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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201818, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993469

RESUMO

The acquisition of elongated, sabre-like canines in multiple vertebrate clades during the last 265 Myr represents a remarkable example for convergent evolution. Due to striking superficial similarities in the cranial skeleton, the same or similar skull and jaw functions have been inferred for sabre-toothed species and interpreted as an adaptation to subdue large-bodied prey. However, although some sabre-tooth lineages have been classified into different ecomorphs (dirk-tooths and scimitar-tooths) the functional diversity within and between groups and the evolutionary paths leading to these specializations are unknown. Here, we use a suite of biomechanical simulations to analyse key functional parameters (mandibular gape angle, bending strength, bite force) to compare the functional performance of different groups and to quantify evolutionary rates across sabre-tooth vertebrates. Our results demonstrate a remarkably high functional diversity between sabre-tooth lineages and that different cranial function and prey killing strategies evolved within clades. Moreover, different biomechanical adaptations in coexisting sabre-tooth species further suggest that this functional diversity was at least partially driven by niche partitioning.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Carnívoros , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Força de Mordida , Fósseis , Mandíbula , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
2.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868470

RESUMO

Pediatric care providers, pediatricians, pediatric subspecialty physicians, and other health care providers should be able to recognize children with abnormal head shapes that occur as a result of both synostotic and deformational processes. The purpose of this clinical report is to review the characteristic head shape changes, as well as secondary craniofacial characteristics, that occur in the setting of the various primary craniosynostoses and deformations. As an introduction, the physiology and genetics of skull growth as well as the pathophysiology underlying craniosynostosis are reviewed. This is followed by a description of each type of primary craniosynostosis (metopic, unicoronal, bicoronal, sagittal, lambdoid, and frontosphenoidal) and their resultant head shape changes, with an emphasis on differentiating conditions that require surgical correction from those (bathrocephaly, deformational plagiocephaly/brachycephaly, and neonatal intensive care unit-associated skill deformation, known as NICUcephaly) that do not. The report ends with a brief discussion of microcephaly as it relates to craniosynostosis as well as fontanelle closure. The intent is to improve pediatric care providers' recognition and timely referral for craniosynostosis and their differentiation of synostotic from deformational and other nonoperative head shape changes.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico , Acrocefalossindactilia/genética , Fenótipo de Síndrome de Antley-Bixler/genética , Suturas Cranianas/anatomia & histologia , Disostose Craniofacial , Craniossinostoses/classificação , Craniossinostoses/etiologia , Craniossinostoses/cirurgia , Cabeça/anormalidades , Humanos , Lactente , Hipertensão Intracraniana/etiologia , Ilustração Médica , Microcefalia/etiologia , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Fotografação , Polidactilia/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sinostose/complicações , Sinostose/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000801, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810126

RESUMO

The evolutionary radiation of birds has produced incredible morphological variation, including a huge range of skull form and function. Investigating how this variation arose with respect to non-avian dinosaurs is key to understanding how birds achieved their remarkable success after the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event. Using a high-dimensional geometric morphometric approach, we quantified the shape of the skull in unprecedented detail across 354 extant and 37 extinct avian and non-avian dinosaurs. Comparative analyses reveal fundamental differences in how skull shape evolved in birds and non-avian dinosaurs. We find that the overall skull shape evolved faster in non-avian dinosaurs than in birds across all regions of the cranium. In birds, the anterior rostrum is the most rapidly evolving skull region, whereas more posterior regions-such as the parietal, squamosal, and quadrate-exhibited high rates in non-avian dinosaurs. These fast-evolving elements in dinosaurs are strongly associated with feeding biomechanics, forming the jaw joint and supporting the jaw adductor muscles. Rapid pulses of skull evolution coincide with changes to food acquisition strategies and diets, as well as the proliferation of bony skull ornaments. In contrast to the appendicular skeleton, which has been shown to evolve more rapidly in birds, avian cranial morphology is characterised by a striking deceleration in morphological evolution relative to non-avian dinosaurs. These results may be due to the reorganisation of skull structure in birds-including loss of a separate postorbital bone in adults and the emergence of new trade-offs with development and neurosensory demands. Taken together, the remarkable cranial shape diversity in birds was not a product of accelerated evolution from their non-avian relatives, despite their frequent portrayal as an icon of adaptive radiations.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Aves/classificação , Aves/fisiologia , Dinossauros/classificação , Dinossauros/fisiologia , Extinção Biológica , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Crânio/fisiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236961, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790702

RESUMO

There is a significant number of funerary contexts for the Early Neolithic in the Iberian Peninsula, and the body of information is much larger for the Late Neolithic. In contrast, the archaeological information available for the period in between (ca. 4800-4400/4200 cal BC) is scarce. This period, generally called Middle Neolithic, is the least well-known of the peninsular Neolithic sequence, and at present there is no specific synthesis on this topic at the peninsular scale. In 2017, an exceptional funerary context was discovered at Dehesilla Cave (Sierra de Cádiz, Southern Iberian Peninsula), providing radiocarbon dates which place it at the beginning of this little-known Middle Neolithic period, specifically between ca. 4800-4550 cal BC. Locus 2 is a deposition constituted by two adult human skulls and the skeleton of a very young sheep/goat, associated with stone structures and a hearth, and a number of pots, stone and bone tools and charred plant remains. The objectives of this paper are, firstly, to present the new archaeological context documented at Dehesilla Cave, supported by a wide range of data provided by interdisciplinary methods. The dataset is diverse in nature: stratigraphic, osteological, isotopic, zoological, artifactual, botanical and radiocarbon results are presented together. Secondly, to place this finding within the general context of the contemporaneous sites known in the Iberian Peninsula through a systematic review of the available evidence. This enables not only the formulation of explanations of the singular new context, but also to infer the possible ritual funerary behaviours and practices in the 5th millennium cal BC in the Iberian Peninsula.


Assuntos
Comportamento Ritualístico , Rituais Fúnebres/história , Animais , Arqueologia , Cavernas , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Portugal , Datação Radiométrica , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Espanha
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1262: 203-216, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613585

RESUMO

Game-based applications (apps) and serious games enable educationalists to teach complex life sciences topics. Gamification principles (i.e. challenges, problem solving, critical thinking) improve learners' motivation and can also help science communicators discuss important scientific subjects and their real-world context in an effective, enjoyable manner. The aim of this study was to design, develop and evaluate a science communication game-based app, entitled Collect the Bones, Avoid the Cones, on human skull anatomy for use in public engagement activities with younger audiences. Specifically, the app contextualised three-dimensional (3D) skull anatomy within a narrative about cycling and helmet safety. The app was tested at the Glasgow Science Centre, with ethical approval from the Glasgow School of Art, to assess its potential pedagogical value, in terms of pre- and post-app knowledge and confidence, and general user evaluation. In total, 50 participants were recruited (mean age 15.6 ± 1.647, range 7-64) with 62% of participants aged 7-12. Usability and educational value were rated highly with 70% of participants agreeing they could use the app without any external instructions and 90% agreeing they understand the anatomy of the skull better after app use. The enjoyability of the game was also positively perceived with 94% of participants agreeing they enjoyed the game. Although there was no statistical significance in pre- and post-app knowledge scores, there was a statistically significant increase in players' confidence relating to skull anatomy (pre-app: 3.00 ± 1.265, post-app: 4.00 ± 1.00, Z = -5.111, p < 0.001). These results provide promising insight into the potential of game-based apps for public engagement in anatomical sciences. Future research on how the app influences attitudes towards helmet use in different demographic groups would be valuable in identifying its full pedagogical potential.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Resolução de Problemas , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Osso e Ossos , Criança , Comunicação , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Motivação , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1262: 217-237, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613586

RESUMO

Knowledge of the anatomy of the skull and its bones forms an important part of the understanding required for the study and practice of safe clinical dentistry. The use of serious games in healthcare education is well-documented, but there is comparatively little evidence for their use in dental education. Intrinsically integrated rewards are a game mechanic that can be motivational for serious game users. A research gap was identified in the delivery of skull anatomy education to dental undergraduate students via a serious game with intrinsically integrated rewards. A serious game, titled Visualisation Studio Sim, was developed with Unity, featuring three-dimensional models and assets designed and modified with 3ds Max and Instant Meshes. Two versions of the game were built, one with the addition of intrinsically integrated rewards and one without it, and the game versions were tested by a convenience sample to gather open-ended feedback on the usability and suitability of the game mechanic for dental undergraduate education. Feedback suggested that it was straightforward to interact with the skull models but that the rewards were not as well integrated into the flow and immersion of the game as intended, and the game might not have been as challenging as desired for the intended cohort warranting future refinements in these aspects.


Assuntos
Educação em Odontologia , Crânio , Estudantes de Odontologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Educação em Odontologia/métodos , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Motivação , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Jogos de Vídeo/normas
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 640-644, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098300

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to obtain data on craniometric parameters in the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and to define the general skull type of this species, analysing whether the craniometric classification of domestic dogs can be applied. Eleven skulls of C. thous were included in the analysis, irrespective of age and sex. The location of nine craniometric points established for craniometry in domestic dogs was determined and based on the distances between these points, 17 craniometric parameters were measured. Those parameters were used to calculate the following six craniometric indices: 53.17 ± 2.54 mm skull index, 2.33 ± 0.08 mm craniofacial index, 59.17 ± 3.57 mm neurocranial index, 125.58 ± 6.63 mm facial index, 37.52 ± 2.65 mm basal index and the index of the foramen magnum 54.47 ± 3.48 mm. According to the analysed indices, the skull shape in C. thous can be classified as mesaticephalic.


El objetivo de este estudio fue obtener datos sobre los parámetros craneométricos del zorro cangrejero (Cerdocyon thous) y definir el tipo general de cráneo de esta especie, analizando si se puede aplicar la clasificación craneométrica de los perros domésticos. Once cráneos de C. thous fueron incluidos en el análisis, independientemente de la edad y el sexo. Se determinó la ubicación de nueve puntos craneométricos establecidos para la craneometría en perros domésticos y, en función de las distancias entre estos puntos, se midieron 17 parámetros craneométricos. Esos parámetros se usaron para calcular los siguientes índices craneométricos: índice craneal de 53,17 ± 2,54 mm, índice craneofacial de 2,33 ± 0,08 mm, índice neurocraneal de 59,17 ± 3,57 mm, índice facial de 125,58 ± 6,63 mm, índice basal de 37,52 ± 2,65 mm y el índice del foramen magnum 54,47 ± 3,48 mm. Según los índices analizados, la forma del cráneo en C. thous se puede clasificar como mesaticefálica.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria , Canidae/anatomia & histologia
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 706-713, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098309

RESUMO

The shape of the head is considered the most important criterion in determining the standard breeds of dogs. It is of much significance to study the skull typology of the Ghanaian local dog in order to establish a template of its identification as a breed and to generate data which could be useful in the comparative anatomy of the skulls of dogs. A total of twenty skulls of adult dogs of two age groups were used in this study. 31 parameters were measured and 6 skull indices were calculated on their basis. The group of skulls from older fully grown dogs showed higher values in all parameters. Results of the current study will provide baseline reference data on skull parameters of local dolichocephalic dogs. More importantly, results obtained could be useful in veterinary applied anatomy and clinical practice in areas including forensic medicine, plastic or cosmetic maxillofacial surgery, neurosurgery of the cranium, acupuncture, nerve block and other clinical manipulations involving the head.


La forma de la cabeza se considera el criterio más importante para determinar las razas estándar de perros. Es relevante estudiar la tipología del cráneo del perro local de Ghana para establecer una plantilla de su identificación como raza y generar datos que puedan ser útiles en la anatomía comparativa de los cráneos de perros. En este estudio se utilizaron un total de veinte cráneos de perros adultos de dos grupos de edad. Se midieron 31 parámetros y se calcularon 6 índices de cráneo sobre la base de ellos. El grupo de cráneos de perros mayores completamente desarrollados mostró valores más altos en todos los parámetros. Los resultados del estudio actual proporcionarán datos de referencia sobre los parámetros del cráneo de los perros dolicocefálicos locales. Más importante aún, los resultados obtenidos podrían ser útiles en la anatomía veterinaria aplicada y la práctica clínica en áreas que incluyen medicina forense, cirugía plástica o cosmética maxilofacial, neurocirugía del cráneo, acupuntura, bloqueo nervioso y otras manipulaciones clínicas que involucran la cabeza.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Gana
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234183, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502171

RESUMO

Coelacanths are iconic fishes represented today by a single marine genus. The group was a little bit more diversified in the Mesozoic, with representatives in marine and continental environments in the Late Cretaceous. Here we describe isolated skull bones of the last know freshwater coelacanths found in several fossil sites from the Early Campanian to the Early Maastrichtian of Southern France (in the Departments of Aude, Bouches-du-Rhône, Hérault, and Var). The sample does not allow distinguishing different species, and all material is referred to Axelrodichthys megadromos Cavin, Valentin, Garcia originally described from the locality of Ventabren in Southern France. A reconstruction of the skull is proposed. Previously unrecognized features are described, including parts of the postparietal portion of the skull, of the suspensorium and of the mandible. The new data confirm the assignation of the species to the mawsoniids, and more specifically to Axelrodichthys. A cladistic analysis scoring new character states provides a similar topology than a previous analysis, i.e. A. megadromos is placed in a polytomy with Axelrodichthys araripensis and Lualabaea lerichei, two species from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil and from the Late Jurassic of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, respectively. A. megadromos appears to have been restricted to freshwater environments, to the contrary of oldest Western Gondwanan representatives of the family that were able to live in brackish and marine waters. A. megadromos is the last representative of the mawsoniids and its occurrence in Europe is probably the result of a dispersal event from Western Gondwana that happened somewhen in the Cretaceous. Based on the available data, the mawsoniids went extinct in the mid-Maastrichthian, i.e. before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. But it is possible that the fossil record of this family, which has been only recently recognized in Late Cretaceous European deposits, will geographically and stratigraphically widen with further discoveries.


Assuntos
Peixes , Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/classificação , Fósseis , França , Filogenia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1928): 20200763, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486981

RESUMO

Human activity is drastically altering the habitat use of natural populations. This has been documented as a driver of phenotypic divergence in a number of wild animal populations. Here, we show that urban and rural populations of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from London and surrounding boroughs are divergent in skull traits. These changes are primarily found to be involved with snout length, with urban individuals tending to have shorter and wider muzzles relative to rural individuals, smaller braincases and reduced sexual dimorphism. Changes were widespread and related to muscle attachment sites and thus are likely driven by differing biomechanical demands of feeding or cognition between habitats. Through extensive sampling of the genus Vulpes, we found no support for phylogenetic effects on skull morphology, but patterns of divergence found between urban and rural habitats in V. vulpes quantitatively aligned with macroevolutionary divergence between species. The patterns of skull divergence between urban and rural habitats matched the description of morphological changes that can occur during domestication. Specifically, urban populations of foxes show variation consistent with 'domestication syndrome'. Therefore, we suggest that occurrences of phenotypic divergence in relation to human activity, while interesting themselves, also have the potential to inform us of the conditions and mechanisms that could initiate domestication. Finally, this also suggests that patterns of domestication may be developmentally biased towards larger patterns of interspecific divergence.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Raposas/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Domesticação , Ecossistema , Raposas/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , População Rural , População Urbana
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1929): 20200665, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576117

RESUMO

Early lagomorphs are central to our understanding of how the brain evolved in Glires (rodents, lagomorphs and their kin) from basal members of Euarchontoglires (Glires + Euarchonta, the latter grouping primates, treeshrews, and colugos). Here, we report the first virtual endocast of the fossil lagomorph Megalagus turgidus, from the Orella Member of the Brule Formation, early Oligocene, Nebraska, USA. The specimen represents one of the oldest nearly complete lagomorph skulls known. Primitive aspects of the endocranial morphology in Megalagus include large olfactory bulbs, exposure of the midbrain, a small neocortex and a relatively low encephalization quotient. Overall, this suggests a brain morphology closer to that of other basal members of Euarchontoglires (e.g. plesiadapiforms and ischyromyid rodents) than to that of living lagomorphs. However, the well-developed petrosal lobules in Megalagus, comparable to the condition in modern lagomorphs, suggest early specialization in that order for the stabilization of eye movements necessary for accurate visual tracking. Our study sheds new light on the reconstructed morphology of the ancestral brain in Euarchontoglires and fills a critical gap in the understanding of palaeoneuroanatomy of this major group of placental mammals.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Eutérios , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Lagomorpha , Bulbo Olfatório , Filogenia , Primatas , Roedores
12.
Nature ; 581(7809): 421-427, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461642

RESUMO

The fossil record of mammaliaforms (mammals and their closest relatives) of the Mesozoic era from the southern supercontinent Gondwana is far less extensive than that from its northern counterpart, Laurasia1,2. Among Mesozoic mammaliaforms, Gondwanatheria is one of the most poorly known clades, previously represented by only a single cranium and isolated jaws and teeth1-5. As a result, the anatomy, palaeobiology and phylogenetic relationships of gondwanatherians remain unclear. Here we report the discovery of an articulated and very well-preserved skeleton of a gondwanatherian of the latest age (72.1-66 million years ago) of the Cretaceous period from Madagascar that we assign to a new genus and species, Adalatherium hui. To our knowledge, the specimen is the most complete skeleton of a Gondwanan Mesozoic mammaliaform that has been found, and includes the only postcranial material and ascending ramus of the dentary known for any gondwanatherian. A phylogenetic analysis including the new taxon recovers Gondwanatheria as the sister group to Multituberculata. The skeleton, which represents one of the largest of the Gondwanan Mesozoic mammaliaforms, is particularly notable for exhibiting many unique features in combination with features that are convergent on those of therian mammals. This uniqueness is consistent with a lineage history for A. hui of isolation on Madagascar for more than 20 million years.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Ilhas , Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia , Mamíferos/classificação , Filogenia , Esqueleto/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Dentição , Madagáscar , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232410, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374777

RESUMO

Hadrosaurid fossils from the Liscomb Bonebed (Prince Creek Formation, North Slope, Alaska) were the first dinosaur bones discovered from the Arctic. While the Prince Creek Formation hadrosaurids were long identified as Edmontosaurus, a member of the sub-clade Hadrosaurinae, they were recently assigned to a newly-erected taxon, Ugrunaaluk kuukpikensis. However, taxonomic status of the new taxon is ambiguous largely due to the immature nature of the specimens upon which it was based. Here we reexamine cranial elements of the Prince Creek Formation hadrosaurine in order to solve its taxonomic uncertainties. The Prince Creek Formation hadrosaurine possesses a short dorsolateral process of the laterosphenoid, one of the diagnostic characters of Edmontosaurus. The Prince Creek Formation hadrosaurine also shows affinity to Edmontosaurus regalis in the presence of a horizontal shelf of the jugal. Our morphological comparisons with other North American Edmontosaurus specimens and our phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that the Prince Creek Formation hadrosaurine should be re-assigned to Edmontosaurus. Because the Prince Creek Formation Edmontosaurus shows differences with lower latitude Edmontosaurus in a dorsoventrally short maxilla, presence of a secondary ridge on the dentary teeth, and the absence of the transverse ridge between basipterygoid processes of the basisphenoid, we consider that the Prince Creek Formation Edmontosaurus should be regarded as Edmontosaurus sp. until further discoveries of mature hadrosaurines from the Prince Creek Formation Bonebed and/or equivalently juvenile Edmontosaurus specimens from the lower latitudes allow direct comparisons. The retention of the Prince Creek Formation hadrosaurine as Edmontosaurus re-establishes a significant latitudinal distribution for this taxon. Despite the large latitudinal distribution of the taxon, the morphological disparity of Edmontosaurus is small within Hadrosaurinae. The small morphological disparity may be related to the relatively low latitudinal temperature gradient during the latest Cretaceous compared to present day, a gradient which might not have imposed significant pressure for much morphological adaptations across a broad latitudinal range.


Assuntos
Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Dinossauros/classificação , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Alaska , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Evolução Biológica , Dinossauros/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/história , Geografia , História Antiga , Filogenia
14.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(3): 314e-323e, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current methods to analyze three-dimensional photography do not quantify intracranial volume, an important metric of development. This study presents the first noninvasive, radiation-free, accurate, and reproducible method to quantify intracranial volume from three-dimensional photography. METHODS: In this retrospective study, cranial bones and head skin were automatically segmented from computed tomographic images of 575 subjects without cranial abnormality (average age, 5 ± 5 years; range, 0 to 16 years). The intracranial volume and the head volume were measured at the cranial vault region, and their relation was modeled by polynomial regression, also accounting for age and sex. Then, the regression model was used to estimate the intracranial volume of 30 independent pediatric patients from their head volume measured using three-dimensional photography. Evaluation was performed by comparing the estimated intracranial volume with the true intracranial volume of these patients computed from paired computed tomographic images; two growth models were used to compensate for the time gap between computed tomographic and three-dimensional photography. RESULTS: The regression model estimated the intracranial volume of the normative population from the head volume calculated from computed tomographic images with an average error of 3.81 ± 3.15 percent (p = 0.93) and a correlation (R) of 0.96. The authors obtained an average error of 4.07 ± 3.01 percent (p = 0.57) in estimating the intracranial volume of the patients from three-dimensional photography using the regression model. CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional photography with image analysis provides measurement of intracranial volume with clinically acceptable accuracy, thus offering a noninvasive, precise, and reproducible method to evaluate normal and abnormal brain development in young children. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic, V.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Fotografação/métodos , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0228402, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The application of three-dimensional scan models offers a useful resource for studying craniofacial variation. The complex mathematical analysis for facial point acquisition in three-dimensional models has made many craniofacial assessments laborious. METHOD: This study investigates three-dimensional (3D) soft-tissue craniofacial variation, with relation to ethnicity, sex and age variables in British and Irish white Europeans. This utilizes a geometric morphometric approach on a subsampled dataset comprising 292 scans, taken from a Liverpool-York Head Model database. Shape variation and analysis of each variable are tested using 20 anchor anatomical landmarks and 480 sliding semi-landmarks. RESULTS: Significant ethnicity, sex, and age differences are observed for measurement covering major aspects of the craniofacial shape. The ethnicity shows subtle significant differences compared to sex and age; even though it presents the lowest classification accuracy. The magnitude of dimorphism in sex is revealed in the facial, nasal and crania measurement. Significant shape differences are also seen at each age group, with some distinct dimorphic features present in the age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The patterns of shape variation show that white British individuals have a more rounded head shape, whereas white Irish individuals have a narrower head shape. White British persons also demonstrate higher classification accuracy. Regarding sex patterns, males are relatively larger than females, especially in the mouth and nasal regions. Females presented with higher classification accuracy than males. The differences in the chin, mouth, nose, crania, and forehead emerge from different growth rates between the groups. Classification accuracy is best for children and senior adult age groups.


Assuntos
Cefalometria , Face/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Caracteres Sexuais , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231760, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348315

RESUMO

The decline of the Roman rule caused significant political instability and led to the emergence of various 'Barbarian' powers. While the names of the involved groups appeared in written sources, it is largely unknown how these changes affected the daily lives of the people during the 5th century AD. Did late Roman traditions persist, did new customs emerge, and did both amalgamate into new cultural expressions? A prime area to investigate these population and settlement historical changes is the Carpathian Basin (Hungary). Particularly, we studied archaeological and anthropological evidence, as well as radiogenic and stable isotope ratios of strontium, carbon, and nitrogen of human remains from 96 graves at the cemetery of Mözs-Icsei dulo. Integrated data analysis suggests that most members of the founder generation at the site exhibited burial practises of late Antique traditions, even though they were heterogeneous regarding their places of origin and dietary habits. Furthermore, the isotope data disclosed a nonlocal group of people with similar dietary habits. According to the archaeological evidence, they joined the community a few decades after the founder generation and followed mainly foreign traditions with artificial skull modification as their most prominent characteristic. Moreover, individuals with modified skulls and late Antique grave attributes attest to deliberate cultural amalgamation, whereas burials of largely different isotope ratios underline the recipient habitus of the community. The integration of archaeological and bioarchaeological information at the individual level discloses the complex coalescence of people and traditions during the 5th century.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Mundo Romano/história , Mudança Social/história , Adolescente , Restos Mortais/anatomia & histologia , Restos Mortais/fisiologia , Cemitérios , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Hungria , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230391, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298287

RESUMO

Over several decades, human skeletal remains from at least twelve individuals (males, females, children and infants) were recovered from a small area (ca. 10 x 10 m) on the eastern shore of Table Bay, Cape Town, near the mouth of the Diep River where it empties into the sea. Two groups, each comprising four individuals, appear to have been buried in single graves. Unusually for this region, several skeletons were interred with large numbers of ostrich eggshell (OES) beads. In some cases, careful excavation enabled recovery of segments of beadwork. One collective burial held items including an ostrich egg-shell flask, a tortoise carapace bowl, a fragmentary bone point or linkshaft and various lithic artefacts. This group appears to have died together and been buried expediently. A mid-adult woman from this group sustained perimortem blunt-force trauma to her skull, very likely the cause of her death. This case adds to the developing picture of interpersonal violence associated with a period of subsistence intensification among late Holocene foragers. Radiocarbon dates obtained for nine skeletons may overlap but given the uncertainties associated with marine carbon input, we cannot constrain the date range more tightly than 1900-1340 calBP (at 2 sigma). The locale appears to have been used by a community as a burial ground, perhaps regularly for several generations, or on a single catastrophic occasion, or some combination thereof. The evidence documents regional and temporal variation in burial practices among late Holocene foragers of the south-western Cape.


Assuntos
Sepultamento/história , Práticas Mortuárias/história , Datação Radiométrica , Adulto , Arqueologia/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Fósseis , História Antiga , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Esqueleto/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , África do Sul
18.
Nature ; 579(7799): 397-401, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188952

RESUMO

Our understanding of the earliest stages of crown bird evolution is hindered by an exceedingly sparse avian fossil record from the Mesozoic era. The most ancient phylogenetic divergences among crown birds are known to have occurred in the Cretaceous period1-3, but stem-lineage representatives of the deepest subclades of crown birds-Palaeognathae (ostriches and kin), Galloanserae (landfowl and waterfowl) and Neoaves (all other extant birds)-are unknown from the Mesozoic era. As a result, key questions related to the ecology4,5, biogeography3,6,7 and divergence times1,8-10 of ancestral crown birds remain unanswered. Here we report a new Mesozoic fossil that occupies a position close to the last common ancestor of Galloanserae and fills a key phylogenetic gap in the early evolutionary history of crown birds10,11. Asteriornis maastrichtensis, gen. et sp. nov., from the Maastrichtian age of Belgium (66.8-66.7 million years ago), is represented by a nearly complete, three-dimensionally preserved skull and associated postcranial elements. The fossil represents one of the only well-supported crown birds from the Mesozoic era12, and is the first Mesozoic crown bird with well-represented cranial remains. Asteriornis maastrichtensis exhibits a previously undocumented combination of galliform (landfowl)-like and anseriform (waterfowl)-like features, and its presence alongside a previously reported Ichthyornis-like taxon from the same locality13 provides direct evidence of the co-occurrence of crown birds and avialan stem birds. Its occurrence in the Northern Hemisphere challenges biogeographical hypotheses of a Gondwanan origin of crown birds3, and its relatively small size and possible littoral ecology may corroborate proposed ecological filters4,5,9 that influenced the persistence of crown birds through the end-Cretaceous mass extinction.


Assuntos
Aves/classificação , Fósseis , Filogenia , Animais , Bélgica , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Masculino , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(15): 8554-8562, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220958

RESUMO

Frogs (Anura) are one of the most diverse vertebrate orders, comprising more than 7,000 species with a worldwide distribution and extensive ecological diversity. In contrast to other tetrapods, frogs have a highly derived body plan and simplified skull. In many lineages of anurans, increased mineralization has led to hyperossified skulls, but the function of this trait and its relationship with other aspects of head morphology are largely unexplored. Using three-dimensional morphological data from 158 species representing all frog families, we assessed wide-scale patterns of shape variation across all major lineages, reconstructed the evolutionary history of cranial hyperossification across the anuran phylogeny, and tested for relationships between ecology, skull shape, and hyperossification. Although many frogs share a conserved skull shape, several extreme forms have repeatedly evolved that commonly are associated with hyperossification, which has evolved independently more than 25 times. Variation in cranial shape is not explained by phylogenetic relatedness but is correlated with shifts in body size and ecology. The species with highly divergent, hyperossified skulls often have a specialized diet or a unique predator defense mechanism. Thus, the evolution of hyperossification has repeatedly facilitated the expansion of the head into multiple new shapes and functions.


Assuntos
Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Anuros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Osteogênese , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Anuros/classificação , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Filogenia
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