Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 567
Filtrar
1.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study evaluated the effect of commercial whitening dentifrices on erosive tooth wear (ETW) of bovine enamel samples, in comparison with commercial regular dentifrices. METHODOLOGY: Sixty bovine crowns were embedded in acrylic resin, polished and then had their baseline profile determined. They were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=12/group), according to the type of commercial dentifrice to be tested: GI - Crest Anti-cavity Regular; GII - Crest 3D White; GIII - Colgate Total 12 Clean Mint; GIV - Colgate Optic White; GV - Placebo (negative control, fluoride-free dentifrice). The samples were submitted to daily erosive and abrasive challenges for 3 days. The erosive challenges were performed 3 times a day by immersing the specimens in 0.1% citric acid solution (pH 2.5) for 90 s. Each day after the first and last erosive challenges, the specimens were subjected to the abrasive challenge for 15 s, using a toothbrushing machine (Biopdi, São Carlos, SP, Brazil), soft toothbrushes and slurry (1:3 g/ml) of the tested toothpastes (1.5 N). The specimens were kept in artificial saliva between the challenges. The final profile was obtained and the ETW (µm) was calculated. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests (p<0.05). RESULTS: All dentifrices tested significantly reduced the enamel wear in comparison with the Placebo, except GIII. The median (95% CI) ETW was 1.35 (1.25-1.46)bc for GI, 1.17 (1.01-1.34)cd for GII, 1.36 (1.28-1.45)ab for GIII, 1.08 (1.04-1.14)d for GIV and 2.28 (2.18-2.39)a for GV. CONCLUSION: When dentifrices from the same manufacturer were compared, the whitening dentifrices led to similar or less wear than the regular ones.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Clareadores Dentários/efeitos adversos , Erosão Dentária/induzido quimicamente , Cremes Dentais/efeitos adversos , Animais , Bovinos , Esmalte Dentário/química , Teste de Materiais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo , Clareadores Dentários/química , Escovação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Cremes Dentais/química
2.
Mar Drugs ; 17(10)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635432

RESUMO

Dextranase, a hydrolase that specifically hydrolyzes α-1,6-glucosidic bonds, has been used in the pharmaceutical, food, and biotechnology industries. In this study, the strain of Catenovulum agarivorans MNH15 was screened from marine samples. When the temperature, initial pH, NaCl concentration, and inducer concentration were 30 °C, 8.0, 5 g/L, and 8 g/L, respectively, it yielded more dextranase. The molecular weight of the dextranase was approximately 110 kDa. The maximum enzyme activity was achieved at 40 °C and a pH of 8.0. The enzyme was stable at 30 °C and a pH of 5-9. The metal ion Sr2+ enhanced its activity, whereas NH4+, Co2+, Cu2+, and Li+ had the opposite effect. The dextranase effectively inhibited the formation of biofilm by Streptococcus mutans. Moreover, sodium fluoride, xylitol, and sodium benzoate, all used in dental care products, had no significant effect on dextranase activity. In addition, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that dextran was mainly hydrolyzed to glucose, maltose, and maltoheptaose. The results indicated that dextranase has high application potential in dental products such as toothpaste and mouthwash.


Assuntos
Alteromonadaceae/metabolismo , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Dextranase/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Dextranase/química , Dextranos/química , Glucanos/química , Glucanos/farmacologia , Glucose/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Maltose/química , Peso Molecular , Antissépticos Bucais/química , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente/efeitos dos fármacos , Cremes Dentais/química
3.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 223: 117361, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306959

