest some caution when interpreting short-term data collected within field studies.


Assuntos
Aesculus/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Betula/efeitos dos fármacos , Corylus/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aesculus/anatomia & histologia , Aesculus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Betula/anatomia & histologia , Betula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corylus/anatomia & histologia , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha , Modelos Teóricos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Tempo , Urbanização
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(17): 13362-71, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25940473

RESUMO

Soil contamination by antibiotics is a possible consequence of animal husbandry waste, sewage sludge, and reclaimed water spreading in agriculture. In this study, 1-year-old hazel plants (Corylus avellana L.) were grown in pots for 64 days in soil spiked with sulfadiazine (SDZ) in the range 0.01-100 mg kg(-1) soil. Leaf gas exchanges, fluorescence parameters and plant growth were measured regularly during the experiment, whereas plant biomass, sulfonamide concentrations in soil and plant tissues, and the quantitative variation of culturable bacterial endophytes in leaf petiole were analyzed at the end of the trial. During the experiment, photosynthesis and leaf transpiration as well as fluorescence parameters were progressively reduced by the antibiotic. Effects were more evident for leaf transpiration and for the highest SDZ spiking concentrations, whereas growth analyses did not reveal negative effects of the antibiotic. At the end of the trial, a high number of culturable endophytic bacteria in the leaf petiole of plants treated with 0.1 and 0.01 mg kg(-1) were observed, and SDZ was extractable from soil and plant roots for spiking concentrations ≥1 mg kg(-1). Inside plants, the antibiotic was mainly stored at the root level with bioconcentration factors increasing with the spiking dose, and the hydroxylated derivate 4-OH-SDZ was the only metabolite detected. Overall results show that 1-year-old hazel plants can contribute to the reduction of sulfonamide concentrations in the environment, however, sensitive reactions to SDZ can be expected at the highest contamination levels.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Corylus/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Sulfadiazina/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Corylus/efeitos dos fármacos , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corylus/microbiologia , Endófitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Esgotos/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/farmacologia , Sulfadiazina/farmacologia , Drogas Veterinárias/metabolismo , Drogas Veterinárias/farmacologia
10.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0122072, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25836368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high ratio of blank fruit in hazelnut (Corylus heterophylla Fisch) is a very common phenomenon that causes serious yield losses in northeast China. The development of blank fruit in the Corylus genus is known to be associated with embryo abortion. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms responsible for embryo abortion during the nut development stage. Genomic information for C. heterophylla Fisch is not available; therefore, data related to transcriptome and gene expression profiling of developing and abortive ovules are needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, de novo transcriptome sequencing and RNA-seq analysis were conducted using short-read sequencing technology (Illumina HiSeq 2000). The results of the transcriptome assembly analysis revealed genetic information that was associated with the fruit development stage. Two digital gene expression libraries were constructed, one for a full (normally developing) ovule and one for an empty (abortive) ovule. Transcriptome sequencing and assembly results revealed 55,353 unigenes, including 18,751 clusters and 36,602 singletons. These results were annotated using the public databases NR, NT, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, and GO. Using digital gene expression profiling, gene expression differences in developing and abortive ovules were identified. A total of 1,637 and 715 unigenes were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in abortive ovules, compared with developing ovules. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was used in order to verify the differential expression of some genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transcriptome and digital gene expression profiling data of normally developing and abortive ovules in hazelnut provide exhaustive information that will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of abortive ovule formation in hazelnut.


Assuntos
Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corylus/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Biblioteca Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Óvulo Vegetal/genética , Óvulo Vegetal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 95(9): 1956-62, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25224327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zinc is an essential element for plants and its deficiency is a widespread problem throughout the world, causing decreased yields and nutritional quality. In this study the effect of zinc fertilization on some nut traits and the nutritional composition of 'Tombul' hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) variety cultivated in the Black Sea region of Turkey was investigated and the contribution of this nut to human nutrition determined. Trials were carried out at 'Tombul' hazelnut orchards, and zinc fertilizers were applied at 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kg Zn ha(-1) in three consecutive years. RESULTS: Significant differences in some nut traits and mineral composition (protein, total oil, ash, kernel percentage, empty and wrinkled nuts, copper, boron, manganese and molybdenum) were observed with zinc fertilizer applications. In terms of daily nutritional element requirements, 100 g of hazelnut provided about 44.74% phosphorus, 13.39% potassium, 19.32% calcium, 37.49% magnesium, 0.19% sodium, 51.63% iron, 25.73% zinc and 14.05% boron of the recommended daily amounts (RDAs), while copper, manganese and molybdenum contents exceeded their RDAs. CONCLUSION: In order to improve some nut traits and the mineral composition of hazelnut, 0.8 and 1.6 kg Zn ha(-1) fertilizations could be recommended in practice.


