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1.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 29, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a type of sterol plant hormone that play an important role in various biochemical and physiological reactions such as promoting cell growth, increasing biomass, and improving stress resistance. RESULTS: To investigate the regulatory and molecular mechanism of BRs on the growth and development of tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.), changes in cell structure and gene expression levels of tea leaves treated with exogenous BRs were analyzed by electron microscopy and high-throughput Illumina RNA-Seq technology. The results showed that the number of starch granules in the chloroplasts and lipid globules increased and thylakoids expanded after BR treatment compared with the control. Transcriptome analysis showed that in the four BR treatments (CAA: BR treatment for 3 h, CAB: BR treatment for 9 h, CAC: BR treatment for 24 h, and CAD: BR treatment for 48 h), 3861 (1867 upregulated and 1994 downregulated), 5030 (2461 upregulated and 2569 downregulated), 1626 (815 upregulated and 811 downregulated), and 2050 (1004 upregulated and 1046 downregulated) differentially expressed genes were detected, respectively, compared with CAK (BR treatment for 0 h). Using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, metabolic pathway enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes of CAA vs. CAK, CAB vs. CAK, CAC vs. CAK, and CAD vs. CAK significantly enriched the functional categories of signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and starch, sucrose, and flavonoid biosynthesis and metabolism pathways. We also found that after spraying BR, the key genes for caffeine synthesis were downregulated. The results of qRT-PCR coincided with the findings of transcriptomic analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The present study improved our understanding of the effects of BRs on the growth and development of tea leaves and laid the foundation for the in-depth analysis of signal transduction pathways of BRs in tea leaves.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Brassinosteroides , Camellia sinensis/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Esteroides Heterocíclicos , Chá , Transcriptoma
3.
Investig. psicol. (La Paz, En línea) ; 26: 101-118, dic. 2021. tab.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348942

RESUMO

La presente investigación tuvo la finalidad de identificar las ventajas de la asistencia técnica en los procesos de formación continua y sus efectos en el desempeño de profesionales de salud que atienden a niños y niñas menores de 3 años en el Control de Crecimiento y Desarrollo (CRED). La investigación evidenció que al incorporar la variable Asistencia Técnica (AT), los programas de formación continua son más eficientes, es decir, cuando se fortalecen capacidades en el campo de la acción profesional. El diseño del estudio fue cuantitativo, según su profundidad es explicativo de tipo cuasiexperimental, orientado a identificar la relación de causalidad o efecto de la asistencia técnica en el desempeño profesional, comparando un grupo experimental y un grupo control. Los resultados generales muestran diferencias significativas, el grupo experimental, alcanzó una media del 51.67, mientras que el grupo control solo llegó a 26.53, aplicando la prueba no paramétrica U Mann Whitney: p≤.01. Si bien la formación continua genera avances en ambos grupos, al incorporar la variable AT se evidencia un salto significativo respecto al grupo control, concluyendo que la asistencia técnica mejora el desempeño del personal de salud que atienden en el Control de CRED, fortaleciendo e incrementando sus capacidades.(AU)


The purpose of this research was to identify the advantages of technical assistance in continuous training processes and its effects on the performance of health professionals who care for children under 3 years of age in the Growth and Development Control (CRED). The research showed that by incorporating the Technical Assistance (TA) variable, continuous training programs are more efficient, that is, when capacities are strengthened in the field of professional action. The study design was quantitative, according to its depth it is explanatory of a quasi-experimental type, aimed at identifying the causal relationship or effect of technical assistance on professional performance, comparing an experimental group and a control group. The general results show significant differences, the experimental group, reaching an average of 51.67, while the control group only reached 26.53, applying the non-parametric Mann Whitney U test: p≤.01. Although continuous training generates progress in both groups, when incorporating the AT variable, a significant jump is evidenced compared to the control group, concluding that technical assistance improves the performance of the health personnel who attend to the CRED Control, strengthening and increasing their capabilities.(AU)


