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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810385

RESUMO

Controlling bovine tuberculosis (bTB) disease in cattle farms in England is seen as a challenge for farmers, animal health, environment and policy-makers. The difficulty in diagnosis and controlling bTB comes from a variety of factors: the lack of an accurate diagnostic test which is higher in specificity than the currently available skin test; isolation periods for purchased cattle; and the density of active badgers, especially in high-risk areas. In this paper, to enable the complex evaluation of bTB disease, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is designed with the help of domain experts and available historical data. A significant advantage of this approach is that it represents bTB as a dynamic process that evolves periodically, capturing the actual experience of testing and infection over time. Moreover, the model demonstrates the influence of particular risk factors upon the risk of bTB breakdown in cattle farms.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Bovina , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/prevenção & controle
2.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 163(3): 189-201, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650520

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The main goal of the resources project «Healthy claws - the foundation for the future¼ is to establish a Swiss national claw health monitoring programme for cattle, similar to what has already been established in other countries (e. g. Finland, Sweden). So far in the course of the project, 30 claw trimmers have been trained to use a digital recording software. An appropriate training concept and information to the work environment of Swiss claw trimmers are necessary to ensure that the recorded claw health data is of good quality. The newly developed training programme for claw trimmers was evaluated using the 30 first trained claw trimmers of the project. The training consisted of group events and individual schooling sessions, during which the claw trimmers were trained to recognise, classify and digitally record foot and claw disorders according to the «ICAR claw health atlas¼. At the end of the training programme, demographic and work relevant data about the claw trimmers was collected and their abilities when using the recording software, as well as recognising and classifying foot and claw disorders using pictures or live animals, were evaluated. The demographic and work relevant data collected at the end of the training showed an ageing of the profession (43% of the participants were over 50 years old), a lack of full-time claw trimmers (23% of the claw trimmers worked 90% or 100%), a neglect of locomotion scoring during claw trimming (no locomotion scoring standing from 60% and in movement from 33% of the participants) and a broad use of the Swiss claw trimming method (90% of the claw trimmers indicate using this method). An average Cohens kappa value of 0,74, and thus an overall substantial agreement with the first author, respectively the ICAR Atlas, was achieved for the identification and classification of foot and claw disorders. It was also noted, that all the participants were capable of using the recording software in practice after their schooling. The calculation of Cohens kappa values helps to recognise claw trimmers which fall below the limiting value and therefore show an insufficient agreement. These claw trimmers can thus be excluded from the scientific evaluation or undergo further training. It was concluded that the described training concept is suitable to establish a national claw health monitoring programme.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/educação , Casco e Garras , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Ensino/normas , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Software , Suíça
3.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 163(3): 203-217, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650521

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of new animal husbandry concepts includes, beyond the exploration of chosen parameters, that the question is addressed whether economic benefits for producers and ethical benefits for society result of the new system when compared to traditional systems. In a previous study, a novel management and housing concept for veal production («outdoor veal calf¼, OVC) was tested from October 2016 to July 2018. The OVC concept was associated with distinctly lower antimicrobial use while average daily weight gain was similar and calf welfare better; furthermore mortality was lower compared to conventional label fattening. The aim of the present study was to compare economics between the OVC concept on intervention farms (IF) and the IP-SUISSE label concept on control farms (CF) by calculating contribution margins (CM). The CM indicates the difference between the performance of a production branch (e. g. slaughter return) and the allocable costs for this production branch (e. g. feed costs). In the present study, two different approaches were used for CM calculation to analyze the available data in detail. No substantial differences in CM between the OVC concept and the IP-SUISSE concept were found in either approach. However, the specific CM varied between the approaches as different calculation criteria for quantities and prices were applied (approach «real¼ with accurate costs and returns from the OVC study and approach «standardized¼ with costs and returns based on the CM catalogue). The CM varied slightly for the CM per man-hour (IF «real¼: 6.96 CHF/man-hour, «standardized¼: 4.49 CHF/man-hour; CF: 7.90 CHF/man-hour and 8.08 CHF/man-hour, respectively) and considerably for the CM per fattening space and year (IF «real¼: -380.36 CHF, «standardized¼: -559.50 CHF; CF: -244.70 CHF and -318.80 CHF, -respectively). Producing veal with the OVC concept -allowed for achieving comparable CM/man-hour as in conventional label production. Thus, the farmers' economic interests should be warranted when implementing the OVC concept.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Abrigo para Animais , Suíça
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20191526, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787753

