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1.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 45(2): 123-126, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36669077

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma is a rare, indolent malignancy with a debated history regarding cell of origin. Recurrence is rare but has been documented in up to a third of cases. Recent literature reviews have recognized 2 possible subtypes-neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine- with different possible prognostic implications for patients. We describe a case of recurrent primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma in a 50-year-old man with subtle neuroendocrine features not initially recognized on routine H&E staining but highlighted by immunohistochemical studies. We underscore the importance of immunohistochemical use in these rare cases and emphasize that awareness of these neuroendocrine and nonneuroendocrine subtypes is essential for a complete diagnosis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Couro Cabeludo/cirurgia , Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013808, 2023 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous fetal heart rate monitoring by cardiotocography (CTG) is used in labour for women with complicated pregnancies. Fetal heart rate abnormalities are common and may result in the decision to expedite delivery by caesarean section. Fetal scalp stimulation (FSS) is a second-line test of fetal well-being that may provide reassurance that the labour can continue. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate methods of FSS as second-line tests of intrapartum fetal well-being in cases of non-reassuring CTG. FSS and CTG were compared to CTG alone, and to CTG with fetal blood sampling (FBS). SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (which includes trials from CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, the WHO ICTRP and conference proceedings), ClinicalTrials.gov (18 October 2022), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any form of FSS to assess fetal well-being in labour. Quasi-RCTs, cluster-RCTs and studies published in abstract form were also eligible for inclusion, but none were identified. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Two trials, involving 377 women, met the inclusion criteria for this review. Both trials were conducted in hospital settings and included women with singleton, term (37+0 weeks or more) pregnancies, a cephalic presentation, and abnormal CTG. Follow-up was until hospital discharge after the birth. A pilot trial of 50 women in a high-income country (Ireland) compared CTG and digital fetal scalp stimulation (dFSS) with CTG and fetal blood sampling (FBS). A single-centre trial of 327 women in a lower middle-income country (India) compared CTG and manual fetal stimulation (abdominal or vaginal scalp stimulation) with CTG alone. The two included studies were at moderate or unclear risk of bias. Both trials provided clear information on allocation concealment but it was not possible to blind participants or health professionals in relation to the intervention. Although objective outcome measures were reported, outcome assessment was not blinded or blinding was unclear. dFSS and CTG versus FBS and CTG There were no perinatal deaths and data were not reported for neurodevelopmental disability at >/= 12 months. The risk of caesarean section (CS) may be lower with dFSS compared to FBS (risk ratio (RR) 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 to 0.92; 1 pilot trial, 50 women; very low-certainty evidence) but the evidence is very uncertain. There were no cases of neonatal encephalopathy reported. The evidence was also very uncertain between dFSS and FBS for assisted vaginal birth (RR 1.44, 95% CI 0.76 to 2.75; very low-certainty evidence) and for the spontaneous vaginal birth rate (RR 2.33, 95% CI 0.68 to 8.01, very low-certainty evidence). Maternal acceptability of the procedures was not reported. FSS and CTG versus CTG alone Manual stimulation of the fetus was performed either abdominally (92/164) or vaginally (72/164). There were no perinatal deaths and data were not reported for neurodevelopmental disability at >/= 12 months. There may be little differences in the risk of CS on comparing manual fetal stimulation and CTG with CTG alone (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.18; 1 trial, 327 women; very low-certainty evidence), but again the evidence was very uncertain. There were no cases of neonatal encephalopathy reported. There may be no differences in the risk of assisted vaginal birth (RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.78 to 2.60; very low-certainty evidence) or in the rates of spontaneous vaginal birth (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.21, very low-certainty evidence), but again the evidence is very uncertain. Maternal acceptability of abdominal stimulation/FSS was not reported although 13 women withdrew consent after randomisation due to concerns about fetal well-being. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is very low-certainty evidence available which makes it unclear whether stimulating the fetal scalp is a safe and effective way to confirm fetal well-being in labour. Evidence was downgraded based on limitations in study design and imprecision. Further high-quality studies of adequate sample size are required to evaluate this research question. In order to be generalisable, these trials should be conducted in different settings, including broad clinical criteria at both preterm and term gestational ages, and standardising the method of stimulation. There is an ongoing study (FIRSST) that will be incorporated into this review in a subsequent update.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Trabalho de Parto , Morte Perinatal , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Couro Cabeludo , Parto , Feto
5.
PeerJ ; 11: e14630, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36684674

