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1.
Horm Behav ; 148: 105298, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621293

RESUMO

For nearly a century, we have known that brain photoreceptors regulate avian seasonal biology. Two photopigments, vertebrate ancient opsin (VA) and neuropsin (OPN5), provide possible molecular substrates for these photoreceptor pathways. VA fulfills many criteria for providing light input to the reproductive response, but a functional link has yet to be demonstrated. This study examined the role of VA and OPN5 in the avian photoperiodic response of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Non-breeding male quail were housed under short days (6L:18D) and received an intracerebroventricular infusion of adeno-associated viral vectors with shRNAi that selectively inhibited either VA or OPN5. An empty viral vector acted as a control. Quail were then photostimulated (16L:8D) to stimulate gonadal growth. Two long days significantly increased pituitary thyrotrophin-stimulating hormone ß-subunit (TSHß) and luteinizing hormone ß-subunit (LHß) mRNA of VA shRNAi treated quail compared to controls. Furthermore, at one week there was a significant increase, compared to controls, in both hypothalamic gonadotrophin releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) mRNA and paired testicular mass in VA shRNAi birds. Opn5 shRNAi facilitated the photoinduced increase in TSHß mRNA at 2 days, but no other differences were identified compared to controls. Contrary to our expectations, the silencing of deep brain photoreceptors enhanced the response of the reproductive axis to photostimulation rather than preventing it. In addition, we show that VA opsin plays a dominant role in the light-dependent neuroendocrine control of seasonal reproduction in birds. Together our findings suggest the photoperiodic response involves at least two photoreceptor types and populations working together with VA opsin playing a dominant role.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Opsinas , Animais , Masculino , Coturnix/fisiologia , Opsinas/genética , Reprodução , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Codorniz , Tireotropina Subunidade beta/genética , Tireotropina Subunidade beta/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(1): 37, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630021

RESUMO

The current study was conducted to evaluate the impact of organic zinc (OZn) and probiotic on growth performance, oocysts number, and histological features of cecum of quails following Eimeria tenella challenge. A total of 480 Japanese quails were distributed into six treatments as follows: untreated uninfected; untreated infected; E. tenella challenge + amprolium; E. tenella challenge + OZn; E. tenella challenge + probiotic; and E. tenella challenge + OZn + probiotic. Except untreated uninfected, all groups were orally gavaged at day 8 with 5 × 104 E. tenella sporulated oocysts. Supplementation of OZn + probiotic improved (P = 0.001) growth performance compared to the untreated infected group. Lesion score of intestine and mortality was lower (P < 0.01) in quails supplemented with OZn + probiotic. Moreover, oocysts per gram (OPG) and histological dimensions of cecum in challenged birds were alleviated in OZn + probiotic. The histological findings of quails supplemented with OZn + probiotic showed normal intestinal villi with gentle sloughed epithelium. We concluded that OZn + probiotic may be safely included in the diet of Japanese quails to control coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria tenella , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Probióticos , Animais , Coturnix , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiose/patologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/farmacologia , Oocistos , Zinco/uso terapêutico
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 951, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653419

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying the photoperiodic control of reproduction in mammals and birds have been recently clarified. In contrast, the potential impact of photoperiod on more complex, integrative processes, such as cognitive behaviors, remains poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the impact of contrasted long and short photoperiods (LP, 16 h light/day and SP, 8 h light/day, respectively) on learning, spatial orientation abilities, and emotional reactivity in male Japanese quail. In addition, we quantified cell proliferation and young cell maturation/migration within the hippocampus, a brain region involved in spatial orientation. Our study reveals that, in male quail, SP increases emotional responses and spatial orientation abilities, compared to LP. Behaviorally, SP birds were found to be more fearful than LP birds, exhibiting more freezing in the open field and taking longer to exit the dark compartment in the emergence test. Furthermore, SP birds were significantly less aggressive than LP birds in a mirror test. Cognitively, SP birds were slower to habituate and learn a spatial orientation task compared to LP birds. However, during a recall test, SP birds performed better than LP birds. From a neuroanatomical standpoint, SP birds had a significantly lower density of young neurons, and also tended to have a lower density of mature neurons within the hippocampus, compared to LP birds. In conclusion, our data reveal that, beyond breeding control, photoperiod also exerts a profound influence on behavior, cognition, and brain plasticity, which comprise the seasonal program of this species.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Fotoperíodo , Animais , Masculino , Coturnix/fisiologia , Hipocampo , Cognição , Neurogênese , Mamíferos
4.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 240(2): 295-301, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607385