RESUMO

The Environmental enrichment technique, although scientifically recognized for raising the level of animal welfare, has led to the questioning of its influence on the results of experimental research. Thus, the goal is to promote reflection about the need for standardization of these procedures. For that, documents and experimental analysis were done, in order to quantify and characterize the types of environmental enrichment used and to evaluate the effect of that in the social behavior of Rattus norvegicus. Data from the document review confirmed the hypothesis that the researchers have used a variety of methods, not demonstrating a concern for standardization and prior assessment of its effects on the search results. Demand was corroborated in the experimental study in which, although there was available a simple object acting as refuge promotes behavioral improvements, the presence of the co-specific, as well as characteristics of the micro and macro environment can compromise the homogeneity of the sample. The data from this study endorse the need for validation procedures of environmental enrichment for specific proposals, to investigative data comparison, are possible and contribute to the refinement of the search to reduce the number of animals targeted for this purpose.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , Comportamento Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Ratos , Comportamento Social
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670030

RESUMO

Convolutional neural network (CNN)-based computer vision systems have been increasingly applied in animal farming to improve animal management, but current knowledge, practices, limitations, and solutions of the applications remain to be expanded and explored. The objective of this study is to systematically review applications of CNN-based computer vision systems on animal farming in terms of the five deep learning computer vision tasks: image classification, object detection, semantic/instance segmentation, pose estimation, and tracking. Cattle, sheep/goats, pigs, and poultry were the major farm animal species of concern. In this research, preparations for system development, including camera settings, inclusion of variations for data recordings, choices of graphics processing units, image preprocessing, and data labeling were summarized. CNN architectures were reviewed based on the computer vision tasks in animal farming. Strategies of algorithm development included distribution of development data, data augmentation, hyperparameter tuning, and selection of evaluation metrics. Judgment of model performance and performance based on architectures were discussed. Besides practices in optimizing CNN-based computer vision systems, system applications were also organized based on year, country, animal species, and purposes. Finally, recommendations on future research were provided to develop and improve CNN-based computer vision systems for improved welfare, environment, engineering, genetics, and management of farm animals.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/instrumentação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Redes Neurais de Computação , Algoritmos , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Bovinos , Cabras , Aves Domésticas , Ovinos , Suínos
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671216

RESUMO

The prediction of health disorders is the goal of many sensor systems in dairy farming. Although mastitis and lameness are the most common health disorders in dairy cows, these diseases or treatments are a rare event related to a single day and cow. A number of studies already developed and evaluated models for classifying cows in need of treatment for mastitis and lameness with machine learning methods, but few have illustrated the effects of the positive predictive value (PPV) on practical application. The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of low-frequency treatments of mastitis or lameness for the applicability of these classification models in practice. Data from three German dairy farms contained animal individual sensor data (milkings, activity, feed intake) and were classified using machine learning models developed in a previous study. Subsequently, different risk criteria (previous treatments, information from milk recording, early lactation) were designed to isolate high-risk groups. Restricting selection to cows with previous mastitis or hoof treatment achieved the highest increase in PPV from 0.07 to 0.20 and 0.15, respectively. However, the known low daily risk of a treatment per cow remains the critical factor that prevents the reduction of daily false-positive alarms to a satisfactory level. Sensor systems should be seen as additional decision-support aid to the farmers' expert knowledge.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/instrumentação , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Indústria de Laticínios , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico , Mastite/diagnóstico , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Feminino , Lactação , Leite
7.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 412-419, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518092