Assuntos
Corylus/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Fertilizantes , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Nozes/química , Zinco/metabolismo , Mar Negro , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corylus/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Nozes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nozes/metabolismo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Turquia , Zinco/análise
12.
Plant Reprod ; 27(3): 145-52, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25073757

RESUMO

Unlike most angiosperms, in which fertilization occurs within several days after pollination, fertilization in hazel (Corylus Spp.) is delayed by two to three and a half months. However, the female inflorescences or young fruits are too hard or lignified to be dissected according to regular paraffin sectioning technique. So, what the nature of development during the extended progamic phases of hazel remains unknown. The female inflorescence development and pollen tube growth mode during the delayed fertilization stage in hazel were investigated by improved paraffin sectioning and aniline blue staining of pollen tubes. The results showed ovaries and ovules of hazel were invisible at the time of blooming. Early ovary and ovule primordium began to form from 15 to 20 days after blooming, respectively. Integument and mature embryo sacs differentiated from the nucellus on 40th and 55th day after blooming, respectively. Pollen tubes were retarded in the bottom of the style or the pollen tube cavity (PTC, a specifical lignified cavity structure at the bottom of style for pollen tube to rest during progamic phase) for about 26 days. Then, the pollen tubes were observed to leave the PTC and began to enter the ovary. After that, a single pollen tube passed through the vicinity of the micropyle. Finally, pollen tubes turned a corner and penetrated the embryo sac through the tissue of the chalaza instead of micropyle on 52 and 55 days after blooming, respectively. The results of more in-depth information will be beneficial to better understanding of the delayed fertilization process in hazel.


Assuntos
Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilização/fisiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubo Polínico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/fisiologia
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 62(26): 6236-46, 2014 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24927513

RESUMO

Hazelnuts exhibit functional properties due to their content in fatty acids and phenolic compounds that could positively affect human health. The food industry requires precise traits for morphological, chemical, and physical kernel features so that some cultivars could be more suitable for specific industrial processing. In this study, agronomical and morphological features of 29 hazelnut cultivars were evaluated and a detailed structural characterization of kernel polyphenols was performed, confirming the presence of protocatechuic acid, flavan-3-ols such as catechin, procyanidin B2, six procyanidin oligomers, flavonols, and one dihydrochalcone in all the analyzed cultivars. In addition, an innovative methodology based on the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of peptide/protein components extracted from kernels was developed for the authentication of the most valuable cultivars. The proposed method is rapid, simple, and reliable and holds the potential to be applied in quality control processes. These results could be useful in hazelnut cultivar evaluation and choice for growers, breeders, and food industry.


Assuntos
Corylus/química , Flavonoides/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Nozes/química , Fenóis/análise , Sementes/química , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/química , Europa (Continente) , Inspeção de Alimentos , Nozes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nozes/normas , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/análise , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie , Turquia , Estados Unidos
14.
Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci ; 79(2): 105-10, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26084088

RESUMO

Weed management is critical in hazelnut (Corylus avellana) production. Weeds reduce nutrient availability, interfere with tree growth, and reduce hand-harvesting efficiency. Field experiments were conducted to test effects of cover crops as alternative weed management strategies in hazelnut. The cover crop treatments consisted of Trifolium repens L., Festuca rubra subsp. rubra L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Vicia villosa Roth. And Trifolium meneghinianum Celmand fallow with no cover crop. Control plots such as weedy control, herbicide control and mechanical control were added as reference plots. The lowest weed dry biomass was obtained from Vicia villosa plots, and there were no significant differences among all other cover crop treatments. The highest cover crop dry biomass was measured in the Trifolium meneghinianum plots. Regarding the effect of cover crops on hazelnut yields, the lowest yield was ob- tained from weedy control plots, while the highest yield was obtained from F. arundinacea plots. This research indicated that cover crops could be used as living mulch in integrated weed management programs to manage weeds in the hazelnut orchards.


Assuntos
Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trifolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Plantas Daninhas/métodos , Agricultura , Turquia
15.
J Econ Entomol ; 107(5): 1858-65, 2014 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26309276

