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1.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(2): 28, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002680

RESUMO

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, los1 encodes a nuclear tRNA exporter. Despite the non-essentiality, the deletion of los1 has been shown to extend replicative life span in yeast. Here, we characterized AfuXpot, the los1 homologue in human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus and found that it is continuously expressed during fungal growth. Microscopic examination of an AfuXpot-GFP-expressing transformant confirmed the nuclear localization of the fusion protein. The targeted gene deletion affirmed the non-essential role of AfuXpot in hyphal growth and sporulation. However, the growth of the deletion mutant was affected by amino acid, but not glucose, deprivation. The susceptibility of the deletant strain to protein and DNA/RNA synthesis inhibitors was also altered. Using bioinformatics tools, some transcription factor binding sites were predicted in AfuXpot promoter. Expression analyses of potential AfuXpot-interacting genes showed a marked down-regulation of sfp1 and mtr10 homologues in ΔAfuXpot strain. Our data demonstrates some conserved aspects of AfuXpot as a tRNA exporter in A. fumigatus.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aspergillus fumigatus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/metabolismo , RNA Fúngico/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/deficiência , Aspergillus fumigatus/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Deleção de Genes , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , RNA de Transferência/genética , RNA de Transferência/isolamento & purificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1225: 127-135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030652

RESUMO

Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) constitute the human γ-herpesviruses and two of the seven human tumor viruses. In addition to their viral oncogenes that primarily belong to the latent infection programs of these viruses, they encode proteins that condition the microenvironment. Many of these are early lytic gene products and are only expressed in a subset of infected cells of the tumor mass. In this chapter I will describe their function and the evidence that targeting them in addition to the latent oncogenes could be beneficial for the treatment of EBV- and KSHV-associated malignancies.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 4/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herpesvirus Humano 4/patogenicidade , Herpesvirus Humano 8/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herpesvirus Humano 8/patogenicidade , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/virologia , Oncogenes , Microambiente Tumoral , Replicação Viral , Herpesvirus Humano 4/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 8/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 8/genética , Humanos , Oncogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Int Heart J ; 61(1): 15-20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009122

RESUMO

Body weight gain in middle age is thought to be mainly attributable to body fat gain. However, the association between the change in body weight and change in fat weight is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to clarify the association between the changes in body weight and fat weight in a middle-aged general population using a community-based cohort. We studied 3,193 subjects who underwent health check-ups. Fat weight was measured using a TANITA DC-270A body composition analyzer (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo). Good correlation was observed between the changes in body weight and fat weight (Pearson r = 0.88, P < 0.001). Among the study subjects, 408 (13%) were categorized in the weight loss group (weight loss ≥ 5%), 2,442 (76%) in the weight stable group, and 343 (11%) in the weight gain group (weight gain ≥ 5%). The percentage of change in fat weight in relation to the change in body weight was 65% on average in subjects with body weight loss, and 70% on average in those with body weight gain. Good correlation between changes in body weight and fat weight was observed regardless of age, gender, and baseline body mass index. A change in body weight was closely correlated with a change in fat weight among the middle-aged general population. Body weight change in the middle-age population appears to be mainly attributable to the change in fat weight.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia
4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(3): 038003, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031851

RESUMO

Lotus leaves floating on water usually experience short-wavelength edge wrinkling that decays toward the center, while the leaves growing above water normally morph into a global bending cone shape with long rippled waves near the edge. Observations suggest that the underlying water (liquid substrate) significantly affects the morphogenesis of leaves. To understand the biophysical mechanism under such phenomena, we develop mathematical models that can effectively account for inhomogeneous differential growth of floating and freestanding leaves to quantitatively predict formation and evolution of their morphology. We find, both theoretically and experimentally, that the short-wavelength buckled configuration is energetically favorable for growing membranes lying on liquid, while the global buckling shape is more preferable for suspended ones. Other influencing factors such as the stem or vein, heterogeneity, and dimension are also investigated. Our results provide a fundamental insight into a variety of plant morphogenesis affected by water foundation and suggest that such surface instabilities can be harnessed for morphology control of biomimetic deployable structures using substrate or edge actuation.


Assuntos
Lotus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Água/química , Fenômenos Biofísicos , Lotus/anatomia & histologia , Morfogênese , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 703-711, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904950

RESUMO

In crop plants, the yield loss caused by drought exceeds the losses resulting from other adverse environment stresses. In numerous plant species, seedling establishment is positively correlated with the initial seed size under drought stress conditions. In intra- and interspecies, plants with large seeds can withstand water deficiency stresses, whereas those with small seeds are efficient colonizers as a result of their ability to produce more seeds. Therefore, larger initial seeds confer more drought resistance on germinating seedlings. Although this phenomenon has been observed by evolutionary biologists and ecologists, the correlation of initial seed size with the drought resistance of seedlings/plants is not well-reviewed and characterized. Furthermore, the related molecular mechanisms are unknown. Understanding these mechanisms will benefit future breeding or design strategies to increase crop yields. In the present review, we focus on recent research to analyze the genetic factors of plants/crops involved in the regulation of seed size and drought tolerance and their corresponding signal transduction pathways. Several signaling pathways that determine plant drought tolerance through influencing the initial seed size are identified. Such pathways include those that are involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase, abscisic acid, brassinosteroids, and several transcription factors and sugar signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/química , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo
6.
Microbes Environ ; 35(1)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932537

RESUMO

Vigna is a genus of legumes cultivated in specific areas of tropical countries. Species in this genus are important crops worldwide. Vigna species are of great agronomic interest in Venezuela because Vigna beans are an excellent alternative to other legumes. However, this type of crop has some cultivation issues due to sensitivity to acidic soils, high temperatures, and salinity stress, which are common in Venezuela. Vigna species establish symbioses mainly with Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer, and Vigna-rhizobia interactions have been examined in Asia, Africa, and America. However, the identities of the rhizobia associated with V. radiata and V. unguiculata in Venezuela remain unknown. In the present study, we isolated Venezuelan symbiotic rhizobia associated with Vigna species from soils with contrasting agroecosystems or from fields in Venezuela. Several types of soils were used for bacterial isolation and nodules were sampled from environments characterized by abiotic stressors, such as high temperatures, high concentrations of NaCl, and acidic or alkaline pH. Venezuelan Vigna-rhizobia were mainly fast-growing. Sequencing of several housekeeping genes showed that in contrast to other continents, Venezuelan Vigna species were nodulated by rhizobia genus including Burkholderia, containing bacteria from several new phylogenetic lineages within the genus Bradyrhizobium. Some Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium isolates were tolerant of high salinity and Al toxicity. The stress tolerance of strains was dependent on the type of rhizobia, soil origin, and cultivation history. An isolate classified as R. phaseoli showed the highest plant biomass, nitrogen fixation, and excellent abiotic stress response, suggesting a novel promising inoculant for Vigna cultivation in Venezuela.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Proteobactérias/classificação , Proteobactérias/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Simbiose , Vigna/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Fixação de Nitrogênio/genética , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solo/química , Estresse Fisiológico , Venezuela , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 612-622, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903750

RESUMO

Corn (Zea mays L.) growth and development is often limited by the availability of phosphate. We thus hypothesized that phosphate fertilization may increase the contents of (poly)phenols, carotenoids, and tocochromanols (vitamin E) in corn grains. Corn plants cultivated on a soil fertilized with 44 kg phosphorus/ha were compared to plants grown on soil with low plant-available phosphate (1.6 mg CAL-P/100 g of soil), each sown early (April) and late (May) in a randomized field experiment. HPLC-DAD-(HR)-ESI-MSn revealed 19 soluble and 10 insoluble (poly)phenols, comprising phenolic acids, phenolic amines, diferulic, and triferulic acids in corn grains. Contents of individual (poly)phenols, carotenoids, and tocochromanols in whole grains were significantly (p < 0.05) increased by sowing time, but not by phosphate fertilization. In conclusion, low phosphate availability did not impair the biosynthesis of (poly)phenols, carotenoids, and tocochromanols in corn grains.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Sementes/química , Vitamina E/análise , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 523-529, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908169

RESUMO

The present work sought to contribute to the development of new nematicides. Benzaldehydes were initially converted to nitrile oxides that underwent 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions with methyl acrylate to generate 4,5-dihydroisoxazoles. In in vitro tests, methyl 3-phenyl-4,5-dihydroisoxazole-5-carboxylate (1) and methyl 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydroisoxazole-5-carboxylate (4) increased the mortality of Meloidogyne exigua and Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2). Compounds 1 and 4 presented necessary concentrations of 398 and 501 µg mL-1, respectively, to kill 50% of M. incognita J2 (LC50 values), while the value for carbofuran (positive control) was 168 µg mL-1. In in vivo tests, compounds 1 and 4 reduced the number of M. incognita galls in tomato roots by 70 and 40%, respectively, and the number of eggs by 89 and 44%. Using an in silico approach, we showed that compounds 1 and 4 were toxic to the nematodes by binding to the allosteric binding sites of the agonist-binding domains of the nematode nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These results opened up possibilities for further investigations aimed at developing novel commercial nematicides.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/toxicidade , Isoxazóis/toxicidade , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antinematódeos/química , Simulação por Computador , Proteínas de Helminto/química , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Isoxazóis/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/química , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Tylenchoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tylenchoidea/metabolismo
9.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(1): 82-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948530

RESUMO

There are various types of bioactive substances in human breast milk, such as active proteins, growth factors, cytokines, oligosaccharides, probiotics and cells. Many studies have shown that these bioactive substances in breast milk have important protective effects on infant growth and development, including anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects and the promotion of infant growth and development and immunologic maturation. They can also reduce the incidence rate of infectious diseases in infants, improve neural development in preterm infants, and reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes in future. However, there is still no clinical evidence for the effects of several active substances in breast milk, and their immunoregulatory mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, further studies are needed for clarification.


Assuntos
Leite Humano , Probióticos , Bactérias , Feminino , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro
10.
J Insect Sci ; 20(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925425

RESUMO

Diaphania caesalis (Walker) is an important boring insect mainly distributed in subtropical and tropical areas and attacked tropical woody grain crops, such as starchy plants of Artocarpus. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a powerful approach for investigating target genes expression profiles at the transcriptional level. However, the identification and selection of internal reference genes, which is often overlooked, is the most vital step before the analysis of target gene expression by qRT-PCR. So far, the reliable internal reference genes under a certain condition of D. caesalis have not been investigated. Therefore, this study evaluated the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes including ACT, ß-TUB, GAPDH, G6PDH, RPS3a, RPL13a, EF1α, and EIF4A in different developmental stages, tissues and sexes using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. To verify the stability of the recommended internal reference genes, the expression levels of DcaeOBP5 were analyzed under different treatment conditions. The results indicated that ACT, RPL13a, ß-TUB, RPS3a, and EF1α were identified as the most stable reference genes for further studies on target gene expression involving different developmental stages of D. caesalis. And ACT and EIF4A were recommended as stable reference genes for different tissues. Furthermore, ACT, EF1α, and RPS3a were ranked as the best reference genes in different sexes based on three algorithms. Our research represents the critical first step to normalize qRT-PCR data and ensure the accuracy of expression of target genes involved in phylogenetic and physiological mechanism at the transcriptional level in D. caesalia.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Genes de Insetos , Mariposas/genética , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/genética , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
11.
J Insect Sci ; 20(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927595

RESUMO

Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a notorious insect pest that attacks diverse vegetables and fruits worldwide. The sterile insect technique has been developed as an environmentally friendly and effective control method that depends on the mass production of target flies. Because dietary yeast (protein) and sucrose (carbohydrate) are important in adult diets, yeast:sucrose (Y:S) mixtures are crucial for the mass-rearing of B. dorsalis. In this study, we found adult diets with different ratios of yeast to sucrose-influenced fecundity, and an extremely high or low Y:S ratios significantly decreased egg production of B. dorsalis. Additionally, the maximum oviposition efficiency was realized at dietary yeast to sucrose ratios of 1:1 and 1:3, suggesting their potential use to produce more eggs for the mass production of B. dorsalis. Here, new gel diets having different yeast concentrations (g/L water) were also assessed for rearing B. dorsalis larvae. Gel diets containing 20 g/L yeast led to a higher pupation, pupal weight and adult eclosion rate, and a shorter developmental time than other yeast concentrations. Moreover, the present gel diet also resulted in greater pupal production and adult emergence rates than previously used liquid and solid artificial diets, revealing that it is suitable for rearing B. dorsalis larvae. This research provides a useful reference on artificial diets mixtures for mass rearing B. dorsalis, which is critical for employing the sterile insect technique.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Oviposição , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Tephritidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fermento Seco/administração & dosagem
12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(2): 24, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965331

RESUMO

The study evaluated the antibacterial activity of chlorogenic acid (CA) against Salmonella Enteritidis S1, a foodborne pathogen in chilled fresh chicken. Its minimum inhibitory concentration for S. Enteritidis S1 was 2 mM. 1 MIC CA treatment reduced the viable count of S. Enteritidis S1 by 3 log cfu/g in chilled fresh chicken. Scanning electron microscopy examination indicated that CA induced the cell envelope damage of S. Enteritidis S1. Following this, 1-N-Phenylnaphthylamine assay and LPS content analysis indicated that CA induced the permeability of outer membrane (OM). Confocal laser scanning microscopy examination further demonstrated that CA acted on the inner membrane (IM). To support this, the release of intracellular protein and ATP after CA treatment was also observed. CA also suppressed the activities of malate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase, two main metabolic enzymes in TCA cycle and electron transport chain. Thus, damage of intracelluar and outer membranes as well as disruption of cell metabolism resulted in cell death eventually. The finding suggested that CA has the potential to be developed as a preservative to control S. Enteritidis associated foodborne diseases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Malato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Salmonella enteritidis/enzimologia , Salmonella enteritidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Succinato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores
13.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(2): 23, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965334

RESUMO

Arsenic naturally occurs in the earth's crust and can be introduced in the environment by human activities. Agricultural practices in arsenic-contaminated environments pose a threat to human health. The contamination of crops contributes to the metalloid's introduction in the food chain. This study aims to test the hypotheses that the inoculation of a hyperaccumulator rhizobacterial strain, Ochrobactrum tritici As5, to the rhizosphere of rice plants reduces the arsenic presence inside the tissue of the rice plants and reduces the inhibitory effect of the metalloid on the plant's growth parameters. Inoculation of the hyperaccumulating strain O. tritici As5 showed the lowest concentration of arsenic in the plant's tissue (2.6 fold lower than sterile plants), compared to the unmodified type O. tritici SCII24 and sterile rice plants. The inoculation of the type strain SCII24 also led to a decrease in arsenic concentration in the plant tissue compared with sterile plants (1.6 fold lower than sterile plants). The difference in arsenic presence in shoots was smaller among treatment groups than in the roots, showing a similar trend. The inoculation of the hyperaccumulator As5 strain alleviated some of the toxic effects of arsenic on shoot growth compared to inoculation of the unmodified type strain. All these findings together, contribute to our understanding of the interplay between arsenic pollution, plants and their rhizobacteria, especially the role of bioaccumulation of metal(oids) by rhizobacteria, and provide important information on the prevention of arsenic uptake by crops and the development of phytostabilizers.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Ochrobactrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/microbiologia , Arsênico/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Ochrobactrum/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(1): e1919940, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995213

RESUMO

Importance: Prenatal maternal stress is increasingly associated with adverse outcomes in pregnant women and their offspring. However, the association between maternal stress and human fetal brain growth and metabolism is unknown. Objective: To identify the association between prenatal maternal psychological distress and fetal brain growth, cortical maturation, and biochemical development using advanced 3-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study prospectively recruited pregnant women from low-risk obstetric clinics in Washington, DC, from January 1, 2016, to April 17, 2019. Participants were healthy volunteers with a normal prenatal medical history, no chronic or pregnancy-induced physical or mental illnesses, and normal results on fetal ultrasonography and biometry studies. Fetal brain MRI studies were performed at 2 time points between 24 and 40 weeks' gestation. Exposures: Prenatal maternal stress, anxiety, and depression. Main Outcomes and Measures: Volumes of fetal total brain, cortical gray matter, white matter, deep gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, and hippocampus were measured from 3-dimensional reconstructed T2-weighted MRI scans. Cortical folding measurements included local gyrification index, sulcal depth, and curvedness. Fetal brain N-acetylaspartate, creatine, and choline levels were quantified using 1H-MRS. Maternal stress, depression, and anxiety were measured with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (SSAI), and Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results: A total of 193 MRI studies were performed in 119 pregnant women (67 [56%] carrying male fetuses and 52 [44%], female fetuses; maternal mean [SD] age, 34.46 [5.95] years) between 24 and 40 gestational weeks. All women were high school graduates, 99 (83%) were college graduates, and 100 (84%) reported professional employment. Thirty-two women (27%) had positive scores for stress, 31 (26%) for anxiety, and 13 (11%) for depression. Maternal trait anxiety was associated with smaller fetal left hippocampal volume (STAI score: -0.002 cm3; 95% CI, -0.003 to -0.0008 cm3; P = .004). Maternal anxiety and stress were associated with increased fetal cortical gyrification in the frontal lobe (ß for SSAI score: 0.004 [95% CI, 0.001-0.006; P = .002]; ß for STAI score: 0.004 [95% CI, 0.002-0.006; P < .001]; ß for PSS score: 0.005 [95% CI, 0.001-0.008; P = .005]) and temporal lobe (ß for SSAI score: 0.004 [95% CI, 0.001-0.007; P = .004]; ß for STAI score: 0.004 [95% CI, 0.0008-0.006; P = .01]). Elevated maternal depression was associated with decreased creatine (EPDS score: -0.04; 95% CI, -0.06 to -0.02; P = .005) and choline (EPDS score: -0.03; 95% CI, -0.05 to -0.01; P = .02) levels in the fetal brain. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that the prevalence of maternal psychological distress in healthy, well-educated, and employed pregnant women was high, underappreciated, and associated with impaired fetal brain biochemistry and hippocampal growth as well as accelerated cortical folding. These findings appear to support the need for routine mental health surveillance for all pregnant women and targeted interventions in women with elevated psychological distress.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico por imagem , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(1): 16, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897642