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been shown to be associated with a dysregulated stress system. Reducing the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), that binds to glucocorticoid receptors, may attenuate the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse. However, the effect of blocking corticosterone receptors on ethanol reward has yet to be investigated. OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated whether the stress hormone receptor antagonist, PT150, would block the rewarding properties of ethanol via the glucocorticoid receptor system and attenuate other ethanol-induced effects. METHODS: A conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure was used to examine the rewarding properties of ethanol in an avian preclinical model. Ethanol was paired with the least preferred chamber. On alternate days, water was paired with the preferred chamber. After eight pairings, a place preference test was given that allowed subjects to have access to both chambers. Half of the subjects received PT150 prior to ethanol administration. The other half received vehicle. Time spent in each chamber during the preference tests, locomotor activity during the pairings, and egg production in female birds was recorded. RESULTS: Ethanol treatment resulted in a CPP and pretreatment of PT150 blocked the acquisition of the ethanol-induced place preference. Neither ethanol nor PT150 altered locomotor activity. Pretreatment of PT150 also increased egg production in female quail treated with ethanol. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest repeated ethanol pairings with visual cues can produce a CPP. Furthermore, pretreatment of PT150 may be a potential pharmacotherapy for blocking the rewarding properties of ethanol and may enhance egg production in female quail treated with ethanol.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Etanol , Animais , Feminino , Etanol/farmacologia , Codorniz , Recompensa , Hormônios
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(1): 53, 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708502

RESUMO

Japanese quails reared under high stocking density (SD) were evaluated for the effects of grape seed powder (GSP) and meal (GSM) supplementation on performance, blood biochemistry, thigh and breast muscle fatty acids, antioxidant status, and HSP70 gene expression. We randomly assigned 288 (15-day-old) quail chicks to six treatment groups in a factorial design (2 × 3) with four replicates, involving two density levels [160 cm2/bird (LD) and 80 cm2/bird (HD)] and three feed forms (FFs) [no supplementation, grape seed powder (3% GSP), grape seed meal (3% GSM)]. SD had a significant effect on live weight, but not on weekly feed intake, daily weight gain, and feed conversion ratio. Serum creatinine and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly affected by FF and SD × FF (p < 0.05). A high SD reduced the n-3/n-6 ratio of breast muscle and a significant interaction was found between FF (p < 0.001). The SD × FF interaction reduced the Σn-6 ratio in HDM's thigh muscle, whereas in LDM, the ratio increased (p < 0.01). At high SD, neither GSP nor GSM reduced biological markers of oxidative stress (p > 0.05). Compared to GSP, GSM had higher efficacy at reducing HSP70 levels related to high SD levels. Despite this, at high SD, a diet containing 3% of GSP and GSM was not effective in overcoming oxidative stress. Therefore, more studies using different doses of GSM and GSP in quail diets would be beneficial.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Vitis , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Coturnix/metabolismo , Pós , Dieta/veterinária , Codorniz , Expressão Gênica , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais
6.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 330: 114139, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209834

RESUMO

Defenses against pathogens can take on many forms. For instance, behavioral avoidance of diseased conspecifics is widely documented. Interactions with these infectious conspecifics can also, however, lead to physiological changes in uninfected animals, an effect that is much less well understood. These changes in behavior and physiology are particularly important to study in a reproductive context, where they can impact reproductive decisions and offspring quality. Here, we studied how an acute (3 h) exposure to an immune-challenged male affected female blood transcriptomics and behavior. We predicted that females paired with immune-challenged males would reduce eating and drinking behaviors (as avoidance behaviors) and that their blood would show activation of immune and stress responses. We used female Japanese quail as a study system because they have been shown to respond to male traits, in terms of their own physiology and egg investment. Only two genes showed significant differential expression due to treatment, including an increase in the threonine dehydrogenase (TDH) transcript, an enzyme important for threonine breakdown. However, hundreds of genes in pathways related to activation of immune responses showed coordinated up-regulation in females exposed to immune-challenged males. Suppressed pathways revealed potential changes to metabolism and reduced responsiveness to glucocorticoids. Contrary to our prediction, we found that females paired with immune-challenged males increased food consumption. Water consumption was not changed by treatment. These findings suggest that even short exposure to diseased conspecifics can trigger both behavioral and physiological responses in healthy animals.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Transcriptoma , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Coturnix/genética , Reprodução , Imunidade
7.
Poult Sci ; 102(2): 102328, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476681