RESUMO

Halyomorpha halys Stål, the brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an invasive pest with established populations in Oregon. The generalist feeding habits of H. halys suggest it has the potential to be a pest of many specialty crops grown in Oregon, including hazelnuts, Corylus avellana L. The objectives of this study were to: 1) characterize the damage to developing hazelnut kernels resulting from feeding by H. halys adults, 2) determine how the timing of feeding during kernel development influences damage to kernels, and 3) determine if hazelnut shell thickness has an effect on feeding frequency on kernels. Adult brown marmorated stink bugs were allowed to feed on developing nuts for 1-wk periods from initial kernel development (spring) until harvest (fall). Developing nuts not exposed to feeding by H. halys served as a control treatment. The degree of damage and diagnostic symptoms corresponded with the hazelnut kernels' physiological development. Our results demonstrated that when H. halys fed on hazelnuts before kernel expansion, development of the kernels could cease, resulting in empty shells. When stink bugs fed during kernel expansion, kernels appeared malformed. When stink bugs fed on mature nuts the kernels exhibited corky, necrotic areas. Although significant differences in shell thickness were observed among the cultivars, no significant differences occurred in the proportions of damaged kernels based on field tests and laboratory choice tests. The results of these studies demonstrated that commercial hazelnuts are susceptible to damage caused by the feeding of H. halys throughout the entire period of kernel development.


Assuntos
Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Animais , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Oregon , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
J Environ Manage ; 129: 341-9, 2013 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23981706

RESUMO

Our study assessed the impact of hazelnuts (Coryllus avellena L.) in land-use conversion from forest (F) to agricultural land (AL) on various attributes of soil respiration dynamics, such as soil elemental carbon (C%) content, microbial respiration, bulk density, soil pH, electrical conductivity, and seasonal variations. We developed soil C% models to compare soil C% between F and AL soils. Four field trips were conducted in the winter and summer of 2008 and the spring and fall of 2009 in the Karasu region of Turkey. During each trip, 42 sites were visited F (n = 21) and AL (n = 21). Our results showed that hazelnuts plantations in AL could reduce elemental C% by 27% (winter 2008), 16% (summer 2008), 41% (spring 2009), and 22% (fall 2009) in the four seasons studied when compared to F soils. In situ soil respiration was also reduced by 31% (spring 2008), 67% (fall 2008), 88% (spring 2009), and 79% (fall 2009) in AL soils over F soils. The percent of organic matter of AL soils was declined by 36% (winter 2008), 23% (summer 2008), 34% (spring 2009), and 26% (fall 2009) in comparison to F soils. Significant reductions in the correlation between C%-percent clay and C%-electrical conductivity were also recorded for AL soils over F soils. Furthermore, AL soils showed higher bulk density (7.4% and 7%) when compared to F soils. We also found that in situ soil respiration had significant seasonal correlations (p < 0.05) with soil pH (0.537), soil temperature, and percent clay (-0.486) in F soils (summer 2008, spring 2009). Additionally, we found that seasonal variations of four sampling seasons had a moderate impact on in situ respiration and that the differences were statistically significant, except for the winter-summer and spring-fall seasonal pairs. Linear regression C models showed significant differences for F and AL soils.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Solo/química , Agricultura , Corylus/metabolismo , Agricultura Florestal , Modelos Biológicos , Estações do Ano , Turquia
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(22): 5226-35, 2013 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23663170

RESUMO

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) has been used a few times to identify and quantitate single aroma-active compounds, but the capability of this technique to monitor a complete set of key odorants evoking the aroma of a given food in one run has not been exploited so far. A fast, multiodorant analysis using GC×GC-TOF-MS in combination with stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) was developed to quantitate the entire set of aroma compounds, the sensometabolome, of raw and roasted hazelnuts ( Corylus avellana L. 'Tonda Gentile') previously established by GC-olfactometry. The capability of the method to evaluate the aroma contribution of each sensometabolite was evaluated by introducing a new term, the limit of odor activity value (LOAV), indicating whether a given aroma compound can be determined down to an odor activity value (OAV) of 1 (odor activity value = ratio of concentration to odor threshold). The advantage of the new method was proven by comparing the performance parameters with a traditional one-dimensional approach using GC-ion trap mass-spectrometry (GC-IT-MS). The results showed that the detector linearity and sensitivity of GC×GC-TOF-MS was on average higher by a factor of 10 compared to GC-IT-MS, thus enabling the quantitation of the aroma relevant amounts of 22 key odorants of hazelnuts in one run of the 30 aroma-active compounds. Seven novel isotopically labeled internal standards were synthesized to meet the analytical requirements defined by electron impact ionization in TOF-MS, that is, to keep the label. On the basis of the quantitative results obtained, it was possible to closely mimic the aroma of raw and roasted 'Tonda Gentile' hazelnuts by preparing an aroma recombinate containing the key odorants at their natural concentrations occurring in the nuts.