RESUMO

Earthworms are used as an alternative protein source in aquaculture. These organisms serve as an ideal and favorable site for bacterial growth and activity. Hence, in our present study, we isolated and screened potential probiotic bacteria from African nightcrawler (Eudrilus eugeniae). Among 45 bacterial isolates, four (ANSCI9, BFAR9, RM3, and RM10) were selected based on their hydrophobicity, hydrolytic enzyme production, pH and fish bile tolerance, aggregation, and antimicrobial properties. The selected isolates showed good hydrophobicity (≥ 30%) and enzyme production (≥ 10 mm clearing zones), tolerance to pH and fish bile, and inhibitory properties against pathogenic microorganisms. The isolates were identified as Bacillus sp. RM3 (MH919306), Bacillus sp. RM10 (MH919308), Bacillus sp. ANSCI9 (MH919310) and Bacillus sp. BFAR9 (MH919302). These isolates were individually incorporated in the diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings for 14 days to assess their biosafety. The results showed that the survival rates in all treated groups (98.75 ± 2.5 to 100.00 ± 0.0%) were not significantly different (P < 0.05) from the control group (commercial diet) (96.25 ± 2.5%), suggesting that isolates have no adverse effect on the host. This study revealed the presence of potential probiotic microorganisms in E. eugeniae that are beneficial to the aquaculture industry.


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oligoquetos/microbiologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bile/microbiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Filogenia , Probióticos/farmacologia
16.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(1): 12, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897767

RESUMO

Superoxide dismutases (SODs) have been shown to exhibit high levels of conservation and exist in almost all aerobic organisms and even many strict anaerobes. There are four SODs in Bacillus cereus 0-9, and this coexistence of multiple homologous enzymes is of great significance in the evolution of bacteria. We hypothesized that the four sod genes in B. cereus 0-9 constituted non-redundant protection against oxidative damage in vivo and played unique roles in the pathogenicity of B. cereus 0-9 during different phases or growth environments. To test this hypothesis, we constructed four single-knockout mutants (∆sodA1, ∆sodA2, ∆sodS, and ∆sodC) and a mutant lacking all four sod genes (∆sod-4) of B. cereus 0-9 and assessed their various phenotypes. Our results indicated that sodA1 plays a major role in tolerance to intracellular oxidative stress and spore formation. The ∆sodA1 and ∆sod-4 mutants were very sensitive to oxidants. The spore formation of the ∆sodA1 mutant was dramatically delayed, and the ∆sod-4 mutant did not form any spores under our experimental conditions. The sodA2 gene may play an important role in negative regulation of swarming motility, pathogenicity, and phospholipase and haemolytic activity of B. cereus but also a role in positive regulation of biofilm formation under our experimental conditions. The other two genes, sodS and sodC, were key to the pathogenicity of B. cereus. The lethal rates of Helicoverpa armigera infected by the ∆sodS and ∆sodC mutants were only 26.67%, while wild-type B. cereus 0-9 caused lethality in up to 86.67% of the insects at 24 h after injection. Moreover, the ∆sod-4 mutant caused a reduced death rate of H. armigera of 46.70%, which was slightly higher than that caused by the ∆sodS and ∆sodC strains. Thus, these four sod genes were non-redundant for oxidative stress and may play different additional roles in B. cereus 0-9. These results can help us to further understand the biocontrol characteristics of B. cereus 0-9 and lay a theoretical foundation for further research.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lepidópteros/microbiologia , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Animais , Bacillus cereus/enzimologia , Bacillus cereus/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Família Multigênica , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenótipo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
17.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(1): 14, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897771

RESUMO

Glycogen is conventionally considered as a transient energy reserve that can be rapidly synthesized for glucose accumulation and mobilized for ATP production. However, this conception is not completely applicable to prokaryotes due to glycogen structural heterogeneity. A number of studies noticed that glycogen with small average chain length gc in bacteria has the potential to degrade slowly, which might prolong bacterial environment survival. This phenomenon was previously examined and later formulated as the durable energy storage mechanism hypothesis. Although recent research has been warming to the hypothesis, experimental validation is still missing at current stage. In this review, we summarized recent progress of the hypothesis, provided a supporting mathematical model, and explored the technical pitfalls that shall be avoided in glycogen study.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicogênio/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Sequência de Carboidratos , Metabolismo Energético , Viabilidade Microbiana , Modelos Teóricos
18.
Forensic Sci Int ; 307: 110111, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901460

RESUMO

Cranial suture closure has been recognized for over a century as a useful trait for age estimation. Although this indicator has become a standard feature of age assessment protocols in skeletal remains, serious questions have been raised about its reliability. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive review of cranial suture closure as an age indicator from several perspectives, including its anatomy and history, as well as issues relating to validation, statistics, and the potential of technological advancements to improve outcomes. We further suggest a path forward for the use of cranial suture closure as an estimator of age. Although its unreliability has been widely reported, cranial suture closure still appears to have value as an aging method, and it is hoped that the information contained in this article can serve as a stepping stone toward more effective use of this indicator. The cranium is often more durable than other skeletal elements in both archaeological and forensic circumstances, so maximizing the effectiveness of cranial indicators is an important goal. It is hoped that recent advancements in technology and in analytical approaches to the cranial sutures could breathe some new life into this feature as an indicator of age.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto/métodos , Suturas Cranianas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suturas Cranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Antropologia Forense/métodos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Osteogênese , Estatística como Assunto , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125261, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896178

RESUMO

Seedling establishment consists of the former stage (i.e. skotomorphogenesis) and the latter stage (i.e. photomorphogenesis). Due to specific developmental processes in plants, the two stages may have different sensitivities to antibiotics. Tetracycline (TC), for example, is a major-use antibiotic. Radicle length, the relatively sensitive endpoint in plant skotomorphogenesis, is less sensitive than all of the indices of cotyledon colour and pigments in plant photomorphogenesis to TC stress. In conclusion, we suggest that plant photomorphogenesis may be more sensitive than plant skotomorphogenesis to stresses of antibiotics, but which needs further studies.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Brassica rapa/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Tetraciclina/toxicidade , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica rapa/efeitos da radiação , Cotilédone/efeitos dos fármacos , Cotilédone/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Luz , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos da radiação
20.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125255, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896180

RESUMO

A woody-biochar was added to waste biomass during a composting process. The resulting compost-char was amended to a metal contaminated soil and two plant species, L. perenne and E. sativa, were grown in a pot experiment to determine 1) plant survival and stress factors, 2) uptake of metals to plants and, 3) chemical characteristics of sampled soils and pore waters. Compost supplemented with biochar after the composting process were also tested, as well as a commercially available compost, for comparison. Co-composting with biochar hastened the composting process, resulting in a composite material of reduced odour, increased maturity, circum-neutral pH and increased moisture retention than compost (increase by 3% of easily removable water content). When amended to the soil, CaCl2 extractable and pore water metals s were reduced by all compost treatments with little influence of biochar addition at any tested dose. Plant growth success was promoted furthest by the addition of co-composted biochar to the test soil, especially in the case of E. sativa. For both tested plant species significant reductions in plant metal concentrations (e.g. 8-times for Zn) were achieved, against the control soil, by compost, regardless of biochar addition. The results of this study demonstrate that the addition of biochar into the composting process can hasten the stability of the resulting compost-char, with more favourable characteristics as a soil amendment/improver than compost alone. This appears achievable whilst also maintaining the provision of available nutrients to soils and the reduction of metal mobility, and improved conditions for plant establishment.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carvão Vegetal/química , Compostagem , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metais/análise , Madeira/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Brassicaceae/química , Lolium/química , Modelos Teóricos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
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