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1.
APMIS ; 128(1): 35-40, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628868

RESUMO

Kingella kingae colonizes the upper airways in children and has been recognized as the most common causative agent of osteoarticular infections (OAI) in children below 4 years of age. This is the first Scandinavian study to investigate oropharyngeal K. kingae carriage in healthy children. From June 2015 to August 2016, we recruited 198 healthy children aged 11-14 months from routine consultations at health promotion centers in Hordaland County, Norway for a cross-sectional study. After their parents had provided informed consent; demographic data were registered, and an oropharyngeal swab was collected. The oropharyngeal swab was analyzed with a real-time PCR assay specific to K. kingae targeting the RTX toxin locus. Results showed an asymptomatic carriage rate of 12.6%. A striking and highly significant difference was observed between the children that had started attending day care facilities as compared with children still being at home (33.33% vs 8.5%; p < 0.001). K. kingae is prevalent in young children in Norway. This study emphasize that K. kingae should be considered an important etiological agent in OAI. Transmission seems to be facilitated in day care facilities. The correlation between oropharyngeal carriage and OAI needs to be further explored.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Creches , Kingella kingae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Neisseriaceae/epidemiologia , Orofaringe/microbiologia , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Kingella kingae/genética , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 53: e03484, Jan.-Dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1020386

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Relatar a experiência de estudantes e docentes de um projeto de extensão universitária no planejamento e realização de oficinas educativas sobre desenvolvimento infantil com educadoras de creche. Método Relato de experiência alicerçado nos referenciais das Necessidades Essenciais das Crianças e na Teoria Bioecológica do Desenvolvimento Humano. Resultados Participaram das oficinas oito graduandas, duas docentes de Enfermagem de uma universidade pública e 24 educadoras de uma creche localizada no município de São Paulo, em região de alta vulnerabilidade social. As oficinas educativas abordaram os temas: fundamentos do desenvolvimento infantil, marcos do desenvolvimento nas áreas pessoal e social, linguagem, motor fino e grosseiro e promoveram o desenvolvimento infantil na creche. Como estratégias pedagógicas, foram utilizadas dinâmicas interativas, jogos didáticos e recursos midiáticos. As oficinas educativas favoreceram a translação do conhecimento sobre o desenvolvimento infantil e as necessidades essenciais das crianças. Conclusão As ações de extensão proporcionaram articulação entre a universidade e a comunidade por meio do compartilhamento de saberes entre profissionais da saúde e da educação visando à promoção do desenvolvimento infantil.


RESUMEN Objetivo Relatar la experiencia de estudiantes y docentes de un proyecto de extensión universitaria en la planificación y realización de talleres educativos acerca del desarrollo infantil con educadoras de guarderías. Método Relato de experiencia cimentado en los marcos de referencia de las Necesidades Esenciales de los Niños y la Teoría Bioecológica del Desarrollo Humano. Resultados Participaron en los talleres ocho estudiantes de graduación, dos docentes de Enfermería de una universidad pública y 24 educadoras de una guardería ubicada en el municipio de São Paulo, en zona de alta vulnerabilidad social. Los talleres educativos abordaron los temas: fundamentos del desarrollo infantil, hitos del desarrollo en las áreas personal y social, lenguaje, motricidad fina y gruesa, y promovieron el desarrollo infantil en la guardería. Como estrategias pedagógicas, fueron utilizadas dinámicas interactivas, juegos didácticos y recursos mediáticos. Los talleres favorecieron la traslación del conocimiento acerca del desarrollo infantil y las necesidades esenciales de los niños. Conclusión Las acciones de extensión proporcionaron articulación entre la universidad y la comunidad mediante el intercambio de saberes entre los profesionales sanitarios y de la educación a fin de promover el desarrollo infantil.


ABSTRACT Objective To report the experience of students and teachers of a university extension project in the planning and performance of educational workshops on child development with educators of a day care center. Method Report of experience based on frameworks of The Irreducible Needs of Children and the Bioecological Theory of Human Development. Results The workshops included eight undergraduate students, two nursing professors from a public university and 24 educators from a day care center located in a region of high social vulnerability in São Paulo. The educational workshops promoted child development in the day care center and the following themes were addressed: child development fundamentals, developmental milestones in the personal and social areas, language, fine and gross motor coordination. Interactive dynamics, didactic games and media resources were used as pedagogical strategies. The educational workshops favored the transfer of knowledge on child development and irreducible needs of children Conclusion Extension activities provided a link between the university and the community through the sharing of knowledge among health and education professionals aimed at promoting child development.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Educação em Saúde , Enfermagem Pediátrica , Creches , Saúde da Criança
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 847, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella outbreaks in childcare facilities are relatively rare, most often occurring secondary to contaminated food products or poor infection control practices. We report an outbreak of Salmonella Saintpaul at a pre-school facility in Ayrshire, Scotland with atypical clinical and epidemiological features. METHODS: Following notification of the initial two cases, the multi-disciplinary Incident Management Team initiated enhanced active case finding and two environmental inspections of the site, including food preparation areas. Parent and staff interviews were conducted by the Public Health department covering attendance, symptomatology and risk factors for all probable and confirmed cases. Microbiological testing of stool samples and the facility water tank was conducted. Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) was performed for positive stool samples at the national reference laboratory. Infection control measures were introduced iteratively due to the atypical progression of the outbreak. RESULTS: There were 15 confirmed cases and 3 children admitted to hospital during the outbreak. However, 35.7% of cases reported extremely mild symptoms. The attack rate was 15.2%, and age of affected children ranged from 18 to 58 months (mean 35 months). All cases were the same Multilocus Sequence Type (MLST50). Epidemiological investigation strongly suggested person-to-person spread within the facility. Existing infection control practices were found to be of a high standard, but introduction of additional evidence-based control measures was inadequate in halting transmission. Facility staff reported concerns about lack of parental disclosure of gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly where these were mild, with 50.0% of cases having attended while symptomatic against public health advice. Voluntary two-week closure of the facility was implemented to halt transmission, following which there were no new cases. WGS results were unavailable until after the decision was taken to close the facility. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported instance of a Salmonella Saintpaul outbreak at a childcare facility, or where person-to-person transmission is indicated. Clinicians should consider the influence of parental under-reporting on gastrointestinal outbreaks in childcare settings, particularly where perceived severity is low and financial or social pressures to attend work may reduce compliance. WGS cannot yet replace conventional microbiological techniques during short, localised outbreaks due to delays receiving results.


Assuntos
Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Creches , Pré-Escolar , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Saúde Pública , Salmonella/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Escócia/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17490, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593113

RESUMO

Lifestyle in preschool children is associated with the onset of childhood obesity. However, the effect of environmental factors in childcare facilities on lifestyle and obesity in preschool children is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of environmental factors in childcare facilities on the association between obesity and individual lifestyle in preschool children.Subjects included 2902 infants, aged 4 to 6 years old in Kitakyushu City, Japan. A stratified multilevel analysis was conducted with 2 strata: factors related to individual lifestyle and maternal factors as the individual level and factors related to the childcare facility as the environmental level. Two-level multilevel regression analysis was conducted with the presence or absence of obesity.The proportion of infants with obesity was 4.2%. The childhood obesity was significantly associated with the mastication, nutritional methods during infancy, absence of breakfast, presence of skipping meals due to overeating of snacks, usual play activity, screen time on weekdays, maternal body mass index, and maternal weight increase during pregnancy at the individual level. On the other hand, childhood obesity had a significantly negative association with the receiving snacks in facilities by using multilevel analysis.The present study revealed that establishing and maintaining environmental factors in childcare facilities may play important roles in the prevention of obesity from early childhood.