RESUMO

A simple and novel uracil based chemosensor (1) has been developed by one step reaction, which selectively detected F- ions via "switch on" fluorescence mode. Upon the addition of F- ion to CH3CN solution of 1, the non-fluorescent probe became highly fluorescent, showing a color change from colorless to fluorescent blue, when irradiated with 280nm light. 1H NMR studies revealed the binding sites of chemosensor 1, where C-5 hydrogen and amine hydrogens formed hydrogen bonding with F- ion. This binding mode was further confirmed using DFT calculations. Significantly, the detection limit of chemosensor 1 towards F- has been evaluated to be 47.6nM, which is lower than the maximum values of F- (1.5mg/L) ions permitted by WHO. The in-situ generated 1-F- complex has been used for secondary sensing of Ca(NO3)2, one of the component of the fertilizer. Moreover, the sensor has been successfully applied for detection of fluoride ion in commercial tooth paste.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Fluoretos/análise , Cremes Dentais/química , Ânions , Cálcio/análise , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Soluções , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
4.
J Dent ; 88: 103170, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This network meta-analysis compares different desensitizing toothpastes and placebo in terms of their effects on dentine hypersensitivity (DH) at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic electronic literature search of four databases, and a manual search, were performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on different desensitizing toothpastes for the treatment of DH. Pair-wise and network meta-analyses were performed to analyze the desensitization effect at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. The risk of bias was assessed based on the Cochrane guidelines and funnel plots. Statistical heterogeneity, inconsistencies, and ranking probability were also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 30 RCTs were included in the network meta-analysis, which included eight desensitizing toothpastes. There was no significant difference in the effect among calcium sodium phosphosilicate-containing (CSPS), potassium-containing (K) and strontium-containing (Sr) toothpastes. In addition, there was no significant difference between fluoride (F) and placebo. The desensitizing toothpaste with the highest probability of being the most effective treatment for DH was nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) at 2 and 4 weeks (60% and 67%, respectively), and Ar at 8 weeks (54%). CONCLUSIONS: No significant difference was detected in desensitizing effects among CSPS, K and Sr toothpastes. In addition, there was no significant difference between F and placebo, K and placebo. Furthermore, a significant placebo effect on DH was found in this study. Moreover, n-HA toothpastes may be the best desensitizing toothpastes for treatment of DH, followed by Ar toothpaste. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Based on the results of present network meta-analysis, n-HA containing toothpastes might be a recommended desensitizing toothpastes considering the treatment of DH. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019117710.


Assuntos
Dessensibilizantes Dentinários/uso terapêutico , Sensibilidade da Dentina/tratamento farmacológico , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia , Fluoretos , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Cremes Dentais/química , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 438, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203457

RESUMO

Microplastics have become a major environmental issue; their release from various products affects the aquatic environment. Personal care products such as toothpastes are recently being considered as a significant source of microplastics released to the aquatic environment. This study aims to assess the presence of microplastics found in toothpastes that are available in the drugstores and markets in Istanbul, Turkey. A total of 20 samples were tested. Following the extraction procedure, obtained particles were quantified and then characterized by microscopic evaluation and surface chemistry analysis. Twenty percent of the samples were found to contain microplastics in the structure of polyethylene at concentrations varying between 0.4 and 1%. In order to evaluate the release to environment, a risk assessment was conducted and yearly microplastic emission caused by toothpaste consumption was calculated based on the results.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plásticos/análise , Polietileno/análise , Cremes Dentais/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Medição de Risco , Turquia
6.
Am J Dent ; 32(2): 81-88, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094142

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect on dentin of chondroitin sulfate and L-arginine on dentin tubule occlusion. METHODS: The dentin samples were activated by submersion in an aqueous ( aq. ) solution of chondroitin sulfate ( ChS) or L-arginine prior to application of a commercial or custom-made toothpaste. After rinsing with water and ultrasonication, adhesion to dentin and occlusion of dentin tubules were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and the elemental composition of the deposits was evaluated by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. RESULTS: Rinsing a dentin sample with a solution of ChS resulted in an increase in the adherence of dentifrices containing either titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) or calcium-based nanoparticles [ hydroxyapatite ( HA\ or calcium carbonate( to the dentin surface. ChS does not appear to enhance the adherence of dentifrices lacking TiO2. Pretreatment by L-arginine improved adherence of calcium carbonate nanoparticles, but less efficiently than ChS. Addition of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite or calcium citrate to dentifrices improved their adherence to dentin without any pre-treatment. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The significant increase in adherence to the dentin surface of dentifrices of either TiO2 or calcium-supplying nanoparticles to the dentin surface following pre-treatment with ChS or L-arginine opens the door to the development of two-step dental treatments, which accomplish dentin tubule occlusion and help to deliver active dentifrice components to the dentin surface. The ability of the aqueous pastes of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite or calcium citrate to occlude dentin tubules enables the formulation of desensitizing dentifrices, which also supply the mineral and organic nutrients to the tooth surface.