Assuntos
Corylus/química , Inspeção de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Nozes/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Acetilação , Isótopos de Carbono , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Destilação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Itália , Limite de Detecção , Nozes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Odorantes , Olfatometria , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Prolina/análise , Prolina/síntese química , Prolina/química , Pirróis/análise , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/química , Pirrolidinas/análise , Pirrolidinas/síntese química , Pirrolidinas/química , Sensação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
18.
Mol Biol Rep ; 39(4): 4997-5008, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22362313

RESUMO

Hazelnut is a monoecious species characterized by mid-winter blooming and sporophytic incompatibility. The molecular mechanisms at the basis of the female flower development and of the pollen-stigma interaction are little known, although pollination in this species is a critical factor to ensure good yield. Differential display technique was used to study genes expressed during the female flower development, comparing styles before emergence from the bud and styles at full bloom. The full-length cDNA clone, designated CavPrx (Corylus avellana peroxidase) and isolated in mature styles, was characterized as a sequence encoding for a 330 amino acids protein, containing all the conserved features of class III peroxidases. CavPrx resulted expressed only in styles, with a peak in mature styles pollinated with compatible pollen. Class III peroxidases are expressed in several different plant tissue types and are involved in a broad spectrum of physiological processes. Until now, four peroxidases expressed in the stigma were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and Senecio squalidus: they were assumed to be possibly involved in pollen-pistil interaction, pollen tube penetration/growth and/or in defence against pathogens. CavPrx is the first gene for a floral peroxidase isolated in hazelnut and its expression pattern suggests a possible role in the pollination process.


Assuntos
Corylus/enzimologia , Corylus/genética , Flores/enzimologia , Flores/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Peroxidase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , DNA Complementar/genética , DNA Complementar/isolamento & purificação , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Peroxidase/química , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Padrões de Referência
19.
Int J Biometeorol ; 56(4): 681-94, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21786017

RESUMO

Knowledge of plant-weather relationships can improve crop management, resulting in higher quality and more stable crop yields. The annual timing of spring phenophases in mid-latitudes is largely a response to temperature, and reflects the thermal conditions of previous months. The effect of air temperature on the variability of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) phenophases (leafing, flowering) was investigated. Meteorological and phenological data for five cultivars were analysed over the periods 1969-1979 (P1) and 1994-2007 (P2) in Maribor, Slovenia. Phenological data series were correlated strongly to the temperature of the preceding months (R(2): 0.64-0.98) and better correlated to daily maximum and mean temperatures than to daily minimum temperatures. About 75% of phenophases displayed a tendency towards earlier appearance and a shorter flowering duration during P2, which could be explained by the significant temperature changes (+0.3°C/decade) from December to April between 1969 and 2007. An increase in air temperature of 1°C caused an acceleration in leafing by 2.5-3.9 days, with flowering showing higher sensitivity since a 1°C increase promoted male flowering by 7.0-8.8 days and female flowering by 6.3-8.9 days. The average rate of phenological change per degree of warming (days earlier per +1°C) did not differ significantly between P1 and P2. An estimation of chilling accumulation under field conditions during 1993-2009, between 1 November and 28 February, showed that all four of these months contributed approximately similar amounts of accumulated chilling units. The growing degree days (GDD) to flowering were calculated by an estimated base temperature of 2°C and 1 January as a starting date, given the most accurate calculations. In general, thermal requirements were greater in P2 than in P1, although this difference was not significant. Longer-time series data extended to other agricultural and wild plants would be helpful in tracking possible future changes in phenological responses to local climate.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Eslovênia , Temperatura Ambiente
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 22(7): 1659-67, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22007438

RESUMO

The study with sampling plot method showed that in Pinus tabulaeformis secondary forests in Qinling Mountains, there were 36 tree species in regeneration layer, occupying 51.4% of the total. The dominant species were Quercus glandulifera, Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata, and Corylus heterophylla. The seedling bank was abundant, and with lower height class and age class. The main regeneration type was seedling, showing the forest being at its middle succession period. Stand density had significant effects on sapling and seedling densities (P<0.01). The sapling and seedling densities increased when the stand density increased from 580 trees x hm(-2) up to 1500 trees x hm(-2), but decreased with the further increase of stand density. Slope aspect also had significant effects on the seedling and sapling densities (P<0.05). The sapling density decreased gradually when the slope aspect changed from SW10 degrees to SW40 degrees, but increased with the slope aspect changed to shady slope (NE10 degrees). The forest regeneration characteristics differed at different slope positions, with the sapling and seedling densities being relatively higher in flat stand. From foot to top, the seedling density decreased, while the sapling density increased. The sapling density increased from the altitude 1159 m up to 1449 m but decreased from 1449 m up to 1658 m, while the seedling density all along had an increasing trend from lower altitude to higher altitude. It was suggested that the medium stand density on shady slope had the best natural regeneration. To rationally regulate stand density could be an effective way to accelerate the regeneration process of P. tabulaeformis forest.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Corylus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Dinâmica Populacional , Quercus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA