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1.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(3): e109-e117, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419235

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of defining secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmokers using an expanded serum cotinine range is currently unknown. METHODS: This study assessed the trends in secondhand smoke exposure prevalence among a nationally representative sample of 23,753 U.S. nonsmokers aged ≥3 years. Serum cotinine ranges of 0.05-10 ng/mL (established) and of 0.015-10 ng/mL (expanded) were analyzed in 2021 using data from the 2011-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. RESULTS: During 2011-2018, the percentage of people with a serum cotinine range of 0.05-10 ng/mL remained stable (25.3% to 24.6%) across most sociodemographic subgroups but declined significantly among adult Mexican Americans aged ≥20 years (23.9% to 14.1%). However, the percentage of people with serum cotinine range of 0.015-10 ng/mL significantly declined (58.3% to 52.3%) among male individuals (60.9% to 55.0%), among female individuals (56.2% to 50.0%), among adults aged ≥20 years (55.8% to 49.2%), among Mexican Americans (60.9% to 41.2%), among people with a college degree or higher (44.4% to 36.0%), among those who rented their housing (71.7% to 62.5%), among people not living with someone who smoked inside the home (56.1% to 50.0%), and among Mexican Americans aged ≥20 years (60.9% to 39.1%) (all p<0.05 for linear trend test). CONCLUSIONS: Expanding the serum cotinine range to 0.015-10 ng/mL more than doubles the estimated proportion of U.S. nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. In contrast to a serum cotinine range of 0.05-10 ng/mL, it suggests that progress has been made in reducing population-level secondhand smoke exposure during 2011-2018, especially among nonsmokers experiencing lower exposure levels.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adulto , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , não Fumantes , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
2.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(18): e0092321, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232707

RESUMO

Cotinine is a stable toxic contaminant, produced as a by-product of smoking. It is of emerging concern due to its global distribution in aquatic environments. Microorganisms have the potential to degrade cotinine; however, the genetic mechanisms of this process are unknown. Nocardioides sp. strain JQ2195 is a pure-culture strain that has been reported to degrade cotinine at micropollutant concentrations. This strain utilizes cotinine as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. In this study, a 50-kb gene cluster (designated cot), involved in cotinine degradation, was predicted based on genomic and transcriptomic analyses. A novel three-component cotinine hydroxylase gene (designated cotA1A2A3), which initiated cotinine catabolism, was identified and characterized. CotA from Shinella sp. strain HZN7 was heterologously expressed and purified and was shown to convert cotinine into 6-hydroxycotinine. H218O-labeling and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis confirmed that the hydroxyl group incorporated into 6-hydroxycotinine was derived from water. This study provides new molecular insights into the microbial metabolism of heterocyclic chemical pollutants. IMPORTANCE In the human body, cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine, and 10 to 15% of generated cotinine is excreted in urine. Cotinine is a structural analogue of nicotine and is much more stable than nicotine. Increased tobacco consumption has led to high environmental concentrations of cotinine, which may have detrimental effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Nocardioides sp. strain JQ2195 is a unique cotinine-degrading bacterium. However, the underlying genetic and biochemical foundations of cotinine degradation are still unknown. In this study, a 50-kb gene cluster (designated cot) was identified by genomic and transcriptomic analyses as being involved in the degradation of cotinine. A novel three-component cotinine hydroxylase gene (designated cotA1A2A3) catalyzed cotinine to 6-hydroxy-cotinine. This study provides new molecular insights into the microbial degradation and enzymatic transformation of cotinine.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cotinina/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Nocardioides/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biotransformação , Cotinina/análogos & derivados , Genoma Bacteriano , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Nocardioides/genética , Transcriptoma , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148891, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274675