Assuntos
Creches , Meio Ambiente , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Refeições , Análise Multinível , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2017, we conducted a multistate investigation to determine the source of an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 infections, which occurred primarily in children. METHODS: We defined a case as infection with an outbreak strain of STEC O157:H7 with illness onset between January 1, 2017, and April 30, 2017. Case patients were interviewed to identify common exposures. Traceback and facility investigations were conducted; food samples were tested for STEC. RESULTS: We identified 32 cases from 12 states. Twenty-six (81%) cases occurred in children <18 years old; 8 children developed hemolytic uremic syndrome. Twenty-five (78%) case patients ate the same brand of soy nut butter or attended facilities that served it. We identified 3 illness subclusters, including a child care center where person-to-person transmission may have occurred. Testing isolated an outbreak strain from 11 soy nut butter samples. Investigations identified violations of good manufacturing practices at the soy nut butter manufacturing facility with opportunities for product contamination, although the specific route of contamination was undetermined. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation identified soy nut butter as the source of a multistate outbreak of STEC infections affecting mainly children. The ensuing recall of all soy nut butter products the facility manufactured, totaling >1.2 million lb, likely prevented additional illnesses. Prompt diagnosis of STEC infections and appropriate specimen collection aids in outbreak detection. Child care providers should follow appropriate hygiene practices to prevent secondary spread of enteric illness in child care settings. Firms should manufacture ready-to-eat foods in a manner that minimizes the risk of contamination.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli O157 , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Creches/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Recall e Retirada de Produto , Alimentos de Soja/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 805, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early Childhood Education Centre (ECEC) staff are strongly recommended to receive several immunizations including influenza and pertussis. However, evidence regarding the uptake is either old or lacking across all Australian States/Territories. This study aimed to explore the attitudes and barriers around ECEC staff vaccination and the immunisation policy/practices employed at their workplaces. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was undertaken of staff members (administrators and childcare center staff) in early 2017. We compared the individual's knowledge, attitude and practices as well as the centre's policy and practice variables between the vaccinated and unvaccinated respondents. A logistic model was used to identify the factors associated with uptake of the different vaccines. RESULTS: A total of 575 ECEC staff completed the survey. Sixty percent reported being aware of the recommendations about staff immunisation. While participants did acknowledge that they could spread diseases if unvaccinated (86%), 30% could not recall receiving a dTpa in the last 10 years. Private centres were less likely to provide free or onsite vaccination compared to other categories of centres. Less than half reported receiving any encouragement to get the influenza vaccine and only 33% reported that their centre provides onsite influenza vaccination. Regarding the introduction of mandatory policies, 69% stated that they would support a policy. CONCLUSION: Employers should consider supporting methods to maximize vaccination of their employees including providing free onsite vaccination. Participants were open to idea of mandatory vaccination; however, this needs to be explored further to determine how vaccine costs and access issues could be resolved.


Assuntos
Creches , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Percepção , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/economia , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacina contra Coqueluche/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/economia , Local de Trabalho
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1074, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children's centres in the UK provide a setting for public health programmes; offering support to families living in the most disadvantaged areas where obesity prevalence is at its highest. Health, Exercise and Nutrition in the Really Young (HENRY) is an eight-week obesity prevention programme currently delivered in children's centres across the UK. However, low participant engagement in some local authorities threatens its potential reach and impact. This study aimed to explore the factors influencing participant engagement with HENRY to describe where local intervention may support engagement efforts. METHOD: A focused ethnography study was undertaken in five children's centres delivering HENRY across the UK. One hundred and ninety hours of field observations, 22 interviews with staff (commissioners, HENRY co-ordinators, managers and facilitators) and six focus groups (36 parents), took place over five consecutive days in each centre. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was used to guide the observations and analysis of the data. RESULTS: Three overarching themes described the factors influencing participant engagement with HENRY: local authority decision making around children's centre programmes; children's centre implementation of HENRY; and the participant experience of HENRY. The results indicate that factors influencing participant engagement with public health programmes begin at the commissioning body level, influencing children's centre implementation and subsequently the experience of participants. Local authority funding priorities and constraints influence availability of places and who these places are offered to, with funding often targeted towards those deemed most at need. This was perceived to have a detrimental effect on participant experience of the programme. CONCLUSION: In summary, participant engagement is affected by multiple factors, working at different levels of the children's centre and local authority hierarchy, most of which are at play even before participants decide whether or not they choose to enrol and maintain attendance. For programmes to achieve their optimal reach and impact, factors at the commissioning and local implementation level need to be addressed prior to addressing participant facing issues.


Assuntos
Creches/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Antropologia Cultural , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Reino Unido
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426345

RESUMO

Nature contacts are recognized as positively contributing to humans' health and well-being. Although there have been projects to green daycare or schoolyards, yard greening and microbial biodiversity have never been studied simultaneously. We asked whether simultaneously increasing biodiversity exposure and greening urban daycare yards affects 3-5 years-old children's physical activity and play, their environmental relationships, and their perceived well-being. For transforming six daycare yards in Finland, we used a forest floor with high biodiversity, sod, peat blocks, and planters for vegetable and flower growing. We used qualitative interview and survey-based data collected from the daycare personnel and parents to analyze how green yards encourage children's engagement with their everyday life-worlds. We identified the functional possibilities provided by the yards and the dynamic aspects related to the greening. Green, biodiverse yards were considered safe, and inspired children's play, diversified their activities, and increased physical activity. The greenery offered embodied experiences of nature and provided the children with multi-sensory exploration and diverse learning situations. The dynamic and emotional ways of engaging with the natural environment increased their well-being. The activities related to caring for the yards and exploring them promoted the development of environmental relationships. The results can be used for designing health-enhancing yards.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Creches , Meio Ambiente , Natureza , Jogos e Brinquedos , Adulto , Biodiversidade , Pré-Escolar , Exercício , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Plantas , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 53: e03484, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the experience of students and teachers of a university extension project in the planning and performance of educational workshops on child development with educators of a day care center. METHOD: Report of experience based on frameworks of The Irreducible Needs of Children and the Bioecological Theory of Human Development. RESULTS: The workshops included eight undergraduate students, two nursing professors from a public university and 24 educators from a day care center located in a region of high social vulnerability in São Paulo. The educational workshops promoted child development in the day care center and the following themes were addressed: child development fundamentals, developmental milestones in the personal and social areas, language, fine and gross motor coordination. Interactive dynamics, didactic games and media resources were used as pedagogical strategies. The educational workshops favored the transfer of knowledge on child development and irreducible needs of children. CONCLUSION: Extension activities provided a link between the university and the community through the sharing of knowledge among health and education professionals aimed at promoting child development.


Assuntos
Creches , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Criança , Docentes de Enfermagem , Feminino , Humanos , Universidades
11.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 69, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Establishing healthy eating behaviours in early life has implications for health over the life course. As the majority of Australian children aged five and under regularly attend early childhood education and care (ECEC) services, mealtimes at ECEC settings present opportunities to promote healthy eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to explore children's eating behaviours and interactions between peers and educators during mealtimes in ECEC settings, with the aim of constructing a grounded theory of children's mealtimes in ECEC. METHODS: In-depth qualitative case studies were undertaken at two ECEC centres. Each centre had been assessed as meeting national quality standards and were located in a lower socioeconomic status area. Data collection consisted of direct observation, video recording, written memos, and daily field notes. The analysis included open coding of video recorded mealtimes and field notes resulting in the allocation of initial codes and focused codes. Codes were grouped to form thematic categories and emergent themes. Theoretical sampling was used to identify mealtime interactions exemplifying thematic categories. RESULTS: Data from 47 mealtimes was available. A grounded theory of children's mealtimes was developed to demonstrate children's outcomes at mealtimes. Outcomes were represented by five thematic categories: rituals, learning moments, food preference development, socialisation and child agency. Mealtimes offered opportunities for children to construct a community of peers with their educators by sharing information, stories and occasionally their food. Each centre established its own unique culture within mealtimes observed as the children were involved in routines and rituals. CONCLUSIONS: Mealtimes in ECEC settings are a unique cultural phenomenon co-constructed by the ECEC community of children and educators. The findings highlight the importance of mealtimes as a time for learning and socialization. The routine and rituals of mealtimes provide an opportunity for educators to support the development of healthy food preferences.


Assuntos
Creches , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Refeições , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Instituições Acadêmicas
12.
Estilos clín ; 24(2): 358-370, maio-ago. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1039860

RESUMO

O presente estudo tem por objetivo descrever o Programa de Acompanhamento para Educadoras de Creche em Contexto Inclusivo - PROAECI e apresentar detalhes de sua implementação. Relata-se a aplicação do PROAECI a 3 educadoras de berçário em que tinha um bebê (24 meses) com deficiência física incluído nesta turma. O programa teve por objetivo oferecer uma escuta sensível e reflexiva sobre a relação das educadoras com o bebê com deficiência, acolhendo seus sentimentos, demandas e dificuldades. O PROAECI foi realizado em seis encontros, aplicados com periodicidade semanal e de forma individual, com duração de 50 minutos. Cada encontro tinha um tema específico norteado por conceitos da teoria winnicottiana, referentes às tarefas da educadora (holding, manuseio e apresentação de objetos) e competências da educadora (previsibilidade, adaptação ao saber materno e diagnóstico pedagógico). Destaca-se o potencial do PROAECI, ao sensibilizar as educadoras para desenvolver uma atitude reflexiva, acolhedora, ativa e responsável com o bebê com deficiência.


El presente estudio tiene por objetivo describir el Programa de Acompañamiento para Educadoras de Jardín Infantil en Contexto Inclusivo - PROAECI y presentar detalles de su implementación. Se relata la aplicación del PROAECI a 3 educadoras de jardín infantil en que tenía un bebé (24 meses) con discapacidad física incluida. El programa tuvo por objetivo ofrecer una escucha sensible y reflexiva sobre la relación de las educadoras con el bebé con discapacidad, acogiendo sus sentimientos, demandas y dificultades. El programa se realizó a lo largo de seis encuentros, aplicados con periodicidad semanal y de forma individual, con una duración de 50 minutos. Cada encuentro tenía un tema específico orientado por conceptos de la teoría winnicottiana referentes a las tareas de la educadora (holding, manejo y presentación de objetos) y competencias de la educadora (previsibilidad, adaptación al saber materno y diagnóstico pedagógico). Se destaca el potencial del PROAECI, al sensibilizar a las educadoras para desarrollar una actitud reflexiva, acogedora, activa y responsable con el bebé con discapacidad.


The present study aims to describe the Monitoring Program for Day Care Teachers in an Inclusive Context - PROAECI and present details of its implementation. The application of PROAECI to 3 nursery teachers in which they had a baby (24 months) with physical disability included is reported. The purpose of the program was to offer a sensitive and reflexive listening on the relationship of the teachers toward the infant with disability, accepting their feelings, demands and difficulties. The program was conducted over six meetings, applied weekly and individually, lasting 50 minutes. Each meeting had a specific issue guided by Winnicott's concepts related to the tasks of the teacher (holding, handling and object-presenting) and competences of the teacher (predictability, respect to maternal knowledge and educational diagnosis). It highlights the potential of PROAECI, by sensitizing the teachers to develop a reflexive, welcoming, active and responsible attitude toward the infant with disability.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Adulto , Inclusão Educacional , Cuidado da Criança , Creches , Educação Infantil/psicologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330765

RESUMO

The study objectives were to determine the nutritional status of children between the ages of 12-60 months and to establish the association between attending preschool and the prevalence of undernutrition. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in health facilities in Tshwane district in South Africa, consisting of both a questionnaire and anthropometric measures of 1256 mothers and their children. Weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ) were calculated and bivariate and multivariable analysis was performed to establish association. The results showed that child-related factors, namely birthweight, age, gender, and attending preschool increased the risk of undernutrition. Children over the age of 24 months were likely to be stunted and underweight. Maternal education reduced the odds of underweight. Children who stayed at home had reduced odds of underweight and stunting. High birthweight reduced the odds of wasting and underweight. The risks for undernutrition are multifaceted, but children who attend preschool have an increased risk of undernutrition. The risk of undernutrition increased with age and coincided with the time of cessation of breast-feeding and attendance at daycare or preschool. The complementary role of quality childcare in preschools and daycare centers is vital in alleviating the problem of undernutrition in underprivileged communities.


Assuntos
Creches , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Instituições Acadêmicas , Magreza/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Creches/classificação , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Setor Informal , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/classificação , África do Sul/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319561

RESUMO

Korea is facing problems, such as inequality within society and an aging population, that places a burden on public health expenditure. The active adoption of policies that promote work-family balance (WFB), such as parental leave and workplace childcare centers, is known to help solve these problems. However, there has, as yet, been little quantitative evidence accumulated to support this notion. This study used the choice experiment methodology on 373 Koreans in their twenties and thirties, to estimate the level of utility derived from work-family balance policies. The results show that willingness to pay for parental leave was found to be valued at 7.81 million Korean won, while it was 4.83 million won for workplace childcare centers. In particular, WFB policies were found to benefit workers of lower socioeconomic status or belonging to disadvantaged groups, such as women, those with low education levels, and those with low incomes. Furthermore, the utility derived from WFB policies was found to be greater among those who desire children compared to those who do not. The results suggest that the proactive introduction of WFB policies will help solve problems such as inequality within society and population aging.


Assuntos
Creches/economia , Licença Parental/economia , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida/economia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , República da Coreia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Local de Trabalho/economia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Gac Med Mex ; 155(Suppl 1): S38-S44, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182875

RESUMO

Background: The promotion of health is carried out in preventive services of medical units, in educational programs and textbooks from the general perspective of the population. Objective: To determine baseline characteristics of health education for pre-school children, their parents and teachers, by means of specialist doctors. Method: Cross-sectional study of an educational program for preschool children. Life skills and health competencies were evaluated. Results: The preschoolers developed resilience (84.12%), empathy (92.23%), assertive communication (93.5%), interpersonal relationships (91.0%), correct decision making (92.56%), problem solving (81.05%), creative thinking (98%), critical thinking (86.08%), emotion management (80.76%), physical activation (97.94%), self-knowledge (98.96%), hygienic habits (94.90%) and co-responsibility (86.25%); 95.59% liked the workshop and 95.75% chose the correct option in the problems described. 63.04% of parents generated changes in their habits and those of their children. Conclusion: The educational program implemented can promote empowerment in health from childhood.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Creches , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 784-793, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200204

RESUMO

Dust samples were collected from four indoor environments, including childcare facilities, houses, hair salons, and a research facility from the USA and were analyzed for brominated compounds using full scan liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry. A total of 240 brominated compounds were detected in these dust samples, and elemental formulas were predicted for 120 more abundant ions. In addition to commonly detected brominated flame retardants (BFRs), nitrogen-containing brominated azo dyes (BADs) were among the most frequently detected and abundant. Specifically, greater abundances of BADs were detected in indoor dusts from daycares and salons compared to houses and the research facility. Using authentic standards, a quantitative method was established for two BADs (DB373: Disperse Blue 373 and DV93: Disperse Violet 93) and 2-bromo-4,6-dinitroaniline, a commonly used precursor in azo dye production, in indoor dust. Generally, greater concentrations of DB373 (≤3850 ng/g) and DV93 (≤1190 ng/g) were observed in indoor dust from daycares highlighting children as a susceptible population to potential health risk from exposure to BADs. These data are important because, to date, targeted analysis of brominated compounds in indoor environments has focused mainly on BFRs and appears to underestimate the total amount of brominated compounds.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Compostos de Anilina/análise , Compostos Azo/análise , Poeira/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , Criança , Creches , Cromatografia Líquida , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Nitrogênio/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(25): 568-572, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246941