RESUMO

Japanese quails in wild life live in small groups with females being even solitary during the laying period. Although it is a poultry species widely used for egg production, information regarding laying behavior motivations or influencing variables is scarce. Our study focuses on evaluating along 7 d the quail laying behavior in a novel environmental set up. This set up allows the female to choose between remaining separated from a conspecific in one side of the apparatus or to voluntarily enter their space (box-mate side) and interact with it. We evaluated whether the female insemination status prior to enter the environmental set up, and the presence of a female or a male partner in the box-mate side can influence their laying and social behavior. Thus, 4 experimental groups were established. Females spent a higher (P < 0.05) percentage of time in the box-mate side than in their separated sector in all groups. In 3 of the 4 experimental groups (non-inseminated females interacting with a female or a male box-mate, and inseminated females interacting with a male box-mate) females also laid a greater percentage (≥65%, P < 0.05, in all cases) of eggs in the box-mate sector than in their separated sector. However, the group of inseminated females that interacted with a female box-mate shifted their egg distribution and laid equally between both sides of the apparatus. Aggressive social interactions were reduced (P < 0.05) throughout the testing days but this was depending upon the female insemination status and the sex of their box-mate. Findings suggest that females can change their laying side choice when they are inseminated but depending on the sex identity of their box-mate partners. Thus, providing quail female breeders with the option of laying their eggs in separated enclosures from conspecifics could be key to favor their well-being.


Assuntos
Oviposição , Codorniz , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Galinhas , Óvulo , Coturnix , Comportamento Social , Inseminação , Meio Social
8.
Poult Sci ; 102(2): 102360, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36512872

RESUMO

The current study aimed to investigate the dietary supplementation effect of corn silk (CS) on performance and blood chemistry of brown and white-feathered quails during the grower and layer periods. Japanese quails of brown and white-feathered color (180 birds/variety at 2 wks old) were randomly allotted into three groups with 3 replicates each (n = 20 birds/replicate). Corn silk powder (CS) was supplemented to the basal diet at 0, 1, and 2% of the diet for each quail variety for 1-month growing period, then continued for another 6-wk laying period to assess the egg production and egg quality characteristics. CS supplementation at 1% and 2% for brown and white-feathered quails respectively improved their growth performance (body weight and weight gain), carcass yield, and intestinal villi length with increasing feed consumption but without changes in feed conversion ratio. In both quail varieties, CS addition had a hypolipidemic effect, confirmed by lowering serum triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHO), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) while increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations (P < 0.05) with a clear response observed in white quails than the brown ones. Besides, CS supplementation increased (P = 0.002) hen day egg production in brown feathered quails, while reducing it in the white-feathered quails compared with the CS-free diet. The increased egg production was not significantly (P > 0.05) correlated with lower content of TG and CHO, while significantly increased the antioxidant content in both quail varieties (P < 0.05). Moreover, CS dietary supplementation significantly enhanced (P = 0.003) the yolk color, especially in brown-feathered quail. In conclusion, CS can be safely supplemented to the Japanese quail diet (1% and 2% for brown-feathered and white-feathered quails respectively) to improve growth performance, and egg quality characteristics.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Zea mays , Animais , Feminino , Coturnix/fisiologia , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Codorniz , Colesterol , Seda , Ração Animal/análise
9.
Vet Med Sci ; 9(1): 263-271, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36520666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acidifier are substances with antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, performance and health benefits that are frequently employed in feed acidification, especially in poultry diet. Meanwhile, the most important factor for acidifier efficiency is the proportion of different acids in the final product. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of a commercial acidifier on egg production and histology of the small intestine in laying Japanese quail. METHODS: One-hundred and sixty female quails at 15 weeks of age were divided into four groups and fed basal diet supplemented with different levels of acidifier (0, 1, 2 and 3 gr acidifier/kg of basal diet) for 8 weeks. Egg production, egg quality attributes and body weight (BW) were measured every 2 weeks. Histology of the small intestine and bacterial population of cecum as well as pH of crop, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum contents were also investigated at the end of the experiment. RESULTS: Feed conversion ratio (FCR), yolk height, shell thickness, pH of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum; duodenum, villus width (VW), villus height (VH), crypt depth (CD); jejunum VH, VW and ileum VH to CD ratio (VCR) were linearly improved by the increasing levels of acidifier supplementation (P < 0.05). Duodenum VH increased in a linear and quadratic manner in response to increasing levels of acidifier. Egg weight, yolk diameter, jejunum CD, ileum CD, ileum VW, duodenum CD and jejunum VCR quadratically improved by grading levels of acidifier (P < 0.01). BW, albumen height, Haugh unit, ileum VH and ileum VCR were cubically enhanced (P < 0.05). Acidifier supplementation enhanced egg production, FCR, jejunum, ileum and cecum pH and VH, CD and VW of duodenum and jejunum, compared to the control group (P < 0.05); however, dietary acidifier did not affect egg mass, gizzard pH, ileum VH and bacterial count of the cecum (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, as calculated, the supplementation of 1 and 2.6 g acidifier per kg of diet was associated with beneficial effects on egg production and quality, gastrointestinal tract pH and histology of the small intestine in laying quails.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Intestinos , Feminino , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Intestino Delgado
10.
J Therm Biol ; 111: 103421, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585086

RESUMO

Heat stress in poultry is a major concern, especially in regions with hot summers and scarce cooling infrastructure. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants, such as polyphenols, has risen as a strategy to mitigate the physiological consequences of heat stress. A by-product of the extraction of oil from chia seeds, which is discarded if not used, could be a possible source of polyphenols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with polyphenols from defatted chia seed cake on the general performance, and oxidative status of Japanese quail exposed to heat stress. Furthermore, productive performance, egg quality and yolk fatty acid composition were also assessed. A total of 36 females (96 days of age) were randomly assigned to different diets: BASAL (control), LDCP (low dose of chia polyphenols), or HDCP (high dose of chia polyphenols). Half the animals in each diet group were exposed to 34 °C for 9 h a day (Heat Stress; HS), while the other half remained at the standard 24 °C (No Heat Stress; NHS). After 23 days of experimental conditions, animals under HS showed higher body temperatures and time spent panting, but lower egg laying rate. Moreover, HS modulated the activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes, increasing lipid peroxidation in serum and liver; and increased saturated fatty acids in egg yolk. Supplementation with chia polyphenols helped to mitigate the HS effects, especially on glutathione peroxidase activity, decreasing lipid peroxidation. In addition, supplementation with HDCP showed the highest proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver and egg yolk. In conclusion, the use of defatted chia seed cake could represent a sustainable strategy to mitigate heat stress effects on Japanese quail, due to its capacity to decrease oxidative stress and improve the nutritional quality of egg, while decreasing the amount of waste generated by the food industry.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Dieta , Animais , Feminino , Coturnix/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glutationa Peroxidase , Ração Animal/análise
11.
J Therm Biol ; 111: 103427, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585091

RESUMO

It is essential to understand and manage environmental factors for good quail production and welfare. One of the most important environmental stressors that hinder quail productivity is heat stress. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of spraying Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) eggs with betaine after exposure to short-term high temperature during early embryogenesis on pre and post-hatch performance of quail. A total of 750 eggs were equally divided into two groups. Eggs in the first group were incubated at normal incubation temperature (37.5 °C/NIT), while those in the second group were incubated at high incubation temperature (39.0 °C/HIT) for 3 h daily from day 4-6 of incubation. Eggs in both groups were subjected to five treatments, NC (negative control), PC sprayed distilled water (positive control), while B0.5, B1, and B2 treatments were sprayed with distilled water supplemented with 500, 1000, and 2000 mg betaine/L, respectively. The chick weight at hatch, slaughter weight, and first egg weight was significantly impaired by the HIT treatment. The HIT group revealed a significant increase in cloacal temperature, H/L ratio, liver enzymes, triglyceride, and cholesterol and a significant decrease in hatchability, T3 hormone, and blood protein levels than the NIT group. Regarding betaine effects, the embryonic mortality rates, hatchability, hatched chick weight, and oviduct percentage in groups treated with 1000 or 2000 mg betaine/L were significantly improved compared with the control. Also, spraying betaine at 1000 or 2000 mg/L significantly increased blood protein and triiodothyronine (T3) hormone levels and significantly decrease liver enzyme levels and total feed consumption compared with the untreated group. The right/total ventricle ratio (RV/TV) of quail in HIT group was significantly increased, while betaine treatment significantly decreased this ratio. Considering these results, it is strongly suggested that spraying of betaine on eggs at 2000 mg/L optimizes Japanese quail performance.


Assuntos
Betaína , Coturnix , Animais , Betaína/farmacologia , Codorniz , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Água , Ovos
12.
PeerJ ; 10: e14337, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36573239

RESUMO

Background: Understanding how Japanese quails respond to arginine intake has been an objective that previous studies have not fulfilled. The main responses to be quantified include the arginine requirement for maintenance (mg/kg0.67) and egg mass production (mg/g). Quantifying maintenance and production relationships are essential steps for predicting animal response. The current study aimed to describe how quails respond to arginine intake and determine arginine requirements for maintenance and egg production in Japanese quails. Methods: The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with seven treatments and seven replicates with individual birds as experimental units. The arginine levels were: 2.43, 3.64, 4.85, 6.07, 9.07, 12.13, and 14.56 g/kg. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. The variables analyzed were daily arginine intake, daily arginine deposition in eggs, and body weight. The data were analyzed using a mixed model, with the experimental unit being the random effect and the experimental levels of arginine as a fixed effect. When the effect of arginine levels was detected (P ≤ 0.05), saturation kinetics and an exponential model with four parameters (monomolecular) were adopted. ANOVA results indicated that dietary arginine levels significantly affected (P < 0.01) the analyzed variables. The formulation strategy of the experimental diets allowed amplitude in the dietary arginine levels, and according to bird responses, arginine was the limiting nutrient. Results: The arginine requirement for body weight maintenance (BW0.67) was estimated to be 90 mg/kg BW0.67 by the monomolecular function. The requirement for egg mass (EM) production was estimated to be 25 mg/g per egg. A factorial model was parameterized as follows: daily arginine intake mg/bird = 90 × BW0.67 + 25 × EM ± 12 mg. The model was applied to data obtained from literature, and the resultant error was within the expected limit of 12 mg. The recommended daily arginine intake for the daily production of 11 g of egg and 180 g of BW was determined to be 304 mg/bird. The current study provides procedures that researchers can easily adopt.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Codorniz , Animais , Coturnix/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Ovos , Arginina
13.
Exp Parasitol ; 243: 108422, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372092

RESUMO

The poultry red mite (PRM) is a detrimental blood-feeding ectoparasite infesting poultry and sylvatic birds. A traditional rearing system of PRMs was usually established by using chickens as the host. However, the system with chickens had some defects, such as high feed consumption, large amount of feces, high cost, and intensive labor. In present study, we used quails as the host to rear mites, and compared the reproductive efficiency of this new system with that of the chicken system. The results showed that the number of mites increased 96-fold and the number of eggs increased 50-fold after four weeks in the quail system, which were significantly higher than those in the system with chickens. The survival rates of mites in both systems were higher than 95%, and the value in the quail system at the fourth week was significantly better than that of the chicken system. The statistical results of feed consumption, live weight, and daily excrement of chickens and quails showed that the quail system was more stable with less feed consumption and less waste excretion than the chicken system. Comparing the number of eggs laid by each female mite, hatching rates and molting rates in both systems, we can conclude that the breeding system, in which quails replaced chickens as hosts, had no effect on the fecundity of D. gallinae. In conclusion, the new system established using quails as the host, is a highly efficient alternative for largely rearing of mites under laboratory conditions.


Assuntos
Infestações por Ácaros , Ácaros , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Feminino , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Galinhas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Coturnix , Codorniz
14.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 96: 104012, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372389

RESUMO

As a plasticizer, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) has been listed as a potential endocrine disruptor by The World Health Organization. The toxicity of DEHP has been widely studied, but its toxicity on the digestive tract of birds has not been clarified. Female quail were treated by gavage with DEHP (250, 500, 750 mg/kg), with the blank and vehicle control groups reserved. The result showed that DEHP raised the damage severity grade, and decreased the ratio of villus length to crypt depth. The content and activity of cytochrome P450 system (CYP450s) were increased by DEHP. DEHP interfered with the transcription of nuclear xenobiotic receptors (NXRs), CYP isoforms, and the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. This study revealed DEHP could cause the imbalance in CYP450s mediated by NXRs, and then promote Nrf2 mediated antioxidant defense. This study provided new evidence about the mechanisms of DEHP-induced toxic effects on digestive tract.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Dietilexilftalato , Animais , Feminino , Coturnix/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Codorniz/metabolismo , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Xenobióticos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 408, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401270