RESUMO

Scalp cooling is the most approved treatment for preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA). However, the protective mechanism of scalp cooling has rarely been reported. The goal of the present study was to study the relationship between paclitaxel concentration and temperature and the inhibitory effect of low temperature on paclitaxel-induced alopecia. The results showed that the dose of paclitaxel should not exceed 60-70 mg/mL during scalp cooling treatment, and the optimal cooling temperature under different paclitaxel concentrations was determined. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) cells were analyzed by global transcriptome analysis, functional annotation and pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and ELISA kit to analyze the mechanism of low temperature therapy. The expression of HSPA8, HSPA1A and HSPA1B, which belongs to HSP70, was up-regulated by low temperature. These genes are important target genes of low temperature treatment, which were confirmed by ELISA. The up-regulation of PLK2 and the down-regulation of TXNIP expression are the upstream of mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS, inhibiting the accumulation of ROS and up-regulating the mitochondrial membrane potential. Our research partially elucidates the therapeutic mechanism of scalp cooling, which provides a new idea on the drug research and development in CIA.


Assuntos
Paclitaxel , Couro Cabeludo , Humanos , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Temperatura , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/efeitos adversos , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Queratinócitos
6.
Neuroimage ; 267: 119851, 2023 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599389

RESUMO

Human brain activity generates scalp potentials (electroencephalography - EEG), intracranial potentials (iEEG), and external magnetic fields (magnetoencephalography - MEG). These electrophysiology (e-phys) signals can often be measured simultaneously for research and clinical applications. The forward problem involves modeling these signals at their sensors for a given equivalent current dipole configuration within the brain. While earlier researchers modeled the head as a simple set of isotropic spheres, today's magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data allow for a detailed anatomic description of brain structures and anisotropic characterization of tissue conductivities. We present a complete pipeline, integrated into the Brainstorm software, that allows users to automatically generate an individual and accurate head model based on the subject's MRI and calculate the electromagnetic forward solution using the finite element method (FEM). The head model generation is performed by integrating the latest tools for MRI segmentation and FEM mesh generation. The final head model comprises the five main compartments: white-matter, gray-matter, CSF, skull, and scalp. The anisotropic brain conductivity model is based on the effective medium approach (EMA), which estimates anisotropic conductivity tensors from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data. The FEM electromagnetic forward solution is obtained through the DUNEuro library, integrated into Brainstorm, and accessible with either a user-friendly graphical interface or scripting. With tutorials and example data sets available in an open-source format on the Brainstorm website, this integrated pipeline provides access to advanced FEM tools for electromagnetic modeling to a broader neuroscience community.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Cabeça , Humanos , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Couro Cabeludo , Condutividade Elétrica , Modelos Neurológicos
7.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 151(2): 315-324, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36696313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detailed knowledge of middle temporal vein (MTV) anatomy would benefit health care professionals when performing filler injection and reconstructive surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the variation and course of the MTV using computed tomographic angiography. METHODS: Computed tomographic angiography images of 300 MTVs from 150 Asian patients were evaluated in this study. The course and branching pattern of the MTVs were evaluated, as well as the relationship between the location of the MTV and the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery. The diameter of the MTV and the distances between anatomic landmarks and temporal vessels were measured. RESULTS: The MTV was identified in all images, with an average diameter of 2.98 ± 0.80 mm. All MTVs had at least one major trunk; 12.3% had two major trunks. According to the landmarks, the MTV ran 16.3 ± 8.1 mm, 24.8 ± 4.5 mm, and 24.2 ± 4.6 mm above bony lateral canthus, jugale, and zygion point, respectively. Regarding the relationship between the MTV and the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery, most of the superficial temporal arteries (81.7%) were located above the MTVs, whereas only 9.0% of the superficial temporal arteries crossed the MTVs. The superficial temporal artery was located 43.5 ± 9.6 mm, 44.3 ± 11.9 mm, and 37.0 ± 11.9 mm above the bony lateral canthus, jugale, and zygion point, respectively. CONCLUSION: Detailed knowledge of MTV anatomy will provide a valuable reference for safe filler injection and reconstructive surgery in the temporal region. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, V.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Plástica , Humanos , Couro Cabeludo , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia , Artérias Temporais/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Temporais/anatomia & histologia
8.
Sci Justice ; 63(1): 135-148, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631178

RESUMO

Microscopic traits and ultrastructure of hair such as cross-sectional shape, pigmentation, curvature, and internal structure help determine the level of variations between and across human populations. Apart from cosmetics and anthropological applications, such as determining species, somatic origin (body area), and biogeographic ancestry, the evidential value of hair has increased with rapid progression in the area of forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP). Individuals differ in the features of their scalp hair (greying, shape, colour, balding, thickness, and density) and facial hair (eyebrow thickness, monobrow, and beard thickness) features. Scalp and facial hair characteristics are genetically controlled and lead to visible inter-individual variations within and among populations of various ethnic origins. Hence, these characteristics can be exploited and made more inclusive in FDP, thereby leading to more comprehensive, accurate, and robust prediction models for forensic purposes. The present article focuses on understanding the genetics of scalp and facial hair characteristics with the goal to develop a more inclusive approach to better understand hair biology by integrating hair microscopy with genetics for genotype-phenotype correlation research.