RESUMO

To monitor animal welfare on a commercial scale, systematic collection and evaluation of slaughterhouse data is the most feasible method. However, we need to know whether slaughterhouse data retrospectively and reliably reflect information about the birds' welfare on-farm. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate associations between animal-based welfare measures in flocks of turkey toms at 11 wk of age recorded with the transect walk and slaughter data at 20 wk of age. A total of 20 commercial flocks of turkey toms were visited, where an observer walked the transects in a random order and recorded the total number of birds per transect that were immobile, lame, with visible head, tail, or wing wounds, small, featherless, dirty, sick, terminal, or dead. Slaughterhouse data were provided for each flock. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between on-farm and slaughterhouse measures. Increased prevalence of immobile toms at week 11 resulted in more birds rejected at slaughter owing to leg issues (P = 0.02) and airsacculitis (P < 0.001). More lame birds on-farm were associated with an overall higher rejection rate at slaughter (P < 0.001). Flocks with more featherless birds had significantly more birds being rejected at slaughter owing to skin issues (P = 0.02). More dirty birds at week 11 resulted in more birds being rejected owing to airsacculitis at slaughter (P < 0.001). A higher mortality on-farm was associated with more birds rejected for being too small (P = 0.04). In conclusion, significant associations between animal-based measures of turkey toms as assessed by the transect walk method on-farm at 11 wk and slaughter data at 20 wk were identified.


Assuntos
Matadouros/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Perus/fisiologia , Animais , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Perus/lesões
8.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 420-430, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518093

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the performance of broiler chickens fed on 3 black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) and Greenleaf desmodium (Desmodium intortum)-based meals. We evaluated growth performance, carcass quality, and profitability under various commercial pathways (doorstep, retail, whole, and assorted). Desmodium and BSFL powders were formulated into 3 ratios: T1 25:75, T2 50:50, and T3 75:25. A commercial feed was used as a control. One hundred and twenty mixed-sex 1-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb) were reared in pens for 42 d in a completely randomized design. The chickens were weighed weekly to monitor their growth rate. After the 42-day rearing period, they were slaughtered for carcass quality evaluation and recording of the weights of internal organs. During the initial growth phase (7-21 d), significant effects of fish meal replacement were found on the chickens' average weight (P < 0.001), average daily body weight gain (P < 0.001), average daily feed intake (P < 0.001), and feed conversion ratio (P < 0.001). However, during the second phase (21-42 d), no significant effect of the replacement was detected except on average daily feed intake (P = 0.003). No significant differences were found in terms of the relative weights of internal organs. It was found that Desmodium-BSFL-based feeds were more profitable than the control feed, and the assorted and retail modes of sale generated more revenue compared to when the chickens were sold at doorstep and on whole-chicken basis. The return on investment was higher for a push-pull adopter compared to a non-adopter. The study found that a BSFL-Desmodium mixture can be a valuable replacement for the protein component in conventional feed and would provide a new impetus for the adoption of push-pull.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Ração Animal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Dípteros , Agricultura/métodos , Ração Animal/economia , Ração Animal/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/economia , Dieta/normas , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Quênia , Larva , Carne/economia , Carne/normas
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 721-727, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518125

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to understand the dynamic changes in daily step counts (DSC) during the development of chickens and to further explore the effects of exercise on the growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and tibial strength of cocks. A total of 600 (half male and half female) 1-day-old Wannan chickens with similar hatching weights were raised under the same rearing conditions. All birds were wing banded and housed in identical cages for from 1 to 8 wk in the experimental poultry house. The dimensions of the cages were 70 × 70 × 40 cm (length × width × height). At the age of 9 to 16 wk, these birds were reared in indoor pens (2 m × 2 m, 1,000 cm2 per bird). In addition, they also had a free-range grass paddock (20 m × 30 m, 1 m2 per bird). The DSC of male and female Wannan chicks were recorded from 70 to 112 d by using a pedometer. At 112 d of age, based on the average DSC, birds were divided into groups representing the highest (HS), medium, and lowest (LS) number of step groups. Fifteen cocks from each group were selected for subsequent experiments. Compared with the LS group, the HS group displayed higher tibial strength (P = 0.025) and lower BW, cooking loss (P = 0.014), shear force (P = 0.023), and drip loss (P = 0.008). The DSC had no effects on the female BW or male carcass parameters. There was no significant change in the DSC of all birds from 70 to 112 d. However, male chickens took more steps than females at 15 (P = 0.025) and 16 (P = 0.012) week of age. In conclusion, the effects of the DSC on the BW of Wannan chickens depend on sex, and enhanced exercise could improve the meat quality and tibial strength of cocks.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Carne/normas , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Tíbia/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Feminino , Masculino , Carne/análise , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia
10.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100953, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518300

RESUMO

In on-farm hatching systems, eggs are transported at d 18 of incubation to the broiler farm, where chickens have immediate access to feed and water after hatching. In hatchery-fed systems, newly hatched chickens have immediate access to feed and water in the hatchery and are transported to the farm thereafter. Conventionally hatched chickens can remain without access to feed and water up to 72 h after hatching until placement on the farm. The current study compared day-old chicken quality, performance, and slaughter yield of broiler chickens that were on-farm hatched (OH), hatchery-fed (HF), or conventionally hatchery-hatched (HH). The experiment was performed in 6 rooms in 1 house. Each room contained 2 duplicate pens with approximately 1,155 chickens per pen; 2 rooms with each 2 duplicate pens were assigned to 1 treatment. The experiment was repeated during 3 consecutive production cycles. Chickens originated from young parent stock flocks. Results showed that HF and OH chickens were heavier and longer than HH chickens at day (D) 1. Relative weight of stomach and intestines were highest for OH chickens. The OH chickens had worse day-old chicken quality in terms of navel condition and red hocks than HH and HF chickens. Treatments did not differ in first wk and total mortality. From D0 until slaughter age, body weight was highest for OH, followed by HF and HH. Furthermore, carcass weight at slaughter age (D40) was highest for OH chickens, followed by HF and HH chickens. Breast fillets showed a higher incidence of white striping and wooden breast in HF and OH chickens compared with HH chickens. In conclusion, the current study showed that both OH and HF chickens of young parent flocks had better growth performance, which could explain the higher prevalence of breast myopathies, compared with HH. The worse day-old chicken quality for OH compared with HH and HF does not seem to affect first wk mortality and later life performance.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Galinhas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Carne/normas , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Transportes , Zigoto/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100946, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518336

RESUMO

Broiler chicks usually hatch in the hatchery without access to feed and water until placement at the farm. This can affect their health and welfare negatively. Therefore, alternative strategies have been developed, for instance providing chicks with early nutrition in the hatchery or hatching eggs directly on-farm. However, information on the physical and mental welfare of chicks hatched in these systems compared to conventionally hatched chicks is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alternative hatching systems on the welfare of broiler chickens in early and later life. A system comparison was performed with chickens that hatched conventionally in a hatchery (HH), in a system which provided light, feed, and water in a hatcher (hatchery-fed, HF), or on-farm (on-farm hatched, OH, where feed and water were available and transport of day-old chicks from the hatchery to the farm was not necessary). Chickens were reared in 3 batches, in 12 floor pens per batch (approximately 1,155 animals per pen), with a total of 12 replicates per treatment. Animal-based welfare indicators were assessed following standard protocols: plumage cleanliness, footpad dermatitis (FPD), hock burn, skin lesions (all at day 21 and 35 of age), and gait score (day 35). Furthermore, a set of behavioral tests was carried out: novel environment (day 1 and 21), tonic immobility, novel object, and avoidance distance test (day 4 and 35). Plumage cleanliness, hock burn, and skin lesions were affected by age but not by hatching system, with older broilers scoring worse than younger ones (P < 0.05). An effect of hatching system was only found for FPD, with the highest prevalence in HH chickens, followed by HF and OH chickens (P < 0.05). All responses measured in the behavioral tests were affected by age but not by hatching system. In later life, chickens were significantly less fearful than during the first days of life. The results indicate that conventionally hatched chickens scored significantly worse for FPD, whereas, in general, hatching system seemed to have minor effects on other broiler welfare indicators.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Galinhas , Zigoto , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Métodos de Alimentação/normas , Estado Nutricional , Zigoto/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Animal ; 15(3): 100154, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573976

RESUMO

Intensive pig production systems are a source of stress, which is linked to reduced animal welfare and increased antimicrobial use. As the gatekeepers of the welfare of the animals under their care, farmers are seen as the stakeholder responsible for improving animal welfare. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitudes of pig farmers towards pig welfare and the impact of such attitudes on farmers' selection of management strategies on the farm. We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with 44 pig farmers in one of the main pig producing regions of Brazil. Interviews covered knowledge and attitudes towards pig sentience and behaviour and welfare-related issues commonly observed in intensive pig farms (belly-nosing, fights, tail-biting, diarrhoea and castration without pain control) and farmers' conception and attitudes towards pig welfare. We identified many management and animal-based indicators of poor welfare, such as the use of painful and stressful management practices and use of environments that limit the expression of natural behaviours. However, most farmers were satisfied with animal welfare standards at their farms. Farmers' perceptions are aligned with their understanding of animal welfare. Although they identified all the dimensions that impact the welfare of a pig on a farm (affect, biological functioning and naturalness), their social reality, industry demands and available advice pushed them to perceive their range of action limited to biological and environmental aspects of the animals that do not necessarily benefit affective state. This precluded farmers from making associations between good health and the animal's ability to express a full behavioural repertoire, as well as from viewing abnormal behaviours as problems. The negative consequences for the welfare of the animals were commonly alleviated by routines that relied on constant use of medication, including high dependence on antibiotics. Expressions of estrangement from the production chain were common voices among the participants. This suggests that farmers may not be sufficiently informed or engaged in responding to consumers' expectations and commitments made by companies, which can pose a severe economic risk for farmers. The findings of this study indicate that economic, technical and social factors restrict farmers' autonomy and their ability to perform their role as stewards of animal welfare. (Re)connecting different human, animal and environmental interests may be a step to changing this scenario.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Fazendeiros , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Antibacterianos , Brasil , Fazendas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Suínos
14.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100840, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531152

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of 3 rearing systems (FL: flooring litter rearing, MC: multilayer cage rearing, PN: plastic net rearing) with or without supplemental narasin on growth performance, gastrointestine development and health of broilers. A total of 2,400 one-day-old Ross 308 mixed-sex broilers (1:1 ratio of males and females) were used in a completely randomized design utilizing a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, with 12 replicates per treatment. Each replicate for FL, MC, and PN consisted of 34 birds per floor pen, 30 birds per cage, and 36 birds per net pen, respectively, ensuring the same stocking density (12 birds/m2) across the 3 systems. Results showed that lower ADG (average daily gain), ADFI (average daily feed intake), and FCR (feed conversation ratio) observed in the MC group than those of the other 2 systems from 1 to 36 d of age (P < 0.05). Narasin inclusion in the diets decreased ADFI and FCR significantly (P < 0.05). Multilayer cage and PN rearing systems reduced the relative weight of the gizzard significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with FL, MC reduced the relative weight of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of the ileal IL-1ß and IFN-γ in FL were higher than those in PN and MC (P < 0.05). Narasin decreased the ileal mRNA expression of TNF-α (P < 0.05). Different rearing systems changed the ileal microflora structure of broilers. The FL system increased the ileal microbial diversity of broilers and the relative abundance of Actinobacteria. Narasin combined with MC increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria. In conclusion, birds reared in PN had a higher body weight. The MC birds had poorer intestinal development and health condition, higher abundance of Proteobacteria, but better FCR. The FL rearing appeared to be propitious for gastrointestinal development and health. Narasin inclusion in the diets improved FCR and changed the relative abundance Proteobacteria of broilers.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal , Piranos , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biodiversidade , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Moela das Aves/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Piranos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Zoo Biol ; 40(2): 160-168, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544907

RESUMO

The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior and welfare in captivity of reptiles and of freshwater turtles in particular, which are popular aquarium and pet species, is very little studied compared to other taxa. We carried out a small scale case-study on the effect of colored object enrichment, with and without fish scent, on the behavior of a group of 15 cooters (Pseudemys sp.) and sliders (Trachemys scripta ssp.) on display at a public aquarium. The new enrichment aimed to reduce the escape behavior (interaction with transparent boundaries) and increase exploration and random swimming. We used simultaneous recording of behavior at whole group level and for focal individually-marked turtles. The escape behavior decreased on days with new enrichment before feeding at whole group level and for the focal turtles overall, in spite of the relatively low interest in the colored objects. Fish-scented objects attracted significantly more interest. Random swimming, enrichment focus, aggression and submission increased significantly, and basking decreased significantly at whole group level before feeding, with smaller differences after feeding. There were large differences between individual turtles with respect to activity budgets and changes in behavior on days with new enrichment, with both increases and decreases seen in escape behavior, aggression, and levels of activity. Our outcomes suggested that introducing new colored objects with food scent may be beneficial for reducing escape behavior in captive freshwater turtles. However, careful monitoring of effects at individual level and much larger scale investigations, including postenrichment periods, are needed.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Comportamento Animal , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Agressão , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Feminino , Masculino , Odorantes
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(4): 4635-4649, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612243

RESUMO

Dairy calves not kept for replacement are sold at young age in Québec auction markets for white and grain-fed veal calf production. The province of Québec produces 80% of the Canadian veal meat, but little information is available on the factors associated with the calves' price per crude weight (Can$/kg; Can$1 = US$0.78 at time of writing). The characteristics of calves sold in Québec auction markets from 12 complete years (2008-2019) were retrospectively studied. The calves' weight, breed and sex, the year and season of sale, the auction site, as well as the estimated distance traveled between the farm of origin and the auction site were analyzed as potential covariates associated with calf price. Two multivariable logistic models associated with low sale value (below the 10th or the 25th percentile of the day price) and 2 models associated with good sale characteristics (above the 50th or the 75th percentile of the day price) were built. The median distance between the farm and the auction site was 52 km (interquartile range: 30-95 km). Only 5% of calves traveled distances greater than 220 km. The weight, breed, sex, and auction sites explained most of the variability in the different models. Distance traveled and multiple interactions were also significantly associated with the outcomes. Calves with body weight from 48 to <56 kg were sold in higher percentiles of the day than lighter or heavier calves. Beef-crossed calves had better sale prices than Holstein, whereas colored dairy calves had lower sale characteristics than both Holstein and beef-crossed calves. The effect of distance traveled was complex, varying depending on the model and interactions, and explained a small portion of the total deviance in every model. Calves traveling from distances ≥110 km had lower sale characteristics in summer and fall in the different studied models. This study gives relevant insights on calves' characteristics associated with good versus low sale prices in Québec auction markets.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Animais , Canadá , Bovinos , Quebeque , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Animal ; 15(2): 100123, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573940

RESUMO

Major shifts in how animals are bred, raised and slaughtered are involved in the intensification of livestock systems. Globally, these changes have produced major increases in access to protein-rich foods with high levels of micronutrients. Yet the intensification of livestock systems generates numerous externalities including environmental degradation, zoonotic disease transmission and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes. Where the process of intensification is most advanced, the expertise, institutions and regulations required to manage these externalities have developed over time, often in response to hard lessons, crises and challenges to public health. By exploring the drivers of intensification, the foci of future intensification can be identified. Low- and middle-income (LMICs) countries are likely to experience significant intensification in livestock production in the near future; however, the lessons learned elsewhere are not being transferred rapidly enough to develop risk mitigation capacity in these settings. At present, fragmentary approaches to address these problems present an incomplete picture of livestock populations, antimicrobial use, and disease risks in LMIC settings. A worldwide improvement in evidence-based zoonotic disease and AMR management within intensifying livestock production systems demands better information on the burden of livestock-associated disease, antimicrobial use and resistance and resources allocated to mitigation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Gado , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Zoonoses
18.
Animal ; 15(2): 100103, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573972

RESUMO

The nature of the relationship between humans and farm animals has multiple repercussions on the animals and the farmers and varies with farmers attitudes towards their animals. In particular, this relationship influences animal welfare and human working conditions. The present study, part of a larger research project investigating human-animal relationship (HAR) in pig farming and ways to improve it, had two objectives: 1) to investigate the HAR in a diversity of pig farming situations and to evaluate the possible correlation between farmer attitudes, pigs' reactions to humans, husbandry practices, animal health, welfare and productivity and 2) to find a way to rapidly assign a farmer to a profile, in order to better adapt course content during training sessions on HAR. The study focused on 52 farrow-to-finish farms and consisted of a semi-structured interview with the farmer, observations of the farmer in contact with his/her livestock, two human approach tests conducted on sows and growers and productivity data. Finally, a questionnaire was left at the farm to be filled out by all stockpersons on the farm. Interviews, analyzed using a thematic analysis followed by multiple correspondence analysis and ascendant hierarchical clustering, showed that some farmers develop husbandry practices to improve their HARs and identified three farmer profiles that have been named in relation to the place of the HAR in their profession: Profile 1 farmers for whom HAR is secondary in their work with their pigs, Profile 2 for whom the HAR is useful in their work with their pigs and Profile 3 for whom HAR is central in their work with their pigs. Logistic regression models of the relationships between behavioral tests and productivity data showed that confident sows produce and wean more piglets than fearful sows and that sows of Profile 3 farmers trust more humans than those of Profile 1 or 2 farmers. Farmers' responses to the questionnaire did not predict their profile assignment. Our results confirm the main role of the farmer's attitude towards animals on their farming practices, animal welfare and productivity. The farmers who have more confident pigs and better productivity are those for whom the farm animal is central to their profession, express the most pleasure in working with them and convey empathy for them.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Eficiência , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Suínos
19.
Animal ; 15(2): 100119, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579650

RESUMO

The avian beak is a multipurpose organ playing a vital role in a variety of functions, including feeding, drinking, playing, grasping objects, mating, nesting, preening and defence against predators and parasites. With regards to poultry production, the beak is the first point of contact between the bird and feed. The beak is also manipulated to prevent unwanted behaviour such as feather pecking, toe pecking and cannibalism in poultry as well as head/neck injuries to breeder hens during mating. Thus, investigating the beak morphometry of poultry in relation to feeding and other behaviours may lead to novel insights for poultry breeding, management and feeding strategies. Beak morphometry data may be captured by advanced imaging techniques coupled with the use of geometric morphometric techniques. This emerging technology may be utilized to study the effects of beak shape on many critical management issues including heat stress, parasite management, pecking and feeding behaviour. In addition, existing literature identifies several genes related to beak development in chickens and other avian species. Use of morphometric assessments to develop phenotypic data on beak shape and detailed studies on beak-related behaviours in chickens may help in improving management and welfare of commercial poultry.


Assuntos
Bico , Galinhas , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bico/cirurgia , Comportamento Animal , Plumas , Feminino , Aves Domésticas
20.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 125-137, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541694

RESUMO

Estrus synchronization and manipulation are a tool that has been used by producers to provide uniform lamb and kid meat production and dairy sheep and goat milk production, to concentrate work and labor cost, and to plan for the lambing and kidding time. Breeders can also use estrus synchronization to stimulate ewes and does to exhibit estrus and ovulate outside of the breeding season, although both the ovulation rate and pregnancy rate may be decreased. To increase the ovulation rate outside of the breeding season, a variety of estrus synchronization methods have been used.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Cabras/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Estações do Ano
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