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Children with smoking parents are potentially exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). The aims of this study were: 1) to assess ETS exposure in Milan schoolchildren, by measuring urinary cotinine (COT-U), 2) to compare the parents' perception of children ETS exposure, with the actual ETS exposure measured by COT-U, 3) to explore the factors influencing COT-U, including smoking bans at home, the season, and children characteristics. METHODS: One-hundred school children (7-11 years) and their parents were recruited for the study in Spring 2018 (n = 81) and in Winter 2019 (n = 94), 75 children participated to both campaigns, for a sum of 175 observations. A questionnaire was submitted to parents to collect information about smoking habits in the house. COT-U was measured by LC-MS/MS in spot urine sample collected in the morning from children. RESULTS: Detectable COT-U levels were found in 42% and 57% of children, in spring and winter, in contrast with 17% and 13% of parents acknowledging ETS exposure. Children living with smokers or e-cigarette users (vapers) (30% of the participants) had higher COT-U levels than children not living with smokers or vapers (median 0.67, 0.46, and <0.1 µg/L in spring, and 0.98, 0.85, and 0.11 µg/L in winter, respectively). Increasingly higher COT-U levels were observed in children living in homes where smoking was completely banned, allowed in the external parts of the home, or allowed in some rooms. The multiple regression analysis confirmed the positive significant effect of living with smokers, a partial smoking ban and absence of smoking ban at home, the winter season, and BMI as determinants of COT-U. CONCLUSION: ETS exposure resulted in measurable urinary cotinine in children. Smoking parents underestimate exposure to ETS of their children. Living with smokers is a determinant of COT-U, only slightly mitigated by adopting partial smoking ban.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida , Cotinina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
4.
Turk J Pediatr ; 63(3): 404-416, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent wheezing is common in young children, with a cumulative prevalence of up to 40 % in the first 6 years of life. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between the number of wheezing episodes and the number of cigarettes smoked at home and serum / saliva cotinine and carnosine levels in children with recurrent wheezing. METHODS: This study was conducted with 80 young children with recurrent wheezing, aged between 1-4 years and 50 healthy control groups. Patient population was divided into three groups depending on the number of their exposure to cigarette smoke and wheezing attacks. Serum cotinine, saliva cotinine, serum carnosine, saliva carnosine, vitamin D levels were measured by using the ELISA method. RESULTS: A significant relationship for serum cotinine and saliva cotinine levels was found between groups (p < 0.05). It was determined that as the number of exposure to cigarette smoke and number of wheezing episodes in young children with recurrent wheezing increased, the level of serum/saliva cotinine levels increased significantly, compared to the control group. In contrast, it was determined that as the number of exposure to cigarette smoke and number of wheezing episodes in young children with recurrent wheezing increased, serum/saliva carnosine levels decreased significantly, compared to the control group. In addition, a significant difference in serum vitamin D levels was found between healthy young children and young children with recurrent wheezing (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We think that the measurement of salivary cotinine is a useful and noninvasive marker to evaluate passive smoking exposure in the etiology of recurrent wheezing in young children.


Assuntos
Carnosina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cotinina/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Saliva/química , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1324, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many indoor public places have implemented smoke-free regulations, private homes have remained sources of tobacco smoke pollutants. This study examined differences in urinary cotinine concentrations in the Korean non-smoking adult population between living in smoking and smoke-free homes, and the relationship of urinary cotinine concentrations with socio-demographic factors in smoke-free homes. METHODS: Samples from 2575 non-smoking adults (≥19 years old) in the Korean National Environmental Health Survey cycle 3 (2015-2017), a representative Korean study, were used. Smoking and smoke-free homes were defined based on whether there were smokers at homes. Weighted linear regression models were used to determine urinary cotinine concentrations and identify factors associated with urinary cotinine. RESULTS: The geometric mean of urinary cotinine concentrations for non-smoking adults living in smoking homes was 2.1 µg/L (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-2.4), which was significantly higher than the mean of 1.3 µg/L (95% CI = 1.2-1.4) for those living in smoke-free homes. Urinary cotinine concentrations were different significantly by home smoking status in most socio-demographic subgroups. Data from smoke-free home showed urinary cotinine concentration in adults was significantly higher in those who lived in homes with ventilation duration < 30 min/day, those who spent more time indoors at home, those who spent less time outdoors, and those who worked in non-manual or manual occupations. CONCLUSIONS: The urinary cotinine concentration in Korean non-smoking adults living in smoking homes was higher than that in adults living in smoke-free homes. Even in smoke-free homes, home-related factors, such as ventilation duration and time spent indoors, were associated with urinary cotinine concentration. Further study is warranted to examine potential sources of tobacco smoke pollution in smoke-free homes.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adulto , Cotinina/análise , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Ventilação , Adulto Jovem
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e25842, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087827

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between urinary cotinine and colorectal neoplasm (CRN).The participants in the health screening cohort of the National Cancer Center who underwent screening colonoscopy between June 2007 and December 2009 were included. A total of 8121 subjects who underwent urinary cotinine measurement within 14 days from the index colonoscopy were included. Cotinine positivity was defined as having a urinary cotinine level ≥50 ng/mL. Follow-up colonoscopy data were collected by reviewing the patients' medical records.Patients were classified according to their urinary cotinine level and self-reported smoking status, and the number of patients with cotinine positivity was 1960 (24.1%). There was no significant difference in the cumulative CRN and advanced CRN (ACRN) risks according to the self-reported smoking status. However, cotinine positivity at the time of index colonoscopy was an independent risk factor for CRN (hazard ratio [HR]= 1.23, P = .006) in follow-up colonoscopy. Moreover, in never- and ex-smokers, cotinine positivity was an independent risk factor for CRN (HR = 1.95, P = .019; HR = 2.12, P = .003, respectively) and ACRN (HR = 8.89, P < .001; HR = 5.03, P = .003) during follow-up colonoscopy. The cumulative incidence of CRN and ACRN was higher in the cotinine-positive never- and ex-smokers than in the cotinine-negative never- and ex-smokers (P < .001 and P = .008, respectively).CRN or ACRN is more likely to occur at follow-up colonoscopy in the urinary cotinine-positive never- and ex-smokers than in the urinary cotinine-negative group. Therefore, urinary cotinine measurements may provide useful information on never- or ex-smokers undergoing screening colonoscopy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Cotinina/urina , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Anal Chem ; 93(27): 9480-9485, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180227

RESUMO

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is a valuable analytical tool with applications in a vast array of research fields from chemistry and biology to medicine and beyond. NMR is renowned for its straightforward data interpretation and quantitative properties, making it attractive for pharmacokinetic applications, where drug metabolism pathways, concentrations, and kinetics need to be evaluated. However, pharmacologically active compounds and their metabolites in biofluids often appear in minute concentrations, well below the detection limit of NMR. Herein, we demonstrate how parahydrogen hyperpolarization overcomes this sensitivity barrier, allowing us to detect mid-nanomolar concentrations of a drug and a drug metabolite in a biofluid matrix. The performance of the method is demonstrated by monitoring nicotine and cotinine urinary elimination, reflected by their concentrations in urine during the onset and withdrawal from nicotine consumption. An NMR limit of detection of 0.1 µM and a limit of quantitation of 0.7 µM is achieved in a practical pharmacokinetics scenario where precise quantitative and qualitative analysis is desired.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Nicotina , Cotinina , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
8.
Prev Med ; 150: 106710, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181942

RESUMO

In-utero, postnatal, and childhood smoke exposure are associated with adverse health consequences, and examining factors related to smoke exposure during these vulnerable periods are critical to inform efforts that promote maternal and child health. This study included pregnant and postpartum women aged 20-44 years and children aged 3-12 years from National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2016 cycles. Logistic regression examined association of household food insecurity with firsthand (FHS) and secondhand (SHS) exposure among pregnant and postpartum women, and SHS exposure among children, based on serum cotinine and respondent-reports. Very low household food security was significantly associated with increased odds of cotinine-based FHS exposure among pregnant (OR(95%CI) = 5.19 (1.75, 15.39)) and postpartum women (OR(95%CI) = 4.75(1.66, 13.57)). Non-smoking, postpartum women from very low food secure households also had significantly greater odds of cotinine-based SHS exposure (OR(95%CI) = 7.40 (2.08, 26.37)) than those from food secure households. Using respondent-reported smoking status, low food security in pregnant and postpartum women was significantly related to increased odds of FHS exposure (OR(95% CI) = 3.75(1.52, 9.23)). Further, children from marginal, low and very low food secure households had significantly higher odds of SHS exposure compared to those from food secure households. Results imply the co-occurrence food insecurity and in-utero and early life smoke exposure.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Criança , Cotinina , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e044829, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cotinine is the gold standard to estimate prevalence of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure, and assay limit of detection (LOD) cut-points are typically used regardless of age. Our aim was to compare the concordance between mother-reported SHS exposure and serum cotinine categorising children as exposed with the assay LOD or age-specific cut-points. DESIGN: Data from the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort. SETTING: Hospital or participants' homes. PARTICIPANTS: 389 pregnant women aged 18 years and older, between 13 and 19 weeks of gestation, living in a five-county region of the Cincinnati, Ohio metropolitan area, and with follow-up on their children at birth and ages 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Children's serum cotinine, mother-reported active smoking and SHS exposure were available at birth and during follow-up visits. We used Cohen's kappa index to assess concordance between maternal self-report and child's serum cotinine concentrations. We estimated optimal age-specific cut-points, their sensitivity-specificity and positive-negative predictive values with receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Self-reported exposure and cotinine data were available for 280 women who gave birth to singleton child. When applying the assay LOD (0.015 ng/mL), concordance between maternal report and serum cotinine, without accounting for age, was below 0.23 at all times. When using age-specific cut-points (12 months: 0.11 ng/mL; 24 months: 0.08 ng/mL; 36 months: 0.05 ng/mL and 48 months: 0.04 ng/mL), concordance improved, being low at 12 months (0.39), moderate at 24 and 36 months (0.47 and 0.43) and high at 48 months (0.62). CONCLUSIONS: Concordance between mother-reported SHS exposure among children under 5 years and serum cotinine improved considerably after applying the cohort-specific and age-specific cut-points. Future studies are necessary to verify these results.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ohio , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
10.
Autism Res ; 14(9): 2017-2026, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165248

RESUMO

Previous studies on in utero exposure to maternal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or maternal active smoking and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have not been entirely consistent, and no studies have examined in utero cotinine concentrations as an exposure classification method. We measured cotinine in stored second trimester maternal serum for 498 ASD cases and 499 controls born in California in 2011-2012. We also obtained self-reported maternal cigarette smoking during and immediately prior to pregnancy, as well as covariate data, from birth records. Using unconditional logistic regression, we found no association between log10 cotinine concentrations and odds for developing ASD among children of non-smokers (aOR: 0.93 [95% CI: 0.69, 1.25] per ng/ml), which represents exposure to ETS, though there may be a possible interaction with race. We found no association between cotinine-defined smoking (≥3.08 ng/ml vs. <3.08 ng/ml) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.73 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.35, 1.54)) or self-reported smoking (aOR: 1.64 [95% CI: 0.65, 4.16]) and ASD. In one of the few studies of ETS and the first with measured cotinine, our results indicate no overall relationship between in utero exposure to tobacco smoke from maternal ETS exposure or active smoking, and development of ASD. LAY SUMMARY: This study found that women who smoke or are exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy are not more likely to have children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This is the first ASD study to measure a chemical in the mother's blood during pregnancy to identify exposure to tobacco smoke.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Criança , Cotinina , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1025, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over one-quarter of all smokers in the United States identify as non-daily smokers and this number is projected to rise. Unlike daily smokers who typically maintain consistent levels of nicotine exposure with regular smoking, non-daily smokers have variable patterns of smoking that likely result in high intraindividual variability in nicotine intake. The current study aimed to characterize the weekly intraindividual variability in cotinine and identify smoking-related predictors in nondaily smokers. METHODS: An ecological momentary assessment of 60 non-daily smokers ages 24-57 years was conducted over a consecutive 7-day at-home protocol to log each smoking session, assessments of mood and social activity during smoking, and collection of daily saliva samples in a convenience sample from Pennsylvania, USA. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to determine the effects of smoking characteristics on total cotinine exposure measured by pharmacokinetic area under the curve and the range, maximum, and minimum cotinine values during the week controlling for demographic variables. RESULTS: The mean daily cotinine level was 119.2 ng/ml (SD = 168.9) with individual values that ranged from nondetectable to 949.6 ng/ml. Menthol predicted increased total cotinine levels (P < 0.05). Shorter time to the first cigarette of the day predicted significantly higher minimum (P < 0.05), maximum (P < 0.05), and total cotinine values (P < 0.05) after controlling for covariates. Negative emotions and social interactions with others were also significantly associated with higher cotinine metrics. There was no significant effect of the nicotine metabolite ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the variability in nicotine exposure across days among non-daily smokers and point to the role of smoking context in nicotine exposure. The findings suggest the need to develop better assessment methods to determine health and dependence risk and personalized cessation interventions for this heterogeneous and growing group of smokers.


Assuntos
Nicotina , Fumar , Adulto , Cotinina , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania , Fumantes , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 146: 110755, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Passive exposure of children to cigarette smoke has been implicated in several recalcitrant respiratory childhood disorders. However, to our knowledge, no information is available regarding the connection between passive exposure to tobacco smoke and the formation of nasal biofilms in children. The present study was therefore geared at investigating the hypothesis that exposure of children to household passive smoking may induce the formation of nasal biofilms. METHODS: The study included 20 children between the ages of 6 and 12 years with a positive history of prolonged exposure to household passive smoke, and who required inferior turbinate reduction together with other procedures. Another 20 children who required similar surgeries but with negative history of exposure to household smoking formed the control group. None of children, in the study and control groups, had evidence of adenoids or infective rhinosinusitis. At the time of surgery, a tiny biopsy was taken from the lower border of the inferior turbinate. The specimens were processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: The nasal mucosa of 11 out of 20 children with positive history of exposure to passive smoking showed biofilm formation. Ten of these biofilms grew S. aureus. On the other hand, only one child in the control group showed nasal biofilm. Longer exposure to tobacco smoke and higher urinary cotinine levels were associated with more frequent biofilm formation. Likewise, children of heavy smokers developed biofilms more frequently than other children. On the other hand, the age of the children and nasal allergy had no effect on the chances of biofilm formation. CONCLUSIONS: This is a preliminary report showing that children exposed to household passive cigarette smoking may develop nasal biofilms. Development of these biofilms may increase susceptibility of affected children to persistent sinonasal and possibly other respiratory infections.


Assuntos
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Biofilmes , Criança , Cotinina , Humanos , Mucosa Nasal , Fumar , Staphylococcus aureus , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
13.
Environ Int ; 155: 106516, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with increased attention problems in children, however, the effects of such exposure on children's brain structure and function have not been studied. Herein, we probed effects of prenatal ETS on children's cognitive control circuitry and behavior. METHODS: Forty-one children (7-9 years) recruited from a prospective longitudinal birth cohort of non-smoking mothers completed structural and task-functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate effects of maternal ETS exposure, measured by maternal prenatal urinary cotinine. Attention problems and externalizing behaviors were measured by parent report on the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: Compared to non-exposed children, exposed children had smaller left and right thalamic and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) volumes, with large effect sizes (p-FDR < .05, Cohen's D range from 0.79 to 1.07), and increased activation in IFG during the resolution of cognitive conflict measured with the Simon Spatial Incompatibility Task (38 voxels; peak t(25) = 5.25, p-FWE = .005). Reduced thalamic volume was associated with increased IFG activation and attention problems, reflecting poor cognitive control. Mediation analyses showed a trend toward left thalamic volume mediating the association between exposure and attention problems (p = .05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that maternal ETS exposure during pregnancy has deleterious effects on the structure and function of cognitive control circuitry which in turn affects attentional capacity in school-age children. These findings are consistent with prior findings documenting the effects of active maternal smoking on chidlren's neurodevleoment, pointing to the neurotixicity of nicotine regardless of exposure pathway.


Assuntos
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Criança , Cognição , Cotinina , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947137

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare Korean smokers' smoking-related biomarker levels by tobacco product type, including heat-not-burn cigarettes (HNBC), liquid e-cigarettes (EC), and traditional cigarettes (TC). Nicotine dependence levels were evaluated in Korean adult study participants including TC-, EC-, HNBC-only users and nonsmokers (n = 1586) from March 2019 to July 2019 in Seoul and Cheonan/Asan South Korea using the Fagerström Test Score. Additionally, urine samples (n = 832) were collected for the measurement of urinary nicotine, cotinine, OH-cotinine, NNAL(4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol), CYMA(N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoehtyl)-L-cysteine), or CEMA (2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid) using LC-MS/MS. The median(interquartile range) nicotine dependence level was not different among the three types of smokers, being 3.0 (2.0-5.0) for TC- (n = 726), 3.0 (1.0-4.0) for EC- (n = 316), and 3.0 (2.0-4.0) for HNBC- (n = 377) only users. HNBC-only users presented similar biomarker levels compared to TC-only users, except for NNAL (HNBC: 14.5 (4.0-58.8) pg/mL, TC: 32.0 (4.0-69.6) pg/mL; p = 0.0106) and CEMA (HNBC: 60.4 (10.0-232.0) ng/mL, TC: 166.1 (25.3-532.1) ng/mL; p = 0.0007). TC and HNBC users showed increased urinary cotinine levels as early as the time after the first smoke of the day. EC users' biomarker levels were possibly lower than TC or HNBC users' but higher than those of non-smokers.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Cromatografia Líquida , Cotinina , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , República da Coreia , Seul , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
J Int Med Res ; 49(5): 3000605211016742, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between urinary cotinine and serum vitamin A levels in Korean adults. METHODS: A total of 4445 adults (age ≥19 years) participating in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2016 to 2018 were classified by sex and as smokers/electronic cigarette users (SE) or non-smokers (NS). Data were analyzed using complex sample general linear models. RESULTS: There were no differences in dietary intake of vitamin A, carotene, or retinol between the SE and NS groups. Adjusted mean serum vitamin A levels were higher in the SE group compared with those in the NS group (0.63 mg/L vs 0.60 mg/L among men; 0.55 mg/L vs 0.51 mg/L among women). Among all participants, urinary cotinine and serum vitamin A levels were positively correlated (R2 = 0.037). However, no correlation was observed in either the SE or NS groups individually. In a model adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, frequency of binge drinking, and dyslipidemia, a stronger correlation was observed (R2 = 0.244). CONCLUSION: In Korean adults, urinary cotinine levels were positively associated with serum vitamin A levels. Mean serum vitamin A levels were significantly higher in the SE group compared with the NS group.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vitamina A , Adulto , Cotinina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 223: 108708, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in CYP2A6 activity influences tobacco smoking behaviors and smoking-related health outcomes. Plasma Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR) is a robust phenotypic biomarker of CYP2A6 activity and nicotine clearance. In urine, the NMR has been calculated as a ratio of free trans-3'-hydroxycotinine to free cotinine (NMRF/F), total trans-3'-hydroxycotinine to free cotinine (NMRT/F), or total trans-3'-hydroxycotinine to total cotinine (NMRT/T). We evaluated these three urinary NMR versions relative to plasma NMR and nicotine clearance and elucidated mechanisms of discrepancies among them. METHODS: Baseline plasma and urine biomarker data were available from two smoking cessation clinical trials and one nicotine pharmacokinetic study (total N = 768). NMRs were compared using Pearson correlations, linear regressions and ANOVA analyses. UGT2B10 and UGT2B17 were genotyped. RESULTS: Urinary NMRT/F was the most highly related to plasma NMR (R2 = 0.70, P <2.2e-16) followed by NMRF/F (R2 = 0.68, P <2.2e-16), while NMRT/T was less strongly related (R2 = 0.60, P <2.2e-16); consistent across study, ethnicity, sex, heaviness of smoking, and analyte analysis. Controlling for cotinine glucuronidation, as a phenotype or UGT2B10 genotype, corrected the NMRT/T discordance with plasma NMR (Panova<0.001). Similar findings were obtained for relationships of nicotine clearance with plasma NMR > urinary NMRT/F > NMRF/F > NMRT/T (R2 = 0.41 > 0.37 > 0.35 > 0.25 respectively). CONCLUSION: Urinary NMRT/F followed by NMRF/F are the best urinary alternatives to plasma NMR or nicotine clearance. NMRT/T has the least utility as it is influenced substantially by variation in cotinine glucuronidation. IMPACT: This work highlighted the variation in urinary NMRs, and identified mechanisms for disparities among them, which facilitates their use in predicting smoking-related outcomes.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Nicotina , Biomarcadores , Citocromo P-450 CYP2A6/genética , Genótipo , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , Fumar
17.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 40, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma represents a syndrome for which our understanding of the molecular processes underlying discrete sub-diseases (i.e., endotypes), beyond atopic asthma, is limited. The public health needs to characterize etiology-associated endotype risks is becoming urgent. In particular, the roles of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), globally distributed combustion by-products, toward the two known endotypes - T helper 2 cell high (Th2) or T helper 2 cell low (non-Th2) - warrants clarification. OBJECTIVES: To explain ambient B[a]P association with non-atopic asthma (i.e., a proxy of non-Th2 endotype) is markedly different from that with atopic asthma (i.e., a proxy for Th2-high endotype). METHODS: In a case-control study, we compare the non-atopic as well as atopic asthmatic boys and girls against their respective controls in terms of the ambient Benzo[a]pyrene concentration nearest to their home, plasma 15-Ft2-isoprostane (15-Ft2-isoP), urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), and lung function deficit. We repeated the analysis for i) dichotomous asthma outcome and ii) multinomial asthma-overweight/obese (OV/OB) combined outcomes. RESULTS: The non-atopic asthma cases are associated with a significantly higher median B[a]P (11.16 ng/m3) compared to that in the non-atopic controls (3.83 ng/m3; P-value < 0.001). In asthma-OV/OB stratified analysis, the non-atopic girls with lean and OV/OB asthma are associated with a step-wisely elevated B[a]P (median,11.16 and 18.00 ng/m3, respectively), compared to the non-atopic lean control girls (median, 4.28 ng/m3, P-value < 0.001). In contrast, atopic asthmatic children (2.73 ng/m3) are not associated with a significantly elevated median B[a]P, compared to the atopic control children (2.60 ng/m3; P-value > 0.05). Based on the logistic regression model, on ln-unit increate in B[a]P is associated with 4.7-times greater odds (95% CI, 1.9-11.5, P = 0.001) of asthma among the non-atopic boys. The same unit increase in B[a]P is associated with 44.8-times greater odds (95% CI, 4.7-428.2, P = 0.001) among the non-atopic girls after adjusting for urinary Cotinine, lung function deficit, 15-Ft2-isoP, and 8-oxodG. CONCLUSIONS: Ambient B[a]P is robustly associated with non-atopic asthma, while it has no clear associations with atopic asthma among lean children. Furthermore, lung function deficit, 15-Ft2-isoP, and 8-oxodG are associated with profound alteration of B[a]P-asthma associations among the non-atopic children.


Assuntos
8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/urina , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Asma/sangue , Asma/fisiopatologia , Asma/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cotinina/urina , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Dinoprosta/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Fenótipo
18.
Environ Res ; 197: 111090, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798522

RESUMO

Several reports confirm the deleterious effects of tobacco smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) resulting in changes in the composition of breast milk. The aim of our study was to compare the levels of selected essential, as well as, toxic metals found in colostrum (collected at day 1 ± 2 post-birth) and mature milk (1 month ± 7 days post-birth) of nonsmoking women (n = 52) compared to those found in women who smoke tobacco (n = 51) and women exposed to second-hand smoke during pregnancy and lactation (n = 47). Women's non-smoking or smoking status was determined by their responses to a questionnaire, including questions about others who may smoke in the home environment, and confirmed by measurement of cotinine in the blood serum by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (F-AAS) techniques were used to determine the metal concentrations in colostrum and mature milk previously digested by a microwave mineralizer. We confirmed that exposure to tobacco smoke increases concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium and lead) in colostrum and mature milk. These increased concentrations of heavy metals may disturb the action of bioactive substances necessary for the optimal growth and development of newborns and infants. These findings support the need for increased concern and information to lactating women about preventing their exposure to cigarette smoking and SHS due to the adverse effects of tobacco smoke on breast milk with added risks to their infants.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Cotinina/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Leite Humano/química , Gravidez , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(32): 43948-43955, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840034

RESUMO

Cross-sectional survey data (N = 3264) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2013-2018 were used to investigate how serum hydroxycotinine concentrations vary among US adult smokers aged ≥ 20 years by smoker type. Those reporting using tobacco products during the last 5 days were classified as smokers. Smokers were classified as being cigarette only smokers, cigar only smokers, cigar and cigarette smokers, dual cigarette and e-cigarette smokers, e-cigarette only smokers, smokeless tobacco only users, and all other smokers. Regression models stratified by smoker type with log10 transformed values of serum hydroxycotinine as dependent variable were fitted to compute adjusted geometric means (AGM) for each type of smoker. The order in which various types of smokers were found to have AGMs for serum hydroxycotinine was cigarette and e-cigarette users (64.61 ng/mL), cigarette only smokers (53.17 ng/mL), smokeless tobacco only users (44.89 ng/mL), cigar and cigarette smokers (36.99 ng/mL), e-cigarette only users (32.52 ng/mL), smokers of miscellaneous tobacco products (20.32 ng/mL), and cigar smokers only (10.75 ng/mL). Compared to this as presented in a recent study, the order in which serum cotinine AGMs were: smokeless tobacco only users (272 ng/mL), cigarette only smokers (152.5 ng/mL), cigarette-e-cigarette or e-cigarette only users (146.3 ng/mL), smokers of miscellaneous tobacco products (105.5 ng/mL), cigar and cigarette smokers (92.5 ng/mL), cigar smokers only (65.1 ng/mL). Among cigarette only smokers, males had lower AGM than females (47.18 vs. 59.91 ng/mL, p < 0.01), but the reverse was true for smokeless tobacco only and miscellaneous smokers. In general, differences for hydroxycotinine levels did not exist among non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black smokers. Among US adults, cigarette only and dual cigarette-e-cigarette smokers had the highest, and cigar smokers had the lowest concentrations of serum hydroxycotinine.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Adulto , Cotinina/análogos & derivados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fumantes , Fumar
20.
Environ Res ; 197: 111180, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865820

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Microbiome differences have been found in adults who smoke cigarettes compared to non-smoking adults, but the impact of thirdhand smoke (THS; post-combustion tobacco residue) on hospitalized infants' rapidly developing gut microbiomes is unexplored. Our aim was to explore gut microbiome differences in infants admitted to a neonatal ICU (NICU) with varying THS-related exposure. METHODS: Forty-three mother-infant dyads (household member[s] smoke cigarettes, n = 32; no household smoking, n = 11) consented to a carbon monoxide-breath sample, bedside furniture nicotine wipes, infant-urine samples (for cotinine [nicotine's primary metabolite] assays), and stool collection (for 16S rRNA V4 gene sequencing). Negative binomial regression modeled relative abundances of 8 bacterial genera with THS exposure-related variables (i.e., household cigarette use, surface nicotine, and infant urine cotinine), controlling for gestational age, postnatal age, antibiotic use, and breastmilk feeding. Microbiome-diversity outcomes were modeled similarly. Bayesian posterior probabilities (PP) ≥75.0% were considered meaningful. RESULTS: A majority of infants (78%) were born pre-term. Infants from non-smoking homes and/or with lower NICU-furniture surface nicotine had greater microbiome alpha-diversity compared to infants from smoking households (PP ≥ 75.0%). Associations (with PP ≥ 75.0%) of selected bacterial genera with urine cotinine, surface nicotine, and/or household cigarette use were evidenced for 7 (of 8) modeled genera. For example, lower Bifidobacterium relative abundance associated with greater furniture nicotine (IRR<0.01 [<0.01, 64.02]; PP = 87.1%), urine cotinine (IRR = 0.08 [<0.01,2.84]; PP = 86.9%), and household smoking (IRR<0.01 [<0.01, 7.38]; PP = 96.0%; FDR p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: THS-related exposure was associated with microbiome differences in NICU-admitted infants. Additional research on effects of tobacco-related exposures on healthy infant gut-microbiome development is warranted.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Teorema de Bayes , Cotinina/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
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