Assuntos
Cabelo , Couro Cabeludo , Humanos , Fenótipo , DNA/genética , Genética Forense , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
Support Care Cancer ; 31(2): 118, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645520

RESUMO

For patients with cancer, alopecia is a common side effect that negatively impacts personal identity, body image, self-esteem, quality of life, and medical decision-making. Scalp cooling is a technique used to prevent alopecia in patients undergoing chemotherapy in which patients wear a cooled cap during chemotherapy infusions, causing localized vasoconstriction of blood vessels on the scalp. Because of the recent emergence of scalp cooling, there is a need to explore further the reasons why patients pursue this treatment. A retrospective chart review of women with breast cancer treated at The Ohio State University was conducted to investigate how factors such as patient age, race, ethnicity, insurance status, stage of cancer, and chemotherapy regimen influenced patients' decisions to incorporate scalp cooling into their treatment plan as compared to those who did not. Findings revealed that patient age, race, insurance status, and chemotherapy regimen were predictors of a patient's likelihood to undergo scalp cooling. Patients diagnosed at younger age and those with private insurance were more likely to utilize scalp cooling. In comparison to White patients, non-White patients were less likely to choose scalp cooling. Furthermore, patients placed on the chemotherapy regimen of AC or AC-T were less likely to pursue scalp cooling than patients on PTCH or TC regimens. These findings provide background for the development of educational resources for both patients interested in this therapy and healthcare providers discussing this treatment option in dermatology and oncology settings.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama , Hipotermia Induzida , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Couro Cabeludo , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Alopecia/prevenção & controle , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos
10.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1672023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633084

RESUMO

A 83-year-old man presented with a large tumour on his head. He had been postponing his visit due to COVID. Physical examination revealed an ulcerating, bleeding tumour of 5.5x5x3 cm. Histologic analyses showed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Additional imaging displayed damage of the tabula externa without pathological lymph nodes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Carcinoma , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Couro Cabeludo , Carcinoma/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia
11.
Int J Neural Syst ; 33(1): 2350001, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599664

RESUMO

Deep learning for automated interictal epileptiform discharge (IED) detection has been topical with many published papers in recent years. All existing works viewed EEG signals as time-series and developed specific models for IED classification; however, general time-series classification (TSC) methods were not considered. Moreover, none of these methods were evaluated on any public datasets, making direct comparisons challenging. This paper explored two state-of-the-art convolutional-based TSC algorithms, InceptionTime and Minirocket, on IED detection. We fine-tuned and cross-evaluated them on a public (Temple University Events - TUEV) and two private datasets and provided ready metrics for benchmarking future work. We observed that the optimal parameters correlated with the clinical duration of an IED and achieved the best area under precision-recall curve (AUPRC) of 0.98 and F1 of 0.80 on the private datasets, respectively. The AUPRC and F1 on the TUEV dataset were 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. While algorithms trained on the private sets maintained their performance when tested on the TUEV data, those trained on TUEV could not generalize well to the private data. These results emerge from differences in the class distributions across datasets and indicate a need for public datasets with a better diversity of IED waveforms, background activities and artifacts to facilitate standardization and benchmarking of algorithms.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Humanos , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Couro Cabeludo , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Algoritmos
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(1)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609423

RESUMO

We present a rare case of microsurgical replantation of a total scalp avulsion. A woman in her mid-60s was renovating a tractor when her hair was caught in a column drill resulting in traumatic scalp avulsion. The avulsed scalp involved the eyebrows and the entire hair-covered part of the scalp. The prehospital management and the conservation packing of the scalp was very effective. Microsurgical replantation was achieved with anastomoses of the left superficial temporal artery and one temporal vein on each side. The combination of the prehospital treatment and our university hospital setup made it possible to reattach the scalp with an ischaemia time of approximately 5 hours. A functional and aesthetically pleasing outcome was achieved, and the patient was discharged 6 days postoperatively with a vital scalp and no complaints. Five months postoperatively, she has no sign of alopecia and is regaining sensation and function of the scalp.A woman in her mid-60s was renovating a tractor when her hair was caught in a column drill resulting in traumatic scalp avulsion. The avulsed scalp involved the eyebrows and the entire hair-covered part of the scalp. The prehospital management and the conservation packing of the scalp was very effective.


Assuntos
Amputação Traumática , Couro Cabeludo , Feminino , Humanos , Couro Cabeludo/cirurgia , Couro Cabeludo/irrigação sanguínea , Microcirurgia/métodos , Reimplante/métodos , Cabelo , Amputação Traumática/cirurgia
13.
Skin Res Technol ; 29(1): e13220, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Based on in vivo data, in vitro models and new methods are created to mimic the impact of aerial pollution onto the hair surface and assess the efficacy of different formulae prototypes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two protocols are developed to mimic the pollution effect, in vitro, on purchased swatches, and in vivo, on scalps and forearms. First, with an artificial sebum mixed with Carbon Black particles, named "sebollution," we evaluated, through an instrumental color measurement, the cleansing efficacy of some shampoo on scalp and hair. The second protocol allowed to assess the interaction between hair care product deposit (shampoo, conditioner, mask, and leave-on) on hair and carbon black particles spread on fiber. The quantification of particle coverage allowed to evaluate the efficiency of a formula to limit the aerial pollution deposit on hair fiber. RESULTS: To simplify and accelerate the evaluation of 42 shampoo formulae, an extrapolation of the scalp cleaning process was validated on forearm. The respective cleanabilities were calculated and covered a large range of efficacy, from 5%, for a basic bland shampoo generally used to reset swatches, to a strong deep cleansing efficacy of 100%. On hair swatches, cleanability efficiencies of five shampoo were also evaluated to eliminate the deposited of sebollution, in a range of 40%-80%. To quantify the efficacy of preventing the deposition of carbon particle on hair surface, the percentage of coverage of 45 different products was measured, from 2% to 16%. The performance depended of the product category (shampoo, conditioner, mask, and leave-on), driven by the performance of the product deposit, and the capacity of this deposit to interact with aerial pollution. CONCLUSION: Three new protocols and evaluation methods are proposed to evaluate and quantify the performance of hair care product, to remove/clean, limit, and protect the hair fibers against the aerial pollution that could interact with hair, scalp and sebum. The validation of these approaches was done through the testing of a large panel of hair care product leading to a complete and sincere evaluation of cleansing and anti-deposit efficacy. Combining the knowledge acquired on pollution impact on hair and the development of specific way of evaluation, this work reinforced the rationale of using and developing new cosmetic products that reduced the impact of pollution upon some hair properties.


Assuntos
Preparações para Cabelo , Fuligem , Humanos , Preparações para Cabelo/farmacologia , Pele , Cabelo , Couro Cabeludo
14.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 45(2): 127-132, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36669078

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: A 32-year-old G2P1L1 (5 months pregnant) woman presented with a 3-month history of a slow-growing cystic lesion on her scalp vertex. Similar lesions in the exact location were excised twice in the past with a diagnosis of trichilemmal carcinoma (TC). A biopsy of the scalp lesion showed morphology and immunoprofile consistent with previously diagnosed TC. Staging PET/CT demonstrated a 4.7 cm right upper lobe lung, and a subsequent lung biopsy showed a small, round blue-cell tumor with necrosis, morphologically identical to the prior biopsies from the scalp. Considering the unusual clinical course of TC, a lung biopsy was sent for next-generation sequencing that showed EWSR1-FLI1 (type1) fusion. Additionally, CD99 immunostaining revealed uniform cytoplasmic and membranous staining in the tumor cells. The previous scalp excision specimen was also sent for mutation analysis, which showed EWSR1-FLI1 fusion. In conjunction with clinical history and histological and molecular findings, a definitive diagnosis of primary cutaneous Ewing sarcoma (PCES) with local recurrence and metastasis to the lung was made. We present a case of PCES, which was previously misdiagnosed and treated as TC. This case emphasizes the importance of CD99 in the initial screening of cutaneous small round blue-cell tumors to avoid misdiagnosis from other morphological overlaps. Also, despite its rarity, PCES should be included in the differential diagnosis of small, round, blue cell tumors at cutaneous sites. Our case also exemplifies common biases in medical decision-making, including premature closure and anchoring bias which can result in misdiagnosis or diagnostic delay and associated delay in appropriate management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Sarcoma de Ewing , Sarcoma , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Tardio , Pulmão/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário
15.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 784, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646727

RESUMO

Typical seizure prediction models aim at discriminating interictal brain activity from pre-seizure electrographic patterns. Given the lack of a preictal clinical definition, a fixed interval is widely used to develop these models. Recent studies reporting preictal interval selection among a range of fixed intervals show inter- and intra-patient preictal interval variability, possibly reflecting the heterogeneity of the seizure generation process. Obtaining accurate labels of the preictal interval can be used to train supervised prediction models and, hence, avoid setting a fixed preictal interval for all seizures within the same patient. Unsupervised learning methods hold great promise for exploring preictal alterations on a seizure-specific scale. Multivariate and univariate linear and nonlinear features were extracted from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signals collected from 41 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy undergoing presurgical monitoring. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction was performed for each group of features and each of the 226 seizures. We applied different clustering methods in searching for preictal clusters located until 2 h before the seizure onset. We identified preictal patterns in 90% of patients and 51% of the visually inspected seizures. The preictal clusters manifested a seizure-specific profile with varying duration (22.9 ± 21.0 min) and starting time before seizure onset (47.6 ± 27.3 min). Searching for preictal patterns on the EEG trace using unsupervised methods showed that it is possible to identify seizure-specific preictal signatures for some patients and some seizures within the same patient.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Análise por Conglomerados , Couro Cabeludo
17.
Psychophysiology ; 60(1): e14158, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35968705

RESUMO

This study is the first to examine spectrum-wide (1 to 250 Hz) differences in electroencephalogram (EEG) power between eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) resting state conditions in 486 children. The results extend the findings of previous studies by characterizing EEG power differences from 30 to 250 Hz between EO and EC across childhood. Developmental changes in EEG power showed spatial and frequency band differences as a function of age and EO/EC condition. A 64-electrode system was used to record EEG at 4, 5, 7, 9, and 11 years of age. Specific findings were: (1) the alpha peak shifts from 8 Hz at 4 years to 9 Hz at 11 years, (2) EC results in increased EEG power (compared to EO) at lower frequencies but decreased EEG power at higher frequencies for all ages, (3) the EEG power difference between EO and EC changes from positive to negative within a narrow frequency band which shifts toward higher frequencies with age, from 9 to 12 Hz at 4 years to 32 Hz at 11 years, (4) at all ages EC is characterized by an increase in lower frequency EEG power most prominently over posterior regions, (5) at all ages, during EC, decreases in EEG power above 30 Hz are mostly over anterior regions of the scalp. This report demonstrates that the simple challenge of opening and closing the eyes offers the potential to provide quantitative biomarkers of phenotypic variation in brain maturation by employing a brief, minimally invasive protocol throughout childhood.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Couro Cabeludo , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Eletrodos
18.
Brain Res ; 1798: 148131, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328069

RESUMO

Epilepsy detection is essential for patients with epilepsy and their families, as well as for researchers and medical staff. The use of electroencephalogram (EEG) as a tool to support the diagnosis of patients with epilepsy is fundamental. Today, machine learning (ML) techniques are widely applied in neuroscience. The main objective of our study is to differentiate patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy from healthy controls by applying machine learning techniques on interictal electroencephalographic recordings. Our research predicts which patients have idiopathic generalized epilepsy from a scalp EEG study. In addition, this study focuses on using the extreme gradient boosting (XGB) method applied to scalp EEG. XGB is one of the variants of gradient boosting and is a supervised learning algorithm. This type of system is developed to increase performance and processing speed. Through this proposed method, an attempt is made to recognize patterns from scalp EEG recordings that would allow the detection of IGE with high accuracy and differentiate IGE patients from healthy controls, creating an additional tool to support clinicians in their decision-making. Among the ML methods applied, the proposed XGB method achieves a better prediction of the distinct features in EEG signals from patients with IGE. XGB was 6.26% more accurate than the k-Nearest Neighbours method and was more accurate than the support vector machine (10.61%), decision tree (9.71%) and Gaussian Naïve Bayes (11.83%). Besides, the proposed XGB method showed the highest area under the curve (AUC 98%) and balanced accuracy (98.13%) of all methods tested. Application of ML technique in EEG of patients with epilepsy is very recent and is emerging with promising results. In this research work, we showed the usefulness of ML techniques to identify and predict generalized epilepsy from healthy controls in scalp EEG studies. These findings could help develop automated tools that integrate these ML techniques to assist clinicians in differentiating between patients with IGE from healthy controls in daily practice.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Generalizada , Epilepsia , Humanos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Couro Cabeludo , Teorema de Bayes , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia Generalizada/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imunoglobulina E
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