Assuntos
Dentifrícios , Dessensibilizantes Dentinários , Sensibilidade da Dentina , Cremes Dentais , Arginina/farmacologia , Carbonato de Cálcio/farmacologia , Sulfatos de Condroitina/farmacologia , Dentifrícios/química , Dentifrícios/farmacologia , Dentina , Fluoretos , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Cremes Dentais/química , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia
7.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180589, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effects of remineralization promoting agents containing casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), or CPP-ACP in combination with fluoride (CPP-ACPF) on artificial white spot lesions (WSLs) after 6 and 12 weeks. METHODOLOGY: White spot lesions were created on 123 sectioned premolars (246 specimens) with a demineralization solution during a 96 hours pH-cycling regime. Two experimental groups were created: a CPP-ACP group (Tooth Mousse™), and a CPP-ACPF group (Mi Paste Plus™). Additionally, two control groups were created, one using only a conventional toothpaste (1450 ppm fluoride) and another one without any working agents. All teeth were also daily brushed with the conventional toothpaste except the second control group. Tooth Mousse™ and Mi Paste Plus™ were applied for 180 seconds every day. The volume of demineralization was measured with transverse microradiography. Six lesion characteristics regarding the lesion depth and mineral content of WSLs were also determined. RESULTS: The application of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF had a significant regenerative effect on the WSLs. Compared to Control group 1 and 2 the volume of demineralization after 6 weeks decreased significantly for CPP-ACP (respectively p<0.001 and p<0.001) and CPP-ACPF (respectively p=0.001 and p=0.003). The same trend was observed after 12 weeks. For the CPP-ACPF group, WSL dimensions decreased significantly between 6 and 12 weeks follow-up (p=0.012). The lesion depth reduced significantly after application of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF but increased significantly in the Control groups. Mineral content increased for CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF after an application period of 12 weeks, but this was only significant for CPP-ACP. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term use of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF in combination with a conventional tooth paste shows beneficial effects in the recovery of in vitro subsurface caries lesions.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/química , Caseínas/química , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoretos/química , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Análise de Variância , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Caseínas/uso terapêutico , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Cremes Dentais/química , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(5): 718-726, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089029

RESUMO

Aims: This work was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of three different commercial herbal (Aloe vera L. and Fragaria vesca L. extracts) toothpastes [LR Aloe vera (HTP1), ESI Aloe fresh (HTP2) and ROCS Teens (HTP3)] against two microorganisms that cause tooth infections. Materials and Methods: An agar disk diffusion method was used to test the antimicrobial activity of three herbal gel toothpastes in the amount of 100 µL against Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus. In the second part of the work, the volatile organic compounds of three different commercial herbal toothpastes (HTP1-3) were determined by solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (SPME/GC-MS-FID). Results: The sensitivity of the tested herbal toothpastes toward each microorganism was expressed as the mean of the clear zone within the range of 6-16 mm diameters. HTP1 and HTP2 were found to be more effective against both bacteria compared with HTP3. Oxygenated monoterpenes (99.34%, 91.44%, and 83.48%) were the most abundant groups in the SPME of HTP1-3, respectively. Menthol (25.41%, 35.82%, and 31.15%) and anethole (52.01%, 23.62%, and 38.79%) were the major compounds identified in the SPME analysis of HTP1-3, respectively. Carvone was found only in HTP3 (0.49%) in a small quantity. Conclusion: The commercial herbal toothpastes could have advantages in decreasing bacterial accumulation on teeth with protection of the oral cavity.


Assuntos
Aloe , Fragaria , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia , Anisóis/análise , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Mentol/análise , Monoterpenos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Cremes Dentais/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
10.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 181: 77-84, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125921

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to formulate toothpastes containing biosurfactants and either fungal chitosan or sodium fluoride and evaluate the cytotoxicity, antimicrobial action and inhibition potential against biofilm formed by Streptococcus mutans. Chitosan was extracted from the biomass of the fungus Mucorales. We tested biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCP 0992 (PB), Bacillus metylotrophicus UCP 1616 (BB) and Candida bombicola URM 3718 (CB). Fractional inhibitory concentration analysis was performed to determine the type of interaction between the compounds. Six toothpaste were prepared, the active ingredients of which were the biosurfactants, chitosan or sodium fluoride. The cytotoxicity tests were performed using the 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for the L929 (mouse fibroblast) and RAW 264.7 (mouse macrophage) cell lines. The toothpastes were tested with regard to pH, consistency and foaming capacity. The inhibition of biofilm was investigated by applying the toothpaste to biofilm formed in modified artificial saliva for 24 h at 37 °C in anaerobiosis. All substances had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. mutans. The combinations of CB and PB with chitosan had an additive effect against S. mutans, whereas BB combined with chitosan had an indifferent effect. The toothpastes were non-toxic. The formulations had pH around 9, spreading capacity between 8 and 17 mm and foaming capacity between 63 and 95%. All formulations inhibited the cellular viability of S. mutans in the biofilm, with similar results compared to the commercial toothpaste tested. The present results show that the formulations suggested are promising when compared to a commercial tooth paste.


Assuntos
Quitosana/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Cremes Dentais/química , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia , Animais , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/isolamento & purificação , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Tamanho da Partícula , Células RAW 264.7 , Fluoreto de Sódio/química , Fluoreto de Sódio/isolamento & purificação , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Tensoativos/química , Tensoativos/isolamento & purificação , Cremes Dentais/isolamento & purificação
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD007868, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caries (dental decay) is a disease of the hard tissues of the teeth caused by an imbalance, over time, in the interactions between cariogenic bacteria in dental plaque and fermentable carbohydrates (mainly sugars). Regular toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste is the principal non-professional intervention to prevent caries, but the caries-preventive effect varies according to different concentrations of fluoride in toothpaste, with higher concentrations associated with increased caries control. Toothpastes with higher fluoride concentration increases the risk of fluorosis (enamel defects) in developing teeth. This is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To determine and compare the effects of toothpastes of different fluoride concentrations (parts per million (ppm)) in preventing dental caries in children, adolescents, and adults. SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 15 August 2018); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 7) in the Cochrane Library (searched 15 August 2018); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 15 August 2018); and Embase Ovid (1980 to 15 August 2018). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials (15 August 2018). No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials that compared toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste with toothbrushing with a non-fluoride toothpaste or toothpaste of a different fluoride concentration, with a follow-up period of at least 1 year. The primary outcome was caries increment measured by the change from baseline in the decayed, (missing), and filled surfaces or teeth index in all permanent or primary teeth (D(M)FS/T or d(m)fs/t). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two members of the review team, independently and in duplicate, undertook the selection of studies, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. We graded the certainty of the evidence through discussion and consensus. The primary effect measure was the mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) caries increment. Where it was appropriate to pool data, we used random-effects pairwise or network meta-analysis. MAIN RESULTS: We included 96 studies published between 1955 and 2014 in this updated review. Seven studies with 11,356 randomised participants (7047 evaluated) reported the effects of fluoride toothpaste up to 1500 ppm on the primary dentition; one study with 2500 randomised participants (2008 evaluated) reported the effects of 1450 ppm fluoride toothpaste on the primary and permanent dentition; 85 studies with 48,804 randomised participants (40,066 evaluated) reported the effects of toothpaste up to 2400 ppm on the immature permanent dentition; and three studies with 2675 randomised participants (2162 evaluated) reported the effects of up to 1100 ppm fluoride toothpaste on the mature permanent dentition. Follow-up in most studies was 36 months.In the primary dentition of young children, 1500 ppm fluoride toothpaste reduces caries increment when compared with non-fluoride toothpaste (MD -1.86 dfs, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.51 to -1.21; 998 participants, one study, moderate-certainty evidence); the caries-preventive effects for the head-to-head comparison of 1055 ppm versus 550 ppm fluoride toothpaste are similar (MD -0.05, dmfs, 95% CI -0.38 to 0.28; 1958 participants, two studies, moderate-certainty evidence), but toothbrushing with 1450 ppm fluoride toothpaste slightly reduces decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft) increment when compared with 440 ppm fluoride toothpaste (MD -0.34, dmft, 95%CI -0.59 to -0.09; 2362 participants, one study, moderate-certainty evidence). The certainty of the remaining evidence for this comparison was judged to be low.We included 81 studies in the network meta-analysis of D(M)FS increment in the permanent dentition of children and adolescents. The network included 21 different comparisons of seven fluoride concentrations. The certainty of the evidence was judged to be low with the following exceptions: there was high- and moderate-certainty evidence that 1000 to 1250 ppm or 1450 to 1500 ppm fluoride toothpaste reduces caries increments when compared with non-fluoride toothpaste (SMD -0.28, 95% CI -0.32 to -0.25, 55 studies; and SMD -0.36, 95% CI -0.43 to -0.29, four studies); there was moderate-certainty evidence that 1450 to 1500 ppm fluoride toothpaste slightly reduces caries increments when compared to 1000 to 1250 ppm (SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.01, 10 studies); and moderate-certainty evidence that the caries increments are similar for 1700 to 2200 ppm and 2400 to 2800 ppm fluoride toothpaste when compared to 1450 to 1500 ppm (SMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.15, indirect evidence only; SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.14 to 0.05, two studies).In the adult permanent dentition, 1000 or 1100 ppm fluoride toothpaste reduces DMFS increment when compared with non-fluoride toothpaste in adults of all ages (MD -0.53, 95% CI -1.02 to -0.04; 2162 participants, three studies, moderate-certainty evidence). The evidence for DMFT was low certainty.Only a minority of studies assessed adverse effects of toothpaste. When reported, effects such as soft tissue damage and tooth staining were minimal. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This Cochrane Review supports the benefits of using fluoride toothpaste in preventing caries when compared to non-fluoride toothpaste. Evidence for the effects of different fluoride concentrations is more limited, but a dose-response effect was observed for D(M)FS in children and adolescents. For many comparisons of different concentrations the caries-preventive effects and our confidence in these effect estimates are uncertain and could be challenged by further research. The choice of fluoride toothpaste concentration for young children should be balanced against the risk of fluorosis.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Cariostáticos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Índice CPO , Dentição Permanente , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Dente Decíduo , Cremes Dentais/química
12.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180051, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673027

RESUMO

The efficacy of whitening toothpastes is questionable and controversial. Clinicians, patients and researchers have expressed concern with whitening toothpastes due to the risk of wearing the dental structure and the potential for disappointment if the advertised cosmetic results are not achieved. OBJECTIVE: This study compared the whitening performance of toothpastes with different whitening technologies after initial and continued use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety bovine incisors were stained using a concentrated solution of black tea. They were randomly distributed into 6 groups, according to the toothpaste whitening technology: activated charcoal (B&W), blue covarine (WAD), hydrogen peroxide (LWA), microbeads (Oral B 3D White Perfection - 3DW) and optimized abrasives (XW4D). They were compared to a traditional toothpaste without a whitening agent (TA - control). Specimens underwent a brushing machine with controlled pressure, time and temperature. A calibrated examiner measured the color using a VITA-Classical scale before the first brushing cycle (T0), after the first brushing cycle (TI), and after a brushing cycle that simulates continuous use (TCU). Whitening performance was evaluated by the difference of shades (ΔSGU) between T0-TI and T0-TCU timepoints, using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's non-parametric test. The Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the cumulative effect (α=0.05). RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were observed between toothpastes in both TI and TCU (p<0.05). The time of use also had a significant effect (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Only WAD and 3DW showed whitening performance after the first use (TI). The greatest whitening performance after continuous use was obtained by WAD, followed by LWA and 3DW. The use of conventional toothpaste (TA) promotes no tooth whitening. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Microbead abrasives (3DW) and blue covarine (WAD) were the active technology tested that presented the best global tooth whitening performance.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Isoindóis/química , Metaloporfirinas/química , Microesferas , Clareadores Dentários/química , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Cremes Dentais/química , Animais , Bovinos , Distribuição Aleatória , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo , Dente/efeitos dos fármacos , Escovação Dentária/métodos
13.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 17, 2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental caries is a recognized worldwide public health problem. Despite being one of the most effective strategies against dental caries, the excessive use of fluorine may result in a potential risk of developing dental fluorosis especially in children under age of six. The purpose of this work is to analyze a fluorine-free toothpaste containing Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite to assess enamel re-mineralizing and repairing properties. RESULTS: The study was performed in vitro and in vivo, comparing the hydroxyapatite toothpaste with two others toothpaste containing different fluorine concentrations. The coating effect of the micro-structured Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles reintegrates the enamel with a biomimetic film reproducing the structure and the morphology of the biologic Hydroxyapatite of the enamel. As demonstrated, the coating is due to the deposit of a new layer of apatite, which presents fewer particles than the natural enamel, not based on the chemical-physical changes occurring in fluorinated toothpastes. Moreover, it shows resistance to brushing as a consequence of chemical bonds between the synthetic and natural crystals of the enamel. CONCLUSIONS: The use of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite toothpastes has proven to be a valuable prevention measure against dental caries in primary dentition since it prevents the risk of fluorosis.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Durapatita/farmacologia , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Criança , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Durapatita/química , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Humanos , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente Decíduo , Cremes Dentais/química , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia
14.
Eur J Orthod ; 41(1): 59-66, 2019 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722800

RESUMO

Background: Caries is an undesirable side-effect of treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how orthodontic treatment and different fluoride regimens affect caries risk and individual risk factors. Objective: To evaluate the effects of orthodontic treatment and different fluoride regimens on caries risk and caries risk factors, including cariogenic bacteria. Trial design: Three-armed, parallel group, randomized, controlled trial. Methods: Patients referred to the Specialist Clinic of Orthodontics, Mölndal Hospital, Sweden, were distributed randomly into the following groups: group I (Control group), 1450 ppm fluoride (F) toothpaste; group II, 1450 ppm F toothpaste plus 0.2 per cent sodium fluoride (NaF) mouth rinse; and group III, 5000 ppm F toothpaste. The inclusion criteria were: age 12-20 years; and bimaxillary treatment with fixed appliances. The primary outcome variables were: caries risk; and the numbers of cariogenic bacteria. Radiographs were taken before treatment to determine the caries status. Data were collected before treatment and after 1 year with a fixed appliance. The variables were compiled into a Cariogram to assess the caries risk. Comparisons were made over time within and between the groups. The generation of randomization sequence was performed in blocks of 30. Blinding was employed during the data analysis and the caries registration. Recruitment: The clinical study duration was from October 2010 to December 2012. Results: Overall, 270 patients were randomized, of which 15 were excluded from the study. Therefore, 255 patients were included in the analyses. The caries risk increased significantly during orthodontic treatment in group I (P < 0.0001), whereas groups II and III had unchanged caries risks. All the groups showed statistically significant increases in the numbers of cariogenic bacteria. Harms: No harms were reported during the trial. Conclusions: To avoid an increased risk of caries during orthodontic treatment, everyday use of high-fluoride toothpaste (5000 ppm F) or mouth rinse (0.2% NaF) in combination with ordinary toothpaste is recommended. Registration: The trial was not registered.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cariostáticos/administração & dosagem , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Fixos/efeitos adversos , Cremes Dentais/química , Adolescente , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Assistência Odontológica/métodos , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais/química , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Método Simples-Cego , Fluoreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(1): 327-335, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29658069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate discoloration reduction and changes of surface properties of a CAD/CAM resin composite after 14 days´ storage in red wine and polishing with nine different prophylactic polishing pastes (PPPs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectangular discs (N = 172) were fabricated and polished (P4000) using GC Cerasmart (GC Europe) to investigate different polishing protocols with 1-4 related descending PPPs (22 in total): Cleanic/CLE-Kerr, CleanJoy/CLJ-Voco, Clean Polish/Super Polish/SPO-Kerr, Clinpro Prophy Paste/CPP-3M, Détartrine/DET-Septodont, Nupro/NUP-Dentsply Sirona, Prophy Paste CCS/CCS-Directa, Proxyt/PXT-Ivoclar Vivadent, and Zircate/ZIR Prophy Paste-Dentsply Sirona. Surface properties (roughness values (RV)/Ra, Rz, Rv, surface free energy (SFE), surface gloss (G), and discoloration (ΔE)) were analyzed before and after storage and additional polishing. Data were examined using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, three-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-B post hoc, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis H tests (α < 0.05). RESULTS: Regarding RV, CLE, followed by CCS, and CPP showed the highest values; the lowest presented SPO and DET (p < 0.001). No impact of PPP was observed on ΔE values (p = 0.160). The lowest SFE presented DET, followed by SPO; highest showed CCS followed by NUP and CPP (p < 0.001). Within G, lowest values were observed for CLE and NUP, followed by CCS, ZIP, and CLJ (p < 0.001); the highest presented SPO (p < 0.001). Polishing showed generally a positive impact on SFE values (p < 0.001-p = 0.007), except ZIP (p = 0.322) and CLE (p = 0.083). G increased and RV decreased after polishing (p < 0.001), except SPO, with no significant change for G (p = 0.786). CONCLUSIONS: Polishing with PPPs improves the surface properties and is generally recommended. The choice of PPP has a minor role in removing discolorations. Multi-step systems should be carried out conscientiously. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The proper selection of PPP is essential for the clinical outcome of surface properties of prosthetic restorations. Not every polishing paste leads to the same final surface quality.


Assuntos
Resinas Compostas/química , Polimento Dentário/métodos , Profilaxia Dentária/métodos , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Cremes Dentais/química , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície , Descoloração de Dente/prevenção & controle , Vinho
16.
Perspect Public Health ; 139(4): 186-194, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015577

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to quantify and assess the concentrations of fluoride in commonly used oral care products, fruit juices, bottled waters, soft drinks, favoured bottled milk and milkshakes and to determine the pH of carbonated sweet drinks and drinks marketed in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Various commercial brands of dentifrices, toothpowders, mouthwashes, bottled waters, sweet carbonated drinks and fruit juices were collected randomly from different outlets in Mangalore city, Karnataka, India. A fluoride ion-selective electrode was employed to estimate the fluoride concentrations. A standardised pH meter was used to detect pH in the drinks. RESULTS: The fluoride level in toothpastes ranged between 96 and 1397 mg/l, whereas in toothpowder the fluoride content ranged from 35 to 1380 mg/l and mouthwash fluoride concentrations varied from 6 to 228 mg/l. The fluoride level in bottled waters ranged between 0.10 and 0.12 mg/l, and that in fruit juices between 0.09 and 0.21 mg/l. Most of the carbonated sweet drinks and fruit juices had highly acidic pH values which ranged between 2.62 and 4.26. CONCLUSION: Of the wide variety of dentifrices and toothpowders available in India, most brands do not indicate the fluoride levels on their packaging or inserts. Similarly, the unregulated acidic pH values of carbonated sweet drinks are not only potentially contributing to non-carious tooth loss (enamel erosion and dentine erosion), but are also a contributing factor to the weight gain observed in Indian adolescents.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Fluoretos/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Águas Minerais/análise , Antissépticos Bucais/química , Cremes Dentais/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Índia , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Saúde Pública
17.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 68(1): 26-29, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30119098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The only available treatment for celiac disease (CD) is the gluten-free diet. It is unclear whether the presence of gluten in oral hygiene products and cosmetics that are applied on the mouth is a reason of concern for CD patients. The aim of this study was to test the level of gluten contamination in oral hygiene and cosmetic products available in the Italian market. METHODS: A total of 66 products (toothpastes = 37; dental tablets = 2; mouthwashes = 5; lip-balms = 10; lipsticks = 12) labelled gluten-free or with unknown gluten content were randomly collected from different supermarkets and pharmacies. The gluten quantification was determined by the R5 ELISA method approved by EU regulations. RESULTS: Out of 66 oral hygiene and cosmetics, 62 products (94%) were found to be gluten-free (gluten level <20 ppm), while 4 (6%) (toothpastes = 3; lipsticks = 1) showed a gluten level >20 ppm (toothpastes: 20.7, 31.4, and 35 ppm; lipstick: 27.4 ppm). None of the selected products had ingredient derived from wheat, barley, or rye. CONCLUSIONS: Gluten contamination is currently not an issue in a wide array of cosmetic and oral hygiene products that are commonly in the market.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Cosméticos/química , Contaminação de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Glutens/análise , Cremes Dentais/química , Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta Livre de Glúten/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Itália , Higiene Bucal
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 375, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease (PD) is caused by the development of a microbial biofilm (dental plaque) in the periodontium, affecting approximately 80% of dogs. Several bacterial species present in the canine oral cavity can be implicated in the development of this disease, including Enterococcus spp. To decrease antibiotic administration, a possible control strategy for dog's enterococcal PD may involve the use of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) nisin. Nisin's inhibitory activity was evaluated against a collection of previously characterized enterococci obtained from the oral cavity of dogs with PD (n = 20), as well as the potential of a guar-gum gel and a veterinary toothpaste as topical delivery systems for this AMP. The Minimum Inhibitory (MIC) and Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) and the Minimum Biofilm Eradication (MBEC) and Inhibitory Concentrations (MBIC) were determined for nisin and for the supplemented guar-gum gel. For the supplemented veterinary toothpaste an agar-well diffusion assay was used to evaluate its inhibitory potential. RESULTS: Nisin was effective against all isolates. Independently of being or not incorporated in the guar-gum gel, its inhibitory activity on biofilms was higher, with MBIC (12.46 ± 5.16 and 13.60 ± 4.31 µg/mL, respectively) and MBEC values (21.87 ± 11.33 and 42.34 ± 16.61 µg/mL) being lower than MIC (24.61 ± 4.64 and 14.90 ± 4.10 µg/mL) and MBC (63.09 ± 13.22 and 66.63 ± 19.55 µg/mL) values. The supplemented toothpaste was also effective, showing inhibitory activity against 95% of the isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibitory ability of nisin when incorporated in the two delivery systems was maintained or increased, demonstrating the potential of these supplemented vehicles to be applied to PD control in dogs.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Dentária/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Nisina/administração & dosagem , Nisina/farmacologia , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Galactanos/farmacologia , Galactanos/uso terapêutico , Mananas/farmacologia , Mananas/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Gomas Vegetais/farmacologia , Gomas Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Cremes Dentais/química , Cremes Dentais/normas
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486374