O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar as vantagens da assistência técnica nos processos de formação contínua e seus reflexos na atuação dos profissionais de saúde que cuidam de crianças menores de 3 anos no Controle de Crescimento e Desenvolvimento (CRED). A pesquisa mostrou que, ao incorporar a variável Assistência Técnica (AT), os programas de formação contínua são mais eficientes, isto é, quando se fortalecem as capacidades no campo da atuação profissional. O delineamento do estudo foi quantitativo, pois pela sua profundidade é explicativo do tipo quase experimental, visando identificar a relação causal ou efeito da assistência técnica no desempenho profissional, comparando um grupo experimental e um grupo controle. Os resultados gerais mostram diferenças significativas, o grupo experimental, atingindo a média de 51,67, enquanto o grupo controle atingiu apenas 26,53, aplicandose o teste não paramétrico U de Mann Whitney: p≤,01. Embora o treinamento contínuo gere avanços em ambos os grupos, ao incorporar a variável TA, evidenciase um salto significativo em relação ao grupo controle, concluindo que a assistência técnica melhora o desempenho dos profissionais de saúde que atendem ao Controle CRED, fortalecendo e aumentando sua capacidades.


Assuntos
Educação Continuada , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Desempenho Profissional
4.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(5): 743-748, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728035

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate the effects of antiretroviral therapy(ART)for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission(PMTCT)of acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS)on the growth and development of 18-month-old children born by human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)-positive pregnant women in Lingshan County,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,and provide scientific evidence for improving the ART medication plan for PMTCT.Methods Lingshan County,ranking the first in the HIV-epidemic counties of Guangxi,was selected as the research site.According to the design of retrospective case-control study,we assigned all the subjects into the case group and the control group:(1)The case group included the HIV-positive pregnant women who had received ART for PMTCT and their HIV-negative infants in Lingshan County from 2010 to 2017.The historical cards and PMTCT data of them were collected from the national PMTCT database.(2)The control group included the healthy pregnant women and their healthy babies born in the Lingshan Maternity and Infant Hospital in 2017,and the children's growth and development data were collected.The stunted growth in children was defined as at least one of the three main indicators of body height,body weight,and head circumference below the normal range.Results The number of HIV-positive mothers and their infants in the case group was 391 and 368,respectively,and 87.21%(341/391)and 95.38%(351/368)of mothers and infants respectively received ART medication.The HIV positive rate,mortality rate,and mother-to-child transmission rate of 18-month-old children were 1.36%(5/368),4.35%(16/368),and 2.01%(5/249),respectively.The incidence of stunted growth of 18-month-old children in the case group and the control group was 42.12%(155/368)and 23.06%(101/438),respectively,with significant difference(χ2=33.520,P<0.001).Conclusion After HIV-positive mothers in Lingshan County of Guangxi received ART for PMTCT,the incidence of growth stunting in 18-month-old children increased.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Mães , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Plant Sci ; 313: 111073, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763865

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of single-stranded non-coding RNA of 20-24 nucleotides, regulate gene expression by target gene transcript cleavage or translation inhibition. The phytohormone auxin is a crucial regulator of almost every process involved in plant growth and development. Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of miRNA(s) in the regulation of the auxin signaling pathway and plant development. However, very few studies have identified the auxin-mediated regulation of miRNA(s). In this study, we reveal the detailed mechanism of auxin-mediated regulation of the cell wall-related miR775- Galactosyl transferase (GalT) module, which plays an important role in root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. We also showed two interdependent mechanisms by which miR775 regulates root growth: miR775-GalT and light-mediated sucrose-dependent pathways. Treatment of GUS reporter lines with Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), sucrose, and light apparently enhanced the abundance of miR775 in root tissue. miR775 overexpressing (miR775OX) lines showed changes in root architecture, including increased primary root growth and root hair, by targeting GalT. miR775OX lines also showed tolerance toward low Pi. These results provide new insights into the auxin regulation of cell wall-related miR775 and suggest its significant role in plant root growth and development by modifying the cell wall.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Sacarose/metabolismo , Adaptação Ocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Ocular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112852, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601268

RESUMO

New cerium-doped carbon quantum dots (CDs:Ce) were developed in this study using hydrothermal synthesis method. The small and uniform sizes and nearly spherical lattice of CDs:Ce indicate its high stability, satisfactory water solubility, and biocompatibility. Wheat was treated with Ce, CDs, and different concentrations (0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/mL) of CDs:Ce. The results showed that, compared with the control group, Ce, CDs, and CDs:Ce could promote the growth and development of wheat in a certain concentration range. Wheat demonstrated the optimal morphological index (compared with the control, the root number, root length, leaf length, and plant height were increased by 45%, 57%, 28%, and 46%, respectively), maximum chlorophyll content (increased by 51%) and peroxidase activity (increased by 76%), and minimum malondialdehyde content (reduced by 68%) after treatment of 0.025 mg/mL of CDs:Ce. Hence, wheat plants can adsorb and transport CDs:Ce from roots to stems and leaves through fibrovascular tissues. The majority of CDs:Ce are concentrated in roots while some accumulate in leaves. A considerable amount of CDs:Ce gather in cell walls, fibrovascular tissues, leaf veins, and stomata. CDs:Ce can be applied to agricultural production activities as a new agricultural nanofertilizer and technology of plant in vivo imaging.


Assuntos
Cério , Pontos Quânticos , Carbono , Cério/toxicidade , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Triticum
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576089

RESUMO

SLC25A36 is a pyrimidine nucleotide carrier playing an important role in maintaining mitochondrial biogenesis. Deficiencies in SLC25A36 in mouse embryonic stem cells have been associated with mtDNA depletion as well as mitochondrial dysfunction. In human beings, diseases triggered by SLC25A36 mutations have not been described yet. We report the first known case of SLC25A36 deficiency in a 12-year-old patient with hypothyroidism, hyperinsulinism, hyperammonemia, chronical obstipation, short stature, along with language and general developmental delay. Whole exome analysis identified the homozygous mutation c.803dupT, p.Ser269llefs*35 in the SLC25A36 gene. Functional analysis of mutant SLC25A36 protein in proteoliposomes showed a virtually abolished transport activity. Immunoblotting results suggest that the mutant SLC25A36 protein in the patient undergoes fast degradation. Supplementation with oral uridine led to an improvement of thyroid function and obstipation, increase of growth and developmental progress. Our findings suggest an important role of SLC25A36 in hormonal regulations and oral uridine as a safe and effective treatment.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/deficiência , Uridina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tireotropina/metabolismo , Uridina/farmacologia
8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 393, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556143

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The clinical complications of congenital hypothyroidism such as brain disorders are very subtle and are not recognizable in infancy period. They are recognizable when it is too late for treatment or prevention. General screening of newborns is effective in diagnosing congenital hypothyroidism and initiating initial treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the physical and mental growth pattern of children with congenital hypothyroidism with healthy ones. METHODS: This case-control study was performed on 34 patients and 68 healthy children who were matched in terms of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Children development screening test (ASQ), children development assessment test (Bayley), preschool Wechsler intelligence scale (WPPSI) and age and steps questionnaire of emotional social development (ASQ-SE) were completed by trained questioners. Data were analyzed using STATA software. RESULTS: The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the mean of verbal (P = 0.77), non-verbal (P = 0.81) and general (P = 0.66) IQ in permanent and transient patients and healthy individuals. Also, there was no significant difference between the mean of different ranges of ASQ test (including communication, delicate and large movements, problem solving and social) at 12 months and 42 months (P < 0.05). According to Bayley test, there was no significant difference between the cases (permanent and transient) and controls in the cognitive (P = 0.42) and expressive (P = 0.38) categories. The difference was significant in the perceptual (P = 0.011), large (P = 0.03) and delicate (P = 0.04) movements categories. CONCLUSION: This study emphasized on the high effectiveness of neonate hypothyroidism screening program, so that the difference between 3.5 years old children with and without this disease has decreased significantly. Early diagnosis of the patients, while creating beneficial effects for patients and increasing quality of life, cause reduction in the long-term costs of the health system.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Inteligência , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 172: 112918, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526262

RESUMO

Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) plastic fragments have been found abundant in the environment, but the knowledge regarding its effects on the physiology of aquatic animals is still poorly studied. Here the short-term (96 h) effects of waterborne exposure to PMMA nanoplastics (PMMA-NPs) on the muscle of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fingerlings was evaluated at a concentration range that includes 0.001 up to 10 mg/L. The expression of key transcripts related to cell stress, tissue repair, immune response, antioxidant status and muscle development, together with several biochemical endpoints and metabolic parameters. Results indicate that exposure to PMMA-NPs elicit mildly antioxidant responses, enhanced the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and inhibited key regulators of muscle development (growth hormone receptors ghr-1/ghr-2 and myostatin, mstn-1 transcripts). However, no effects on pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1ß, il1ß and tumor necrosis factor α, tnfα) expression nor on the levels of energetic substrates (glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol) were found.


Assuntos
Dourada , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Antioxidantes , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Microplásticos , Músculos , Polimetil Metacrilato/toxicidade
10.
SOBECC ; 26(3): 172-180, 30-09-2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1342968

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analisar as publicações dos últimos cinco anos com temas sobre educação em Centro de Materiais e Esterilização. Método: Revisão integrativa com busca nas bases de dados: Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Scopus Info Site, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature via EBSCOhost, Cochrane e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde. Resultados: Selecionados dez artigos, todos consideraram indispensáveis a atualização constante e a disponibilização de recursos mínimos para realização das atividades profissionais com melhorias na prática clínica. Quatro publicações identificaram as percepções quanto à educação, lacunas de conhecimento e oportunidades de desenvolvimento. Estratégias educacionais utilizadas: educação permanente com materiais didáticos, aplicação de treinamento teórico e prático, reestruturação dos processos com treinamento técnico, programas de mentoria educativa in loco e autorreflexão profissional sobre melhores práticas aplicadas nos processos de trabalho. Conclusão: As publicações reforçam a importância de intervenções educativas para capacitação profissional, domínio de novas tecnologias, prestação de serviço de qualidade e impacto favorável na eficácia do processamento de produtos para a saúde.


Objective: To analyze the publications of the last five years about education at the Materials and Sterilization Center. Method: Integrative review with search in databases: Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Online Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, Scopus Info Site, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature via EBSCOhost, Cochrane, and Virtual Health Library. Results: Ten articles were selected, all of them considering it essential to constantly update and make available minimum resources to carry out professional activities with improvements in clinical practice. Four publications identified perceptions of education, knowledge gaps and development opportunities. The educational strategies used were: continuing education with teaching materials, application of theoretical and practical training, restructuring of processes with technical training, on-site educational mentoring programs and professional self-reflection on best practices. Conclusion: The publications reinforce the importance of educational interventions for professional training, with view to them mastering new technologies, providing quality services and having a favorable impact on the effectiveness of health products' processing.


Objetivo: Analizar las publicaciones de los últimos cinco años con temas de educación en el Centro de Materiales y Esterilización. Método: Revisión integradora con búsqueda en bases de datos: Literatura de Ciencias de la Salud de América Latina y el Caribe, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Scopus Info Site, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature via EBSCOhost, COCHRANE y Biblioteca Virtual en Salud. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 10 artículos, todos considerados imprescindibles a la constante actualización y disponibilidad de recursos mínimos para realizar actividades profesionales con mejoras en la práctica clínica. Cuatro publicaciones identificaron percepciones de educación, brechas de conocimiento y oportunidades de desarrollo. Estrategias educativas utilizadas: formación continua con material didáctico, aplicación de formación teórica y práctica, reestructuración de procesos con formación técnica, programas de tutoría educativa presencial y autorreflexión profesional sobre las mejores prácticas aplicadas en los procesos de trabajo. Conclusión: Las publicaciones refuerzan la importancia de las intervenciones educativas para la formación profesional, el dominio de las nuevas tecnologías, la prestación de servicios de calidad y el impacto favorable en la efectividad del procesamiento de los productos sanitarios.


Assuntos
Humanos , Esterilização , Educação , Ciências da Saúde , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Capacitação Profissional , Segurança do Paciente
11.
Nurs Res ; 70(6): 462-468, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is an important determinant of health and disease in preterm infants. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article was to share our current protocol for other neonatal intensive care units to potentially expand their existing protocols, aiming to characterize the relationship between the intestinal microbiome and health outcomes in preterm infants. METHODS: This prospective, longitudinal study planned to recruit 160 preterm infants born <32 weeks gestational age or weighing <1,500 g and admitted to one of two Level III/IV neonatal intensive care units. During the neonatal intensive care unit period, the primary measures included events of early life pain/stress, gut microbiome, host genetic variations, and neurobehavioral assessment. During follow-up visits, gut microbiome; pain sensitivity; and medical, growth, and developmental outcomes at 4, 8-12, and 18-24 months corrected age were measured. DISCUSSION: As of February 14, 2020, 214 preterm infants have been recruited. We hypothesize that infants who experience greater levels of pain/stress will have altered gut microbiome, including potential adverse outcomes such as necrotizing enterocolitis and host genetic variations, feeding intolerance, and/or neurodevelopmental impairments. These will differ from the intestinal microbiome of preterm infants who do not develop these adverse outcomes. To test this hypothesis, we will determine how alterations in the intestinal microbiome affect the risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis, feeding intolerance, and neurodevelopmental impairments in preterm infants. In addition, we will examine the interaction between the intestinal microbiome and host genetics in the regulation of intestinal health and neurodevelopmental outcomes.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/genética , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Recém-Nascido/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Connecticut , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674532, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394074

RESUMO

Early Life Adversity (ELA) is closely associated with the risk for developing diseases later in life, such as autoimmune diseases, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In humans, early parental separation, physical and sexual abuse or low social-economic status during childhood are known to have great impact on brain development, in the hormonal system and immune responses. Maternal deprivation (MD) is the closest animal model available to the human situation. This paradigm induces long lasting behavioral effects, causes changes in the HPA axis and affects the immune system. However, the mechanisms underlying changes in the immune response after ELA are still not fully understood. In this study we investigated how ELA changes the immune system, through an unbiased analysis, viSNE, and addressed specially the NK immune cell population and its functionality. We have demonstrated that maternal separation, in both humans and rats, significantly affects the sensitivity of the immune system in adulthood. Particularly, NK cells' profile and response to target cell lines are significantly changed after ELA. These immune cells in rats are not only less cytotoxic towards YAC-1 cells, but also show a clear increase in the expression of maturation markers after 3h of maternal separation. Similarly, individuals who suffered from ELA display significant changes in the cytotoxic profile of NK cells together with decreased degranulation capacity. These results suggest that one of the key mechanisms by which the immune system becomes impaired after ELA might be due to a shift on the senescent state of the cells, specifically NK cells. Elucidation of such a mechanism highlights the importance of ELA prevention and how NK targeted immunotherapy might help attenuating ELA consequences.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Corticosterona/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Glucose , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Privação Materna , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is the last opportunity to reverse any growth faltering accumulated from fetal life through childhood and it is considered a crucial period to optimize human development. In Bangladesh, a growing double burden of underweight and obesity in adolescents is recognized, yet limited data exists on how, when, and where to intervene. This study assesses the dynamics of growth among adolescent girls in Bangladesh, providing insight about critical junctures where faltering occurs and where immediate interventions are warranted. METHODS: We pooled data from Bangladesh's Food Security and Nutrition Surveillance Project collected between 2011 and 2014 to document the age dynamics of weight and linear growth. 20,572 adolescent girls were measured for height and 19,345 for weight. We constructed growth curves for height, weight, stunting, and underweight. We also stratified growth dynamics by wealth quintile to assess socioeconomic inequities in adolescent trajectories. RESULTS: Height-for-age z-score (HAZ) in Bangladeshi girls deteriorates throughout adolescence and especially during the early years. Mean HAZ decreases by 0.20 standard deviations (sd) per year in early adolescence (10-14 years) vs 0.06 sd/year during late adolescence (15-19 years), while stunting increases by 16 percentage points (pp) vs 6.7 pp, respectively. Conversely, BMI-for-age z-score (BAZ) increases by 0.13 sd/year in early adolescence vs 0.02 sd/year in late adolescence, and underweight decreases by 12.8 pp vs 3.2 pp. Adolescent girls in all socioeconomic groups show a similar pattern of HAZ and BAZ dynamics, but the curve for the richest quintile stays above that of the poorest across all ages. CONCLUSIONS: Trends and levels of stunting and underweight among adolescent girls in Bangladesh are worrisome, suggesting substantial linear growth faltering in early adolescence, with improving weight-for-age occurring only as linear growth slows and stops. Given the rising burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Bangladesh and emerging evidence of the link between stunting and later chronic diseases, greater attention to adolescent growth and development is needed. Our findings suggest that, to address stunting, interventions in early adolescence would have the greatest benefits. School-based interventions could be a way to target this population.


Assuntos
Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Bangladesh , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 380, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incisal guidance angle (IGA) is related to temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and changes to the IGA are often involved in the prosthetic and orthodontic treatment of anterior teeth. However, the influence of incisal guidance on the growth, development and remodelling of the TMJ is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to investigate age-related morphological differences in the TMJ in subjects with different IGAs. METHODS: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 274 patients were included (group 1, IGA < 45°; group 2, 45° ≤ IGA ≤ 60°; group 3, IGA > 60°). Each group was then divided into 4 age groups (group a, 6-12 years; group b, 13-16 years; group c, 17-25 years; group d, 26-33 years). TMJ morphology was assessed by linear measurements, angular measurements, and subjective evaluations. The IGA and occlusal plane angle were also measured. RESULTS: Anterior inclination of condyle (AIC) increased with age in the three IGA groups but decreased from 17 years onward in group 2 (P < 0.05). In the age groups analysis, the AIC in group 1 was smaller than that in group 3 but larger than that in group 2 (P > 0.05). Articular eminence inclination (AEI) decreased with age in group 1 (P = 0.027) but increased with age in group 3 (P = 0.053). The AEI in group 2 was larger than that in group 1 at 17-25 years (P = 0.046), and it was larger in group 3 than in group 1 at 26-33 years (P = 0.047). The IGA had a weak correlation with AEI (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The articular fossa of patients with shallower incisal guidance changed to a flatter shape with age, whereas the condylar anterior slope and articular eminence of patients with steeper incisal guidance changed towards a steeper alignment. There was a correlation between IGA and TMJ shape.


Assuntos
Côndilo Mandibular , Articulação Temporomandibular , Adolescente , Criança , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Estudos Transversais , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Articulação Temporomandibular/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101191, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242943

RESUMO

Chicken ovaries are known to develop asymmetrically and only the left ovary fully develops. Although both have been greatly investigated, a gap in scientific reports is still felt between 2-mo-old and sexual maturity. In this study, we aimed at investigating the changes in components that occur during growth to analyze the morphohistological correlation between the left ovary and the follicle development at different age stages in Gallus domesticus. The ovaries were harvested from 60 chickens aged 1 and 3-wk-old, 1, 2, 3, and 4-mo-old (n = 10 per age group), then fixed in AAF solution. Hematoxylin-and Eosin protocol was used to stain the tissue for microscopic observations. Results revealed that the left ovary exhibited an ovarian tissue, a site of follicular growth that displayed various shapes from smooth to greatly indented as the follicles differentiated. Atretic follicles at various regression stages were noticed frequently as the chicks grew in age from 3-wk-old onward along with their differentiation. Rete ovarii, remnants from the male homologs were observed throughout the whole study showing epoöphoron, connecting rete, and gland-like structures that tend to diminish with age. The feature of the left ovary is closely related to the follicular developmental stage, and the bigger and differentiated the follicles are, the more indented and irregular its epithelium appears. Atresia is a normal physiological process that we observed throughout the whole study. Also that, rete ovarii do not spontaneously arise in the ovary but it develops and grows in juvenile chicken as well as in adult ones.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Ovário , Animais , Feminino , Fase Folicular , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Masculino , Folículo Ovariano
16.
Development ; 148(11)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117889

RESUMO

The intimate relationships between cell fate and metabolism have long been recognized, but a mechanistic understanding of how metabolic pathways are dynamically regulated during development and disease, how they interact with signalling pathways, and how they affect differential gene expression is only emerging now. We summarize the key findings and the major themes that emerged from the virtual Keystone Symposium 'Metabolic Decisions in Development and Disease' held in March 2021.


Assuntos
Doença , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Development ; 148(13)2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086041

RESUMO

During valvulogenesis, cytoskeletal, secretory and transcriptional events drive endocardial cushion growth and remodeling into thin fibrous leaflets. Genetic disorders play an important role in understanding valve malformations but only account for a minority of clinical cases. Mechanical forces are ever present, but how they coordinate molecular and cellular decisions remains unclear. In this study, we used osmotic pressure to interrogate how compressive and tensile stresses influence valve growth and shape maturation. We found that compressive stress drives a growth phenotype, whereas tensile stress increases compaction. We identified a mechanically activated switch between valve growth and maturation, by which compression induces cushion growth via BMP-pSMAD1/5, while tension induces maturation via pSer-19-mediated MLC2 contractility. The compressive stress acts through BMP signaling to increase cell proliferation and decrease cell contractility, and MEK-ERK is essential for both compressive stress and BMP mediation of compaction. We further showed that the effects of osmotic stress are conserved through the condensation and elongation stages of development. Together, our results demonstrate that compressive/tensile stress regulation of BMP-pSMAD1/5 and MLC2 contractility orchestrates valve growth and remodeling.


Assuntos
Biofísica , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Estresse Mecânico , Animais , Fenômenos Biológicos , Miosinas Cardíacas , Proliferação de Células , Galinhas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Cadeias Leves de Miosina , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad1 , Proteína Smad5
18.
Nurs Res ; 70(6): 481-486, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Annually, approximately 15 million babies are born preterm (<37 weeks gestational age) globally. In the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment, infants are exposed to repeated stressful or painful procedures as part of routine lifesaving care. These procedures have been associated with epigenetic alterations that may lead to an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Telomere length has been negatively associated with adverse life experiences in studies of adults. OBJECTIVES: This pilot study aimed to describe telomere length in a sample of preterm infants at NICU discharge and examine any associations with pain, feeding method, and neurodevelopment. METHODS: This descriptive pilot study sample includes baseline absolute telomere length (aTL) of 36 preterm infants immediately prior to discharge. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine aTL. Infant demographics, pain/stress, type of feeding, antibiotic use, neurodevelopment, and buccal swab data were collected. Descriptive data analysis was used to describe the telomere length using graphs. RESULTS: Among our preterm infant samples, the mean aTL was far greater than the average adult telomere length. Although no significant associations were found between aTL and pain, feeding method, and neurodevelopment, a trend between sex was noted where male telomere lengths were shorter than females as they aged. DISCUSSION: This is one of few studies to evaluate preterm infant telomere length. Although other researchers have used relative telomere length, we used the more accurate aTL. We found nonsignificant shorter telomere lengths among males. Additional large-scale, longitudinal studies are needed to better identify the predictors of telomere length at the time of discharge from NICU.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/genética , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Dor/genética , Telômero/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
19.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(12): 5201-5212, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086118

RESUMO

Plant callus is generally considered to be a mass of undifferentiated cells and can be used for secondary metabolite production, physiological studies, and plant transformation/regeneration. However, there are several types of callus with different morphological and developmental characteristics and not all are suitable for all applications. Callogenesis is a multivariable developmental process affected by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors, but the most important driver is plant growth regulator (PGRs) levels and type. Since callogenesis is a non-linear process influenced by many different factors, robust computational methods such as machine learning algorithms have great potential to model, predict, and optimize callus growth and development. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of PGRs on callus morphology in drug-type Cannabis sativa to maximize callus growth and promote embryogenic callus production. For this aim, random forest (RF) and support vector machine (SVM) were applied in conjunction with image processing to model and predict callus morphological and physical traits. The results showed that SVM was more accurate than RF. In order to find the optimal level of PGRs for optimizing callus growth and development, the SVM was linked to a genetic algorithm (GA). To confirm the reliability of SVM-GA, the optimized-predicted outcomes were tested in a validation experiment that revealed SVM-GA was able to accurately model and optimize the system. Moreover, our results showed that there is a significant correlation between embryogenic callus production and the true density of callus. KEY POINTS: • The effect of PGRs on callus growth and development of cannabis was studied. • The predictive accuracy of SVM and RF was evaluated and compared. • GA was linked to the SVM for optimizing the callus growth and development.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Algoritmos , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Arch Pediatr ; 28(5): 381-391, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931260

RESUMO

A growth chart is a powerful graphical tool displaying children's growth patterns. The aim of this study was to develop growth reference curves appropriate for Tunisian children. The collection of data from this cross-sectional study was conducted on 4358 healthy subjects (2182 girls and 2176 boys) in three pediatric centers and 15 schools. Smoothed growth curves were estimated using the LMS method. The smoothed percentile curves for height, weight, sitting height (SH), and leg length (LL) increase rapidly during the 1st years of life and then progress slowly until 18 years. However, the sitting height-to-height ratio (SHTHR) curves decrease sharply before the age of 4 and then stabilize in both sexes. In addition, the comparison between boys and girls indicated that the values are very similar at most ages. Except during puberty, the values in boys increase (P<0.0001) for the weight, height, SH, and LL parameters and decline (P<0.0001) in the SHTHR compared to the values in girls. The growth rate curves presented two remarkable velocity peaks: the first appears during the 1st years of life and the second at puberty. Height gains at the last stage of growth (puberty) are around 15.45% of final height for boys and 15.52% for girls. This study showed a number of discrepancies for certain age groups when comparing the median weight and height values with those of the World Health Organization, the National Center for Health Statistics, and Algerian references in both sexes. Conclusion: The smoothed percentile curves for weight and height will be useful to access the general growth of Tunisian children. Furthermore, the SH, LL, and SHTHR curves can be used to monitor body proportions during childhood.


Assuntos
Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Valores de Referência , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tunísia
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