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is a parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis, a profuse, watery diarrhea that can last up to 3 weeks in immunocompetent patients and can lead to life-threatening malnutrition and wasting in immunocompromised patients.* Fecal-oral transmission can occur by ingestion of contaminated recreational water, drinking water, or food, or through contact with infected persons or animals. For the period 2009-2017, public health officials from 40 states and Puerto Rico voluntarily reported 444 cryptosporidiosis outbreaks resulting in 7,465 cases. Exposure to treated recreational water (e.g., in pools and water playgrounds) was associated with 156 (35.1%) outbreaks resulting in 4,232 (56.7%) cases. Other predominant outbreak exposures included contact with cattle (65 outbreaks; 14.6%) and contact with infected persons in child care settings (57; 12.8%). The annual number of reported cryptosporidiosis outbreaks overall increased an average of approximately 13% per year over time. Reversing this trend will require dissemination of prevention messages to discourage swimming or attending child care while ill with diarrhea and encourage hand washing after contact with animals. Prevention and control measures can be optimized by improving understanding of Cryptosporidium transmission through regular analysis of systematically collected epidemiologic and molecular characterization data.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Creches , Pré-Escolar , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Piscinas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água
19.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 53, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viruses play an important role in ecosystems, including the built environment (BE). While numerous studies have characterized bacterial and fungal microbiomes in the BE, few have focused on the viral microbiome (virome). Longitudinal microbiome studies provide insight into the stability and dynamics of microbial communities; however, few such studies exist for the microbiome of the BE, and most have focused on bacteria. Here, we present a longitudinal, metagenomic-based analysis of the airborne DNA and RNA virome of a children's daycare center. Specifically, we investigate how the airborne virome varies as a function of season and human occupancy, and we identify possible sources of the viruses and their hosts, mainly humans, animals, plants, and insects. RESULTS: Season strongly influenced the airborne viral community composition, and a single sample collected when the daycare center was unoccupied suggested that occupancy also influenced the community. The pattern of influence differed between DNA and RNA viromes. Human-associated viruses were much more diverse and dominant in the winter, while the summertime virome contained a high relative proportion and diversity of plant-associated viruses. CONCLUSIONS: This airborne microbiome in this building exhibited seasonality in its viral community but not its bacterial community. Human occupancy influenced both types of communities. By adding new data about the viral microbiome to complement burgeoning information about the bacterial and fungal microbiomes, this study contributes to a more complete understanding of the airborne microbiome.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Bactérias/classificação , Metagenômica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Vírus/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Creches , Pré-Escolar , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Estações do Ano , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999694

RESUMO

Objective: In this systematic review, we aimed to summarize the evidence on the association between being a daycare educator working with children and the possible increased risk of parvovirus B19 infection compared to the general population. Methods: The Medline and Embase databases were searched using a defined search to find studies published since 2000. Two reviewers evaluated the search hits using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The resulting studies were extracted and were assessed in eight domains of bias. A pooled relative risk (RR) of parvovirus infection for daycare workers compared to the general population was calculated. Results: After evaluating the 7781 search hits and manual search, four methodologically-adequate studies were identified: three cross-sectional studies and one retrospective cohort study. Of the three studies investigating the risk of infection, one evaluated parvovirus B19 seroconversion rates for daycare workers. There was an indication for an increased risk for daycare workers compared to the unexposed population (RR = 1.12, 95% CI 0.98-1.27) using prevalence estimators. Furthermore, daycare workers had a higher seroconversion rate compared to the unexposed population (RR = 2.63, 95% 1.27-5.45) in the low risk of bias study. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a higher risk of parvovirus B19 infection for daycare workers compared to an unexposed comparison population, which necessitate preventative efforts. Considering the underestimation of the occupational seroconversion risk by prevalence-based estimators, parvovirus B19 infections among daycare workers might mostly be occupationally acquired.


Assuntos
Creches , Eritema Infeccioso/epidemiologia , Eritema Infeccioso/transmissão , Parvovirus B19 Humano/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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