RESUMO

AIM: This study evaluated the effect of co-administration of vitamin C and Arabic gum (AG) supplements on the response of vaccinated (VAC) and challenged laying Japanese quails with avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty 49-day-old laying Japanese quails were divided into 5 groups (G1-G5): the G1 group was a negative control, G2 group was unvaccinated + H9N2 challenged (Ch), G3 group was unvaccinated + supplements + Ch, G4 group was VAC + Ch, and the G5 group was VAC + supplements + Ch. The supplements (vitamin C, 1 g/liter of drinking water and AG, 1% ration) were given for 5 weeks post-vaccination (PV). The birds were injected subcutaneously with an inactivated H9N2 vaccine at 49 days of age. The quails were then challenged intranasally with AIV H9N2 at the 3rd week PV. Blood, tracheal swab and tissue samples were collected at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd weeks PV, and at different time points post-challenge (PC). RESULTS: Growth performance, egg production (%), egg and eggshell weights, HI antibody titers, clinical signs, lesions, mortality, virus shedding rates, leukogram, biochemical and immunological parameters and histopathological lesions PC showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between the vaccinated-unsupplemented (G4) group and the vaccinated-supplemented (G5) group. G5 showed the highest (P < 0.05) growth performance, egg production, HI antibody titers, and heterophil phagocytic activity and the lowest heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, mortality, virus shedding rates, creatinine level and histopathological lesion scores in the lungs. CONCLUSION: The co-administration of vitamin C and AG for 5 weeks can improve growth performance, egg production and the immune response in vaccinated laying quails challenged with AIV H9N2.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Coturnix , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Galinhas , Óvulo , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277414, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374865

RESUMO

The mammalian hippocampus (Hp) can be functionally segregated along its septotemporal axis, with involvement of dorsal hippocampus (dHp) in spatial memory and ventral hippocampus (vHp) in stress responses and emotional behaviour. In the present study, we investigate comparable functional segregation in proposed homologues within the avian brain. Using Japanese quail (Coturnix Japonica), we report that bilateral lesions of the rostral hippocampus (rHp) produce robust deficits in a spatial Y-maze discrimination (YMD) test while sparing performance during contextual fear conditioning (CFC), comparable to results from lesions to homologous regions in mammals. In contrast, caudal hippocampus (cHp) lesions failed to produce deficits in either CFC or YMD, suggesting that, unlike mammals, both cHp and rHp of birds can support emotional behavior. These observations demonstrate functional segregation along the rostrocaudal axis of the avian Hp that is comparable in part to distinctions seen along the mammalian hippocampal septotemporal axis.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Hipocampo , Animais , Coturnix/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Memória Espacial , Medo , Mamíferos
17.
Int Dent J ; 72(6): 792-796, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375894

RESUMO

AIM: The objective of this research was to determine the abrasive and remineralising efficacy of quail eggshell (Coturnix coturnix) incorporated into a new experimental toothpaste. METHODS: An experimental study was designed to compare the surface microhardness of the dental enamel of bovine lateral incisors exposed to different toothpastes. In relation to microroughness (abrasive efficiency), the unit of analysis was each specimen with 16 polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) blocks. For the remineralisation variable, the unit of analysis was each bovine lateral incisor tooth. A sample size of 16 was determined for each group. RESULTS: The unpolished PMMA specimens presented the highest mean surface microroughness with a mean of 4.60 ± 1.47 µm, whilst the quail paste, universal polishing paste, control paste, and Diamond Excel Paste showed a mean of 1.16 ± 0.40 µm, 0.63 ± 024 µm, 0.45 ± 0.22 µm, and 0.43 ± 0.17 µm, respectively, presenting significant differences (P < .001). When comparing the surface microhardness of bovine lateral incisor dental enamel exposed to different toothpastes, the universal polishing paste presented the lowest microhardness, with 192.43 ± 56.21 kg/mm2, whilst the quail paste presented the greatest remineralising effect, with the highest average of 272 ± 21.18 kg/mm2, followed by the control paste with 244 ± 41.43 kg/mm2 and the Diamond Excel Paste with 228.72 ± 43.72 kg/mm2. These differences were statistically significant (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences were found in the surface abrasive efficiency (microroughness) of PMMA subjected to different toothpastes. The quail toothpaste presented statistically significant results compared to the control pastes, the Diamond Excel Paste, and the universal polishing paste.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Cremes Dentais , Bovinos , Animais , Humanos , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Esmalte Dentário , Casca de Ovo , Polimetil Metacrilato , Diamante
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430504

RESUMO

The immunolocalization of the cytoskeletal and the extracellular matrix proteins was investigated in the testicular excurrent duct system of healthy Japanese quail at 4, 6-7, 12 and 52 weeks of age. TdT dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was used to assess apoptotic cell formation. The epithelia of the testicular excurrent duct system in birds of all age groups displayed various immunolabeling intensities and localization of cytokeratin 5 and beta-tubulin, while α-SMA was observed in epithelia only of 4-week-old birds. In all age groups, vimentin immunostaining was observed in the rete testes and efferent ductular epithelia, but not in the epididymal duct unit. The periductal smooth muscle cells of the excurrent duct system displayed variably intense immunopositivity with cytokeratin 5, desmin, fibronectin, α-SMA, and beta-tubulin. Furthermore, beta-tubulin and vimentin immunolabeled endothelial cells and fibroblasts with various intensities, while fibronectin immunostained extracellular matrices surrounding these cells. TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed in the rete testes and efferent ductular epithelia, with increased frequency (p < 0.001) in 52-week-old birds. The study serves as a baseline normal for this region in healthy birds at 4, 6-7, 12, and 52 weeks of age, for comparison in future similar immunohistochemical studies involving environmental toxins affecting this region.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Testículo , Animais , Masculino , Testículo/metabolismo , Vimentina/metabolismo , Queratina-5 , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 5482895, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36267841

RESUMO

The current study is aimed at examining the overall effects of steroids on the tissues of organisms and pharmacotherapeutics and pharmaco-histokinetics of several steroids, including Bromocriptine as mesylate and estradiol valerate in common quails (Coturnix coturnix). A total of 100 birds were used for pharmaco-histokinetics. The research was carried out in two separate trials, one during the fall season and the other during the spring season. Each experiment lasted for five, ten, fifteen, and twenty days. Each study group used 20 birds while basing their experiments on a control group of 5. At the stretch of five, ten, fifteen, and twenty days in each season, therapeutic dosages were administered to a sum of two groups representing two separate steroid trial groups. Each steroid was administered to each bird in a therapeutic dose, which was three drops administered twice daily. Clinical symptoms include despondency, sluggishness, and variations in weight and temperature that almost all treated birds display. However, only in trials conducted in the fall was a sizable degree of body enlargement in one treated bird noticed. The winter testing showed a mortality rate. Four birds have died in the twenty-day group. One bird died when treated with estradiol valerate, and three birds died treated with Bromocriptine as mesylate. Both the male and female birds showed signs of having lost some of their body weight. The treated birds' kidney, stomach, hearts, and livers exhibited some edema. In comparison, almost all birds show enteritis, which indicates that steroids mainly affect the intestine. There were apparent differences in the histological analysis of heart and skeletal muscle and some treated birds with the control group. The kidney, liver, and intestine show the major histopathological change in all treated birds.


Assuntos
Bromocriptina , Coturnix , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Coturnix/fisiologia , Bromocriptina/farmacologia , Estradiol , Mesilatos
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(22): 15960-15968, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36268973

RESUMO

Transcriptomics dose-response analysis (TDRA) has emerged as a promising approach for integrating toxicogenomics data into a risk assessment context; however, variability and uncertainty associated with experimental design are not well understood. Here, we evaluated n = 55 RNA-seq profiles derived from Japanese quail liver tissue following exposure to chlorpyrifos (0, 0.04, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 1, 2, 4, 10, 20, and 40 µg/g; n = 5 replicates per group) via egg injection. The full dataset was subsampled 637 times to generate smaller datasets with different dose ranges and spacing (designs A-E) and number of replicates (n = 2-5). TDRA of the 637 datasets revealed substantial variability in the gene and pathway benchmark doses, but relative stability in overall transcriptomic point-of-departure (tPOD) values when tPODs were calculated with the "pathway" and "mode" methods. Further, we found that tPOD values were more dependent on the dose range and spacing than on the number of replicates, suggesting that optimal experimental designs should use fewer replicates (n = 2 or 3) and more dose groups to reduce uncertainty in the results. Finally, tPOD values ranged by over ten times for all surveyed experimental designs and tPOD types, suggesting that tPODs should be interpreted as order-of-magnitude estimates.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Transcriptoma , Animais , Incerteza , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Toxicogenética/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos
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