RESUMO

Clinical research on herbal-based dentifrice +/- mouth rinse products is very limited compared with the plethora of research on conventional oral care products under normal oral hygiene conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of a novel plant Carica papaya leaf extract (CPLE) on interdental bleeding in healthy subjects. In this randomized, single-blind parallel-design study, the eligible subjects were generally healthy non-smokers, aged 18⁻26, who exhibited healthy periodontal conditions upon study entry. The participants were equally randomized into the following four groups: CPLE dentifrice, CPLE dentifrice and mouthwash, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-free enzyme-containing dentifrice and SLS-free enzyme-containing dentifrice with essential oil (EO) mouthwash. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice a day without changing their other brushing habits. Interdental bleeding (BOIP) was measured from inclusion (T0) until the fourth week (T4) of the study. Clinical efficacy was assessed after one, two, three and four weeks of home use. The analyses compared BOIP between groups and were then restricted to participants with ≥70% and then ≥80% bleeding sites at T0. Pairwise comparisons between groups were performed at T0 and T4, and a logistic regression identified correlates of gingival bleeding (T4). Among 100 subjects (2273 interdental sites), the median percentage of bleeding sites per participant at T0 was 65%. The bleeding sites dramatically decreased in all groups between T0 and T4 (relative variations from -54% to -75%, p < 0.01 for all). Gingival bleeding did not significantly differ between the CPLE dentifrice and the SLS-free dentifrice +/- EO mouthwash groups (from p = 0.05 to p = 0.86), regardless of the baseline risk level. Among the CPLE dentifrice users, fewer bleeding sites were observed when toothpaste and mouthwash were combined compared to bleeding sites in those who used toothpaste alone (21% vs. 32%, p = 0.04). CPLE dentifrice/mouthwash provides an efficacious and natural alternative to SLS-free dentifrice +/-EO-containing mouthwash when used as an adjunct to mechanical oral care to reduce interdental gingival inflammation.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Gengival/prevenção & controle , Antissépticos Bucais/química , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Cremes Dentais/química , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Carica/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA