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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634943

RESUMO

Two cows were referred to our clinic with moderate to severe hindlimb lameness due to infected wounds over the lateral and caudal aspect of tuber calcanei (TC) with regional swelling, consistent with septic subtendinous calcaneal bursitis. Ultrasonography (7.5 MHz linear probe) revealed fibrinous/fibrino-purulent inflammatory bursal effusions in both cows, complete rupture of the superficial digital flexor tendon and a small, circumscribed, irregular and rough bone contour of the TC in case 2. Radiography revealed physiological findings in case 1, whereas there were osteomyelitis and later bone sequestration in case 2. Treatment consisted of thorough wound debridement, establishing access to the bursa, removal of all exudate and fibrin, creation of additional drainage portals and meticulous lavage using sterile 0.9 % saline solution containing 0.1 % povidone-iodine performed under sedation and intravenous regional anesthesia. In case 2, the infected bone area of the TC was removed using a curette. However, a small bone sequestration developed from the TC 15 days later, which was associated with osteomyelitis. This was removed during a second surgical intervention. Systemic antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medications were administered peri- and post-surgically and the bursae flushed repeatedly. The affected tarsi were covered with a modified Robert-Jones bandage or a fiberglass cast. Cows 1 and 2 were discharged from the clinic 25 and 27 days after initial surgery, respectively, displaying mild lameness. Both cows were alive, not lame and were in advanced stages of pregnancy at the time of manuscript submission 8 and 12 months later, respectively. This report describes in detail 2 severe cases of septic fibrino-purulent subtendinous calcaneal bursitis in cows that were successfully treated by surgical debridement and lavage under a practical anesthetic protocol, followed by proper wound management in the post-surgical period. These effective surgical procedures can be performed under field conditions given the availability of adequate equipment.


Assuntos
Bursite/veterinária , Calcâneo/cirurgia , Doenças dos Bovinos/cirurgia , Animais , Bursite/complicações , Bursite/diagnóstico por imagem , Bursite/cirurgia , Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Coxeadura Animal/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
2.
Aust Vet J ; 97(12): 490-498, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective is to study the correlations between physical examination and stifle radiography findings and severity of arthroscopic cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) fibre damage in dogs with cruciate rupture (CR). DESIGN: Design Prospective clinical study. METHODS: Twenty-nine client-owned dogs with CR underwent physical examination, stifle radiography and arthroscopy, and the findings were recorded. Initial examination was repeated after sedation and after general anaesthesia. The Spearman rank correlations of examination variables with diagnostic imaging were examined. RESULTS: Overall, cranial tibial translation assessed by the tibial compression test in extension showed correlation with arthroscopic CrCL fibre damage (P < 0.05). Correlations between severity of cranial drawer laxity and arthroscopic CrCL fibre damage were not significant. Under general anaesthesia, stifle laxity tests were positively correlated with lameness severity grade (SR ≥ 0.41, P < 0.05). Meniscal damage was correlated with pain on the internal rotation of the tibia (SR = 0.42, P < 0.05) and severity of radiographic osteophytosis (SR = 0.53, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Detection and estimation of severity of cranial tibial translation enable the diagnosis of CR and also the inference of the severity of CrCL fibre rupture, particularly with the tibial compression test in extension. Severity of joint laxity is best assessed under general anaesthesia. Such knowledge should reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and may enhance early diagnosis and treatment of dogs with CR over time.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/veterinária , Cães/lesões , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico por imagem , Exame Físico/veterinária , Animais , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Artroscopia/veterinária , Feminino , Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Masculino , Exame Físico/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 49, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The modern dairy industry routinely generates data on production and disease. Therefore, the use of these cheap and at times even "free" data to predict a given state of welfare in a cost-effective manner is evaluated in the present study. Such register data could potentially be used in the identification of herds at risk of having animal welfare problems. The present study evaluated the diagnostic performance of four routinely registered indicators for identifying herds with high lameness prevalence among 40 Danish dairy herds. Indicators were extracted as within-herd annual means for a one-year period for cow mortality, bulk milk somatic cell count, proportion of lean cows at slaughter and the standard deviation (SD) of age at first calving. The target condition "high lameness prevalence" was defined as a within-herd prevalence of lame cows of ≥ 16% (third quartile). Diagnostic performance was evaluated by constructing and analysing Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and their area under the curve (AUC) for single indicators and indicator combinations. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the indicators were assessed at the optimal cut-off based on data and compared to a set of predefined cut-off levels (national annual means or 90-percentile). RESULTS: Cow mortality had the highest AUC (0.76), while adding the three other indicators to the model did not yield significant increase in AUC. Cow mortality and SD of age at first calving had highest Se (100%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 72-100%), while highest Sp was found for the proportion of lean cows at slaughter (83%, 95% CI: 66-93%). The highest differential positive rate (DPR = 0.53) optimizing both Se and Sp was found for cow mortality. Optimal cut-off points were lower than the presently used pre-defined cut-offs. CONCLUSIONS: The selected register-based indicators proved to be able to identify herds with high lameness prevalences. Optimized cut-offs improved the predictive ability and should therefore be preferred in official control schemes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10369-10378, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495614

RESUMO

Cattle lameness is an important welfare concern that also has an economic impact on the dairy industry. It can be a significant problem among pasture-based herds. Our objectives were to identify cow- and herd-level factors related to lameness and hoof lesions in dairy cows grazing year-round in Minas Gerais, Brazil. We performed a cross-sectional study in 48 pasture-based dairy herds, visiting each farm in a single visit. We evaluated 2,262 cows for mobility score (0-3) and 392 cows for hoof lesions. We used a questionnaire and checklist to capture herd management data. All information obtained was used to build multivariable models. The factors associated with lameness were low body condition score, longer time spent in the corral, being kept in paddocks during the drought period, and poor hygiene. For hoof lesions, track features were the most significant factor in determining the likelihood of heel horn erosion, white line fissure, and sole hemorrhage-by more than 3 times. Different factors related to unhygienic conditions such as leg cleanliness, frequency of cleaning, and longer time spent in the corral were associated with infectious hoof lesions. Poor human-animal relationship was related to sole hemorrhage, but patient handling of cows on the track was a protective factor against interdigital hyperplasia. The results of this study suggest that improving hygiene conditions, track features, and cow handling can improve dairy cattle mobility scores in pasture-based farms under tropical conditions. These findings also represent a first step toward planning actions aimed at decreasing lameness and hoof lesions in the studied region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Casco e Garras/patologia , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Lista de Checagem , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Fazendas/classificação , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Marcha , Manobra Psicológica , Higiene , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Registros/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Clima Tropical
5.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 14(1): 314, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) and a novel, on-site conjugate of HA with autologous fibrinogen in platelet-rich plasma (HA-PRP) in a canine model of osteoarthritis (OA) METHODS: Twelve beagle dogs underwent a unilateral resection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) of the stifle joint. Clinical and radiographic signs of OA were confirmed in all dogs 8 weeks following CrCL resection and prior to treatment. The dogs were randomized into three groups: saline (n = 4), HA (n = 4), and HA-PRP (n = 4). Each dog received intra-articular injections of the respective substance into the affected joint at pre-determined time points. The dogs were assessed for adverse effects for 3 days after each injection and for lameness, pain, range of motion, kinetics, and radiographic OA severity prior to treatment and 3 months after injection. OA severity as determined by radiographic examination was not significantly different among the groups at any time point. The dogs were then humanely euthanatized and the stifle joint assessed by gross and histological examinations. RESULTS: Dogs treated with four weekly injections of HA or two biweekly injections of HA-PRP were significantly (p < 0.05) better than dogs treated with four weekly injections of saline at 2-, 4-, and 12-week time points based on a comfortable range of motion (CROM) and clinical lameness score. Gait analysis measuring symmetry and weight distribution on pressure sensor walkway showed significantly (p < 0.05) improved limb function for dogs treated with HA and HA-PRP compared with dogs treated with saline yet with better clinical outcome for the HA-PRP-treated group at 12 and 20 weeks follow-up. Gross and histological analysis of synovium and articular cartilage demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) improvement by both treatments groups compared to controls. There was however significantly (p < 0.05) less damage to the cartilage in the HA-PRP group compared to the HA-treated group. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that while injection of HA and HA-PRP may be sufficient for short-term amelioration of the symptoms associated with OA, treatment with HA-PRP conjugates may be superior, providing significantly better long-term cartilage preservation.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Viscossuplementação/métodos , Viscossuplementos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Artrite Experimental/complicações , Artrite Experimental/diagnóstico por imagem , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Cães , Fibrinogênio/administração & dosagem , Fibrinogênio/efeitos adversos , Fibrinogênio/uso terapêutico , Marcha , Análise da Marcha/métodos , Ácido Hialurônico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Osteoartrite/complicações , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite/patologia , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Radiografia , Distribuição Aleatória , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Joelho de Quadrúpedes/diagnóstico por imagem , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Viscossuplementação/efeitos adversos
6.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104773, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563110

RESUMO

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate factors associated with lameness in dairy cows on intensive farms in southern Brazil. Farms (freestall: n = 38; compost-bedded pack: n = 12) having on average 274 (range: 41-901) lactating cows were visited once in 2016 (March to October). Potential risk factors for lameness at the cow, pen and herd levels were investigated through inspection of facilities, examination of cows and the use of data collected on routine management practices. All milking cows on each farm were assessed for gait score and BCS (n = 13,716). Associations between lameness, days in milk (DIM), BCS, parity, and test-day milk yield were investigated in 16 farms with available data (n = 5,301 cows). Mixed-effects linear and logistic regressions were used to model the data. Within-herd lameness prevalence was 41.1% (range: 13.8-64.5, SD = 11.3). First- and second-lactation cows after 120 DIM and older cows after 335 DIM were more likely to be observed lame than early lactation cows. Greater parity and low BCS (≤ 2.75) were associated with increased odds of lameness. Severely lame cows had lower milk yield (on average 1.3 kg/d) than non-lame cows. Freestall dairies using mattresses as stall base had greater within-pen (95% CI: 52-69%) and herd-level (38-57%) lameness prevalence than compost-bedded farms. Higher lameness prevalence was observed on farms having slippery feed bunk alley floors (32-49%) and shortened dry periods (< 60 days: 32-42%). First-lactation pens had lower predicted within-pen lameness prevalence (0-4%) and special-needs pens higher (52-73%) compared with the prevalence observed in compost-bedded fresh-cow pens (19-41%). Freestall pens using sawdust deep-bedding had greater (46-68%) within-pen lameness prevalence, but the prevalence in barns using sand was not different from compost-bedded farms. Given the high lameness prevalence observed in this study, there is a great opportunity for implementation of lameness prevention programs. Providing walking surfaces with high traction that facilitates mobility and using soft and deep-bedded material, such as compost and sand (and avoiding the use of mattresses) may reduce lameness prevalence in the types of dairy farms visited in this study.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Compostagem , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Abrigo para Animais , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Lactação , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Prevalência
7.
Toxicon ; 170: 94-98, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563524

RESUMO

The present study analyzes cases of scorpionism in 11 dogs and a cat that were registered at a veterinary clinic in the city of Manizales, between 2009 and 2018. All eight cases where expert identification of the arthropod was possible, involved Centruroides gracilis (Latreille, 1804). None of the stings were lethal, though two cases were classified as severe envenomation and five moderate. The primary sign was local pain, in addition to lameness in all 10 cases that involved one of the limbs (83,3%, 10 of 12 cases). The other two cases had injuries involving the face. The established treatment was symptomatic with clinical and patient monitoring. Antivenom could not be used due to its high cost and scarcity. However, even the severest cases improved satisfactorily, and all patients were discharged without complication.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Picadas de Escorpião/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Colômbia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/etiologia , Dor/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Picadas de Escorpião/diagnóstico , Picadas de Escorpião/terapia , Escorpiões
8.
Prev Vet Med ; 170: 104737, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421491

RESUMO

There is limited information on risk factors for elimination from endurance rides and changes over the years. The objectives of this study were to describe elimination for irregular gait and metabolic reasons from Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) endurance rides in Italy (2004-2015) and to assess risk factors and to investigate changes in elimination rates and speed over the long term. Data for FEI endurance rides were collected from three websites. Year, month, day, location, class (Concours de Raid d'Endurance International [CEI]*/**/***), restriction to young riders, distance (km), number of starters, horses' age and breed, and average finish speed for each horse were recorded. Horses were classified as completed, retired or eliminated for irregular gait, metabolic or other reasons. Environment data were obtained from the Il Meteo website. Descriptive data were summarized, and univariable analyses and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors. The chi-squared test and one-way or Friedman analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to assess differences between years. Variables associated with elimination for irregular gait were the number of starters, age of the horse, classes, minimum temperature and presence of rain; those associated with elimination for metabolic reasons were the number of starters, classes, horse breed and minimum temperature. Average finish speed increased over the years but the elimination frequency changed only for metabolic reasons, with a higher percentage at the beginning of the study period. This study was conducted in Italy and the results may not be applicable globally; speed was available only for horses that completed the competition. Average finish speed increased over the years but the percentage of eliminations remained stable after 2007. Training, nutrition, previous injuries and treatments are likely to contribute to problems occurring during the ride, and investigation of these factors would be desirable.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Cavalos , Itália/epidemiologia , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Resistência Física , Fatores de Risco , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Vet J ; 250: 28-35, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383417

RESUMO

Granulomas and shelly hoof (SH), are lesions of sheep feet. Our objective was to use data from four questionnaires on lameness sent to English sheep farmers in 2004, 2013, 2014 and 2015 to further understanding of the risks and aetiologies of both lesions. Granulomas were more likely in flocks where routine foot trimming (odds ratio [OR]=3.17; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.11-11.47) and routine footbathing (OR=2.38; 95% CI 1.19-4.83) were practised than where these management protocols were not. SH was more likely in flocks that were footbathed in formalin compared with not footbathing (OR=1.65; 95% CI 1.19-2.30), and was less common in flocks that stocked ewes at more than eight vs. four per acre (OR=0.34; 95% CI 0.17-0.68). There were weak associations between SH and foot trimming. In 2004 only, SH was more likely in flocks where therapeutic foot trimming was practised than not practised (OR=2.24; 95% CI 1.12-4.68). In 2014 only, SH was marginally less likely in flocks where no feet bled during trimming, compared with flocks not routinely trimmed (OR=0.55; CI 0.30-1.00); SH was not related to foot trimming once severe footrot was included. We propose that flocks with granulomas and SH would decrease if farmers stopped footbathing in general, in particular with formalin, and avoided foot trimming whether as a therapeutic or routine practice. Further work is needed to understand the role of stocking density.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Banhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Formaldeído/uso terapêutico , Granuloma/veterinária , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/epidemiologia , Doenças do Pé/etiologia , Granuloma/epidemiologia , Granuloma/etiologia , Casco e Garras/patologia , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Prevalência , Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/etiologia
10.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5247-5256, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361018

RESUMO

Modern commercial broilers have been genetically selected for fast growth and heavy breast muscling, contributing to a top-heavy phenotype and increased leg lameness. A quick-growing phenotype coupled with poor leg health fosters inactivity. The objective of this study was to stimulate broiler movement using novel environmental enrichment and determine the impact of movement on production, leg health, and environmental parameters. A total of 1,200 Ross 308 broilers were housed in 40 pens with 30 birds/pen for 6 wk in 2 separate rooms (laser enrichment or control). Each enrichment device was mounted above 2 adjoining pens, projected 2 independent, randomly moving laser beams at the floor to stimulate innate predatory behavior, and was active 4 times daily in 4-min periods. Performance outcomes were calculated by pen and averaged per bird for each performance period and overall days 0 to 42. A total of 70 randomly selected focal birds were examined for breast blisters and footpad dermatitis each week and euthanized on day 42 for tibia quality measures. Air quality and litter moisture were sampled by week. Laser-enriched pens had greater average bird feed intake in starter (P < 0.001), grower (P = 0.004), finisher periods (P = 0.004), and overall days 0 to 42 (0.19 kg/bird; P = 0.0003). Average bird weight gain was also increased in enriched pens in each performance period: starter (P = 0.043), grower (P = 0.001), finisher (P < 0.001), and overall days 0 to 42 (0.24 kg/bird; P < 0.001). Enriched pens had improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) vs. control with a decrease of 3 FCR points in the grower (P = 0.031), 18 points in the finisher (P < 0.001), and 7 points overall (P < 0.001). Enriched pens had higher ADG during starter (P = 0.048), finisher (P < 0.001), and overall (5.7 g/bird/d; P < 0.001). No differences were found in breast blister, footpad dermatitis, tibia, air, or litter quality measures (P > 0.05). In summary, a novel enrichment device based on bird visual feeding and predatory instincts positively affected performance through decreased FCR and increased ADG without sacrificing external animal-based measures, tibia quality, or air or litter quality.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Pé/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Músculos Peitorais/fisiologia , Caminhada , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meio Ambiente , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Pé/patologia , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/etiologia
11.
Aust Vet J ; 97(9): 357-360, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286481

RESUMO

An adult female Eastern Grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) was examined for lameness due to a mass located at the right tibiotarsal joint. Radiographs revealed a metal arrowhead-shaped foreign body within the mass alongside a pathologic fracture. Grossly, at necropsy, there was a multilobulated and haemorrhagic mass with intralesional metal fragments, associated osteolysis of the tibiotarsus and pulmonary metastatic nodules. Histologically the neoplasm was composed of plump elongated and fusiform cells that often formed concentrically around small vessels. The pulmonary nodules were composed of similar neoplastic cells, necrosis and haemorrhage. Neoplastic cells were positive immunohistochemically for vimentin and smooth muscle actin. The histological features, immunohistochemical profiles and behaviour of this tumour support a diagnosis of a primary angioleiomyosarcoma with lung metastasis associated with a metal foreign body.


Assuntos
Angiomioma/veterinária , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária , Leiomiossarcoma/veterinária , Macropodidae , Angiomioma/etiologia , Angiomioma/patologia , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/complicações , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Leiomiossarcoma/etiologia , Leiomiossarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/veterinária , New South Wales , Osteólise/etiologia , Osteólise/patologia , Osteólise/veterinária , Tíbia/patologia
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8332-8342, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301835

RESUMO

The quality of dairy cow mobility can have significant welfare, economic, and environmental consequences that have yet to be extensively quantified for pasture-based systems. The objective of this study was to characterize mobility quality by examining associations between specific mobility scores, claw disorders (both the type and severity), body condition score (BCS), and cow parity. Data were collected for 6,927 cows from 52 pasture-based dairy herds, including mobility score (0 = optimal mobility; 1, 2, or 3 = increasing severities of suboptimal mobility), claw disorder type and severity, BCS, and cow parity. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis. The outcome variable was mobility score, and the predictor variables were BCS, type and severity of claw disorders, and cow parity. Three models were run, each with 1 reference category (mobility score 0, 1, or 2). Each model also included claw disorders (overgrown claw, sole hemorrhage, white line disease, sole ulcer, and digital dermatitis), BCS, and cow parity as predictor variables. The presence of most types of claw disorders had odds ratios >1, indicating an increased likelihood of a cow having suboptimal mobility. Low BCS (BCS <3.00) was associated with an increased risk of a cow having suboptimal mobility, and relatively higher parity was also associated with an increased risk of suboptimal mobility. These results confirm an association between claw disorders, BCS, cow parity, and dairy cow mobility score. Therefore, mobility score should be routinely practiced to identify cows with slight deviations from the optimal mobility pattern and to take preventive measures to keep the problem from worsening.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Coxeadura Animal/fisiopatologia , Locomoção , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Paridade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Caminhada
13.
N Z Vet J ; 67(5): 270-276, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234729

RESUMO

AIMS: To report the clinical outcomes and complications after the use of 3.5 mm/2.7 mm locking compression plates (LCP) with additional internal fixation for pancarpal arthrodesis (PCA) in dogs. METHODS: This was a retrospective study using medical records from a single orthopaedic referral hospital between December 2015 and April 2018. The inclusion criteria were the use of a dorsally applied LCP for PCA in dogs with a minimum follow-up period of 12 months. Additional crossed 2.7 or 3.5 mm cortical screws or Kirschner wires were placed in all limbs to further stabilise the joints. A light dressing without external coaptation was applied postoperatively to all limbs. Postoperative lameness assessment was recorded at the last clinical evaluation. RESULTS: Twelve dogs with 13 arthrodesed limbs were included, with carpal hyperextension injury being the most common indication for surgery (4/13; 31%). One dog was recorded with a minor complication, which was a metacarpal fracture distal to the bone plate. Major complications were observed in 4/13 (31%) limbs, with surgical site infection being recorded in all four limbs and screw loosening in one limb. No implant failure was reported. At the final clinical evaluation (43-437 days after surgery), none or mechanical lameness was recorded in 9/13 (69%) limbs, mild lameness in 3/13 (23%) limbs, and moderate lameness in one 1/13 (8%) limb. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Locking plate and screw fixation with additional internal fixation resulted in comparable complication and infection rates in canine PCA to previous published studies using hybrid dynamic compression plates. No implant failure was reported for any of the limbs despite the use of a light dressing without external coaptation.


Assuntos
Artrodese/veterinária , Ossos do Carpo/cirurgia , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Coxeadura Animal/cirurgia , Animais , Artrodese/métodos , Placas Ósseas , Parafusos Ósseos , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães/lesões , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/veterinária , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218546, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211805

RESUMO

In veterinary practice pain alleviation plays a part in managing lameness. The aim of this randomized and placebo-controlled clinical study was to evaluate the effect of a single administration of ketoprofen on locomotion characteristics and weight distribution in cattle with foot (located up to and including the fetlock; n = 31) and (proximal to the fetlock; n = 10) pathologies. Cattle were randomly allocated to either the ketoprofen (group K; intravenous 3 mg/kg of body weight; n = 21) or an equivalent volume of isotonic sterile saline solution (group P; n = 20). Two accelerometers (400 Hz; kinematic outcome = stance phase duration; kinetic outcome = foot load and toe-off), a 4-scale weighing platform (weight distribution and SD of the weight) and a subjective locomotion score were measured before (baseline) and after 1 h and 18 h of treatment. All variables were expressed as differences across contralateral limbs, and the measurements at 1 h and 18 h were compared to the baseline. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the differences between groups K and P. A logistic regression model with a binary outcome (0 = no improvement and 1 = improvement of the differences across the contralateral limbs over time) was calculated. Mean (± SD) of locomotion scores at baseline were not significantly different (P = 0.102) in group K (3.10 ± 0.80) as compared to group P (3.48 ± 0.64). Cattle of group K showed significantly lower differences across contralateral limbs at 1 h as compared to group P for the relative stance phase and the weight distribution. Only the treatment (P versus K) remained a significant factor in the model for relative stance phase (odds ratio (OR) = 6.5; 95% CI = 1.38-30.68) and weight distribution (OR = 6.36; 95% CI = 1.30-31.07). The effects of ketoprofen were evident in improving the differences across contralateral limbs-both for stance phase during walking and weight bearing during standing-after 1 h but not after 18 h of administration.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Extremidades/fisiopatologia , Cetoprofeno/farmacologia , Locomoção , Dor/veterinária , Suporte de Carga , Análise de Variância , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Marcha , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia
15.
Vet Surg ; 48(5): 770-779, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between synovial biomarker concentrations and severity of lameness and to assess the ability to differentiate normal from osteoarthritic joints with synovial biomarker concentrations. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Twelve hounds with no evidence of osteoarthritis (OA) and 27 client-owned dogs with unilateral lameness and joint pain in a single joint from naturally occurring OA. METHODS: Enrollment in the OA group required a history of lameness, radiographic evidence of OA on orthogonal joint radiographs, and ≥6% gait asymmetry between contralateral limbs. The concentrations of 14 synovial OA biomarkers in synovial samples obtained after gait analysis were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and compared between normal and OA joints. RESULTS: Concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, substance P, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, KC-like, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and MMP-3 were greater (P ≤ .05) in OA than in normal joints. The concentrations of bradykinin and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-4 were decreased in OA compared with normal joints. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 was identified as the most accurate marker to distinguish OA from normal joints. No correlation was detected between any OA biomarker concentration, individually or in combination, and severity of gait asymmetry at the walk. CONCLUSION: Differences in proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory biomarkers were detected between OA and normal joints, but no relationship was identified between biomarker concentrations and gait asymmetry in dogs with OA. CLINICAL IMPACT: This information will help guide future studies to elucidate how factors such as disease chronicity, severity, and etiology affect these relationships.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Líquido Sinovial/química , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/química , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Coxeadura Animal/sangue , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Coxeadura Animal/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/sangue , Osteoartrite/complicações , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Vet J ; 244: 83-90, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825900

RESUMO

Pasture-based dairy systems are implemented all over the world. Access to pasture is perceived to be advantageous for animal welfare in western societies. However, the benefits of grazing on lameness are not uniformly verifiable. This is related to the challenges that grazing cows face which are different from zero-grazing systems to some extent, but may nevertheless be deleterious. The distribution of lesion types comparing housed and pastured cattle differs between studies. This may be caused by differences in how strongly certain risk factors apply in these studies. Major risk factors for lameness in grazing cattle are related to the risk of trauma, for example from long walking distances and lack of track maintenance, and cow factors such as the adaptability of certain breeds to the grazing lifestyle. The consequences of lameness are similar to zero-grazing cattle and negatively affect animal welfare and productivity.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Coxeadura Animal/prevenção & controle
17.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 254(4): 508-511, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714863

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION A 12-year-old mixed-breed mare (horse 1) and 6-year-old Friesian gelding (horse 2) were examined for chronic lameness associated with the stifle joint. CLINICAL FINDINGS Lameness examination revealed effusion of the right (horse 1) or left (horse 2) femoropatellar and medial femorotibial joints and grade 3/5 (horse 1) or 4/5 (horse 2) lameness. A diagnosis of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) injury with associated mineralization and avulsion (horse 1) or mineralization alone (horse 2) was facilitated in both horses with a caudomedial-craniolateral oblique radiographic view obtained 45° medial to the caudocranial line, which highlighted the origin of the ligament on the caudoaxial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle within the intercondylar fossa. These lesions were subsequently confirmed via CT. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Arthroscopy of the medial and lateral femorotibial joints was performed for horse 1 and revealed the osseous fragment associated with the CCL, but the fragment could not be removed. Horse 2 was euthanized while anesthetized following CT owing to the poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Radiography is typically the first imaging modality attempted for horses with CCL injury, particularly outside the hospital setting. A 45° caudomedial-craniolateral oblique radiographic view may aid in diagnosis of CCL injury when avulsion or mineralization is present. Although this view is not commonly included in the typical radiographic series for imaging of the stifle joint in horses, it should be considered when CCL injury is suspected.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/veterinária , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia/veterinária , Animais , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/patologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/patologia , Calcificação Fisiológica , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico por imagem , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Masculino , Joelho de Quadrúpedes/diagnóstico por imagem , Joelho de Quadrúpedes/patologia
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 59, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine laminitis is a complex disease that manifests as pain and lameness in the feet, often with debilitating consequences. There is a paucity of data that accounts for the multifactorial nature of laminitis and considers time-varying covariates that may be associated with disease development; particularly those that are modifiable and present potential interventions. A previous case-control study identified a number of novel, modifiable factors associated with laminitis which warranted further investigation and corroboration. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with equine laminitis in horses/ponies in Great Britain (GB) using a prospective, web-based cohort study design, with particular interest in evaluating modifiable factors previously identified in the case-control study. RESULTS: Self-selected horse/pony owners in GB submitted initial baseline and follow-up health and management questionnaires for 1070 horses/ponies between August 2014 and December 2016. The enrolled horses/ponies contributed 1068 horse-years at risk with a median of 38 days between questionnaire submissions. Owners reported 123 owner-recognised and/or veterinary-diagnosed episodes of active laminitis using a previously-validated laminitis reporting form. Multivariable Cox regression modelling identified 16 risk/protective factors associated with laminitis development. In keeping with the previous case-control study, a prior history of laminitis (particularly non-veterinary-diagnosed episodes), soreness after shoeing/trimming and weight gain were associated with higher rates of laminitis. There is now strong evidence that these risk factors should be used to guide future recommendations in disease prevention. Factors with some prior evidence of association included breed, steroidal anti-inflammatory administration, transport and worming. The modifiable factors amongst these should be the focus of future laminitis studies. The remainder of the identified factors relating to health, turnout and grazing management and feeding are novel, and require further investigation to explore their relationship with laminitis and their applicability as potential interventions. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated a temporal relationship between a number of horse- and management-level factors and laminitis, identifying potential interventions and important risk groups for which these interventions would be of particular importance. These results serve as a sound evidence-base towards the development of strategic recommendations for the horse/pony-owning population to reduce the rate of laminitis in GB.


Assuntos
Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Casco e Garras , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/etiologia , Doenças do Pé/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Cavalos , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Coxeadura Animal/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808038

RESUMO

A 4-year-old, neutered male European shorthair was presented for evaluation of right hind limb lameness. Radiographs revealed bilateral femoral capital physeal fractures, widened vertebral growth plates and constipation. Physical findings included lethargy, mental dullness, mild hypothermia, retarded growth, pharyngeal stridor, moderate muscle atrophy of pelvic limbs, hair coat abnormalities, and lack of defecation and urination. A thyroid panel revealed thyroid hormone values below detection limits and high thyroid stimulation hormone values. A presumptive diagnosis of congenital primary hypothyroidism was made, however also an early onset acquired primary hypothyroidism could not be ruled out. Results of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and the parathyroid hormone as well as an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulating test were normal. A bilateral femoral head and neck excision was performed. Levothyroxine supplementation was started at a dosage of 50 µg (11 µg/kg) BID and later adjusted to 100 µg (22 µg/kg) BID based on total thyroxine concentrations. The tomcat showed full clinical recovery and normal clinical behaviour. The case shows that primary hypothyroidism may be considered in cats presented with femoral capital physeal fractures.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Fraturas do Fêmur/veterinária , Hipotireoidismo/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Fraturas do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Fêmur/etiologia , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico por imagem , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Masculino , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(3): 2453-2468, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638999

RESUMO

In a herd of 100 milking Simmental cows, data of performance and behavior parameters were collected automatically with different systems such as pedometers, an automatic milking system, and automatic weighing troughs for 1 yr. Performance measures were several milking-related parameters, live weight, as well as feed intake. Behavior-associated measures were feeding behavior (e.g. feeding duration, number of visits to the trough, and feeding pace) as well as activity such as lying duration, number of lying bouts, and overall activity. In the same time, lameness status of every cow was assessed with weekly locomotion scoring. According to the score animals were then classified lame (score 4 or 5) or nonlame (score 1, 2, or 3). From these data in total, 25 parameters summarized to daily values were evaluated for their ability to determine the lameness status of a cow. Data were analyzed with a regularized regression method called elastic net with the outcome lame or nonlame. The final model had a high prediction accuracy with an area under the curve of 0.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.88-0.94]. Specificity was 0.81 (95% CI = 0.73-0.85) and sensitivity was 0.94 (95% CI = 0.88-1.00). The most important factors associated with a cow being lame were number of meals, average feed intake per meal, and average duration of a meal. Lame cows fed in fewer and shorter meals with a decreased intake per meal. Milk yield and lying-behavior-associated parameters were relevant in the model, too, but only as parts of interaction terms demonstrating their strong dependence on other factors. A higher milk yield only resulted in higher risk of being lame if feed intake was decreased. The same accounts for lying duration: only if lying time was below the 50% quantile did an increased milk yield result in a higher risk of being lame. The association of lameness and daily lying duration was influenced by daily feeding duration and feeding duration at daytime. The results of the study give deeper insights on how the association between behavior and performance parameters and lameness is influenced by intrinsic factors in particular and that many of these have to be considered when trying to predict lameness based on such data. The findings lead to a better understanding why, for instance, lying duration or milk yield seem to be highly correlated with lameness in cows but still have not been overly useful as parameters in other lameness detection models.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Marcha , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico , Coxeadura Animal/genética , Leite , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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