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4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0007618, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226029

RESUMO

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a disease of cattle that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected animal or ingestion of contaminated food or water. This study seeks to explore the local knowledge on bTB, obtain information on social and cultural practices regarding risk of bTB transmission to cattle and humans (zoonotic TB) in a traditional livestock farming community with a history of bTB diagnosis in cattle and wildlife. Information was collected using a qualitative approach of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) targeting household members of livestock farmers that owned bTB tested herds. We conducted fourteen FGDs (150 individuals) across four dip tanks that included the following categories of participants from cattle owning households: head of households, herdsmen, dip tank committee members and women. The qualitative data was managed using NVivo Version 12 Pro software. Social and cultural practices were identified as major risky practices for bTB transmission to people, such as the consumption of undercooked meat, consumption of soured /raw milk and lack of protective measures during slaughtering of cattle. The acceptance of animals into a herd without bTB pre-movement testing following traditional practices (e.g. lobola, 'bride price', the temporary introduction of a bull for 'breeding'), the sharing of grazing and watering points amongst the herds and with wildlife were identified as risky practices for M. bovis infection transmission to cattle. Overall, knowledge of bTB in cattle and modes of transmission to people and livestock was found to be high. However, the community was still involved in risky practices that expose people and cattle to bovine TB. An inter-disciplinary 'One Health' approach that engages the community is recommended, to provide locally relevant interventions that allows the community to keep their traditional practices and socio-economic systems whilst avoiding disease transmission to cattle and people.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Gado , Tuberculose Bovina/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul , Tuberculose Bovina/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228497, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017788

RESUMO

There are growing demands to ensure animal health and, from a broader perspective, animal welfare, especially for farmed animals. In addition to the newly developed welfare assessment protocols, which provide a harmonised method to measure animal health during farm visits, the question has been raised whether data from existing data collections can be used for an assessment without a prior farm visit. Here, we explore the possibilities of developing animal health scores for fattening pig herds using a) official meat inspection results, b) data on antibiotic usage and c) data from the QS (QS Qualität und Sicherheit GmbH) Salmonella monitoring programme in Germany. The objective is to aggregate and combine these register-like data into animal health scores that allow the comparison and benchmark of participating pig farms according to their health status. As the data combined in the scores have different units of measure and are collected in different abattoirs with possibly varying recording practices, we chose a relative scoring approach using z-transformations of different entrance variables. The final results are aggregated scores in which indicators are combined and weighted based on expert opinion according to their biological significance for animal health. Six scores have been developed to describe different focus areas, such as "Respiratory Health", "External Injuries/ Alterations", "Animal Management", "Antibiotic Usage", "Salmonella Status" and "Mortality". These "focus" area scores are finally combined into an "Overall Score". To test the scoring method, existing routine data from 1,747 pig farm units in Germany are used; these farm units are members of the QS Qualität und Sicherheit GmbH (QS) quality system. In addition, the scores are directly validated for 38 farm units. For these farm units, the farmers and their veterinarians provided their perceptions concerning the actual health status and existing health problems. This process allowed a comparison of the scoring results with actual health information using kappa coefficients as a measure of similarity. The score testing of the focus area scores using real information resulted in normalised data. The results of the validation showed satisfactory agreement between the calculated scores for the project farm units and the actual health information provided by the related farmers and veterinarians. In conclusion, the developed scoring method could become a viable benchmark and risk assessment instrument for animal health on a larger scale under the conditions of the German system.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne de Porco/análise , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Alemanha , Setor Privado , Setor Público , Sistema de Registros , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle
7.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 31-43, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029187

RESUMO

Refugia-based strategies are intended to help slow the development of anthelmintic resistance by providing a population of parasites that are not exposed to the treatment. Evidence from field studies is lacking. There is no single way to incorporate refugia into a parasite control program. There are many options available varying greatly in complexity and practicality, and none are suitable for all situations. Incorporating refugia into production systems typically requires a change in farmer mindset and greater input of time, labor, and/or technology, but is necessary to help preserve anthelmintic efficacy and promote sustainable animal production systems.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bovinos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Cabras , Gado/parasitologia , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Ovinos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226813, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923199

RESUMO

The objectives of this research were to describe the contact structure of transportation vehicles and swine facilities in an Ontario swine production system, and to assess their potential contribution to possible disease transmission over different time periods. A years' worth of data (2015) was obtained from a large swine production and data management company located in Ontario, Canada. There was a total of 155 different transportation vehicles, and 220 different farms within the study population. Two-mode networks were constructed for 1-,3-, and 7-day time periods over the entire year and were analyzed. Trends in the size of the maximum weak component and outgoing contact chain over discrete time periods were investigated using linear regression. Additionally, the number of different types of facilities with betweenness >0 and in/out degree>0 were analyzed using Poisson regression. Maximum weekly outgoing contact chain (MOCCw) contained between 2.1% and 7.1% of the study population. This suggests a potential maximum of disease spread within this population if the disease was detected within one week. Frequency of node types within MOCCw showed considerable variability; although nursery sites were relatively most frequent. The regression analysis of several node and network level statistics indicated a potential peak time of connectivity during the summer months and warrants further confirmation and investigation. The inclusion of transportation vehicles contributed to the linear increase in the maximum weekly weak component (MWCw) size over time. This finding in combination with constant population dynamics, may have been driven by the differential utilization of trucks over time. Despite known limitations of maximum weak components as an estimator of possible outbreaks, this finding suggests that transportation vehicles should be included, when possible and relevant, in the evaluation of contacts between farms.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Suínos , Transportes/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Ontário , Distribuição de Poisson
9.
J Anim Sci ; 98(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930299

RESUMO

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) causes significant economic losses to the feedlot industry due to decreased production and increased costs associated with treatment. This study aimed to assess the impacts of BRD on performance, carcass traits, and economic outcomes defined using four BRD diagnosis methods: number of BRD treatments an animal received, pleural lesions at slaughter, lung lesions at slaughter, and clinical BRD status defined using both treatment records and lung and pleural lesions. Crossbred steers (n = 898), with an initial body weight of 432 kg (± SD 51), were followed from feedlot entry to slaughter. Veterinary treatment records were collected and lungs scored at slaughter for lesions indicative of BRD. There was an 18% morbidity rate and a 2.1% BRD mortality rate, with an average net loss of AUD$1,647.53 per BRD mortality. Animals treated ≥3 times for BRD had 39.6 kg lighter carcasses at slaughter and returned an average of AUD$384.97 less compared to animals never treated for BRD (P < 0.001). Animals with severe lung lesions at slaughter grew 0.3 kg/d less, had 14.3 kg lighter carcasses at slaughter, and returned AUD$91.50 less than animals with no lung lesions (P < 0.001). Animals with subclinical and clinical BRD had 16.0 kg and 24.1 kg lighter carcasses, respectively, and returned AUD$67.10 and AUD$213.90 less at slaughter, respectively, compared to healthy animals that were never treated with no lesions (P < 0.001). The severity of BRD based on the number of treatments an animal received and the severity of lung and pleural lesions reduced animal performance, carcass weight and quality, and economic returns. Subclinical BRD reduced animal performance and economic returns compared to healthy animals; however, subclinical animals still had greater performance than animals with clinical BRD. This information can be used to plan for strategic investments aimed at reducing the impacts of BRD in feedlot cattle such as improved detection methods for subclinical animals with lesions at slaughter and BRD treatment protocols.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/diagnóstico , Animais , Composição Corporal , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/economia , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/patologia , Bovinos , Masculino
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(3): 526-533, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971130

RESUMO

Domestic animals have been associated with enteric infections in young children and can also be carriers of respiratory viruses. We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of health outcomes in children aged < 5 years associated with animal presence among 793 rural households in Uganda. We recorded the 2-week prevalence of diarrhea and respiratory infections in children, and the number of cows, poultry, sheep/goats, and pigs in the household. We used generalized linear models with robust standard errors to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) for diarrhea and respiratory infections associated with households owning the above- versus below-median number of animals. We conducted unadjusted and adjusted analyses controlling for socioeconomic, water, sanitation, and hygiene indicators. Children in households with the above-median number (> 5) of poultry had 83% higher diarrhea prevalence than those with ≤ 5 poultry (adjusted PR = 1.83 [1.04, 3.23], P = 0.04). Children in households with the above-median number (> 2) of cows had 48% lower prevalence of respiratory infection than those with ≤ 2 cows (adjusted PR = 0.52 [0.35, 0.76], P < 0.005). There were no other significant associations between domestic animals and child health. Studies should assess if barring chickens from indoor living quarters and sanitary disposal of chicken and other animal feces can reduce childhood zoonotic infections.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Propriedade , Aves Domésticas , Adulto , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Habitação , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Uganda/epidemiologia
11.
J Insect Sci ; 20(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927595

RESUMO

Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a notorious insect pest that attacks diverse vegetables and fruits worldwide. The sterile insect technique has been developed as an environmentally friendly and effective control method that depends on the mass production of target flies. Because dietary yeast (protein) and sucrose (carbohydrate) are important in adult diets, yeast:sucrose (Y:S) mixtures are crucial for the mass-rearing of B. dorsalis. In this study, we found adult diets with different ratios of yeast to sucrose-influenced fecundity, and an extremely high or low Y:S ratios significantly decreased egg production of B. dorsalis. Additionally, the maximum oviposition efficiency was realized at dietary yeast to sucrose ratios of 1:1 and 1:3, suggesting their potential use to produce more eggs for the mass production of B. dorsalis. Here, new gel diets having different yeast concentrations (g/L water) were also assessed for rearing B. dorsalis larvae. Gel diets containing 20 g/L yeast led to a higher pupation, pupal weight and adult eclosion rate, and a shorter developmental time than other yeast concentrations. Moreover, the present gel diet also resulted in greater pupal production and adult emergence rates than previously used liquid and solid artificial diets, revealing that it is suitable for rearing B. dorsalis larvae. This research provides a useful reference on artificial diets mixtures for mass rearing B. dorsalis, which is critical for employing the sterile insect technique.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Oviposição , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Tephritidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fermento Seco/administração & dosagem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227154, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910243

RESUMO

Mesenteric fat is a visceral fat depot that increases with cattle maturity and can be influenced by diet. There may be a relationship between the accumulation of mesenteric fat and feed efficiency in beef cattle. The purpose of this study was to identify genes that may be differentially expressed in steers with high and low BW gain and feed intake. RNA-Seq was used to evaluate the transcript abundance of genes in the mesenteric fat from a total of 78 steers collected over 5 different cohorts. A meta-analysis was used to identify genes involved with gain, feed intake or the interaction of both phenotypes. The interaction analysis identified 11 genes as differentially expressed. For the main effect of gain, a total of 87 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified (PADJ<0.05), and 24 were identified in the analysis for feed intake. Genes identified for gain were involved in functions and pathways including lipid metabolism, stress response/protein folding, cell proliferation/growth, axon guidance and inflammation. The genes for feed intake did not cluster into pathways, but some of the DEG for intake had functions related to inflammation, immunity, and/or signal transduction (JCHAIN, RIPK1, LY86, SPP1, LYZ, CD5, CD53, SRPX, and NF2). At PADJ<0.1, only 4 genes (OLFML3, LOC100300716, MRPL15, and PUS10) were identified as differentially expressed in two or more cohorts, highlighting the importance of evaluating the transcriptome of more than one group of animals and incorporating a meta-analysis. This meta-analysis has produced many mesenteric fat DEG that may be contributing to gain and feed intake in cattle.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Regulação do Apetite/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/genética , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Masculino , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma
13.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227704, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923262

RESUMO

In human-transformed landscapes, predators may feed on domesticated animals, and thus affect human well-being, creating negative perceptions and leading to conflict with people that can result in the persecution of the predator. We studied the factors that influence the perception of the Black-and-chestnut Eagle (Spizaetus isidori) in four rural Andean communities in Colombia and compiled historical and recent evidence on the persecution and other causes of mortality of this species in the country. We applied 267 questionnaires and conducted 16 interviews with local inhabitants, via visits to homes and schools in the surroundings of S. isidori nests. The perception of S. isidori by the inhabitants was largely negative and influenced by different socio-demographic factors such as gender, chicken (Gallus gallus) ownership, and chicken management. The records we obtained indicate that 47 eagles were shot, 16 were captured (three for illegal trafficking) and two were electrocuted on high-tension wires. The persecution of S. isidori occurs as retaliation or as a preventative measure against chicken predation, and is a significant cause of mortality of this species in Colombia. Effective conservation planning for S. isidori in Colombia needs to go further than the protected areas system, and include a socioecological perspective in conservation practices applied at landscapes scales that are dominated by people. Education programs and socioecological research, along with participatory work in local communities are key to the conservation of S. isidori in breeding territories. This approach can also prevent conflict over food resources-G. gallus and other poultry-that are shared by humans and S. isidori in rural landscapes.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Águias/fisiologia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Comportamento Predatório , Reprodução/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Colômbia , Humanos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 109020, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896019

RESUMO

Haemonchus contortus is one of the most important gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) infecting sheep, goats, and cattle worldwide. We developed a SYBR Green real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for detection and quantification of H. contortus by using specific primers based on a conserved region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mt-COI) gene, and evaluated this technique in the detection of H. contortus infections in cattle in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. The newly developed qPCR assay successfully discriminated H. contortus from other GIN species infecting cattle in the specificity evaluations, with a specific melt peak of 77.5 °C. Our results revealed the efficient amplification of the proposed target COI region within the range of plasmid copies, from 2 × 106 to 2 × 101 per µl, with 96.9 % efficiency, R² value of 0.999, and a slope of -3.398. Among the 920 cattle fecal samples from the field, 58 samples (6.3 %) were positive with qPCR assay, whereas 45 samples (4.9 %) were positive, as determined by larval culture, suggesting the utility of SYBR Green qPCR. Phylogenetic characterization of the partial COI gene of H. contortus isolates was also evaluated for 100 eggs and third stage larvae recovered from positive cattle faecal samples, which were verified with the qPCR assay prior to analyses. COI sequences were classified into three haplotypes (THC1 to THC3) with intraspecific nucleotide differences of 0.50 to 0.76 %. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the haplotypes grouped with H. contortus isolates from several countries in a monophyletic cluster, with evidence of at least two main haplogroups. Overall, the SYBR Green qPCR assay was highly specific and sensitive, suggesting that it can be used for screening of H. contortus infections in livestock populations in epidemiological studies and the control of this important parasite.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Hemoncose/diagnóstico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Especificidade da Espécie , Turquia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0220274, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978098

RESUMO

The nutritional and economic potentials of livestock systems are compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. A major driver of resistance is the misuse and abuse of antimicrobial drugs. The likelihood of misuse may be elevated in low- and middle-income countries where limited professional veterinary services and inadequately controlled access to drugs are assumed to promote non-prudent practices (e.g., self-administration of drugs). The extent of these practices, as well as the knowledge and attitudes motivating them, are largely unknown within most agricultural communities in low- and middle-income countries. The main objective of this study was to document dimensions of knowledge, attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in livestock systems and identify the livelihood factors associated with these dimensions. A mixed-methods ethnographic approach was used to survey households keeping layers in Ghana (N = 110) and Kenya (N = 76), pastoralists keeping cattle, sheep, and goats in Tanzania (N = 195), and broiler farmers in Zambia (N = 198), and Zimbabwe (N = 298). Across countries, we find that it is individuals who live or work at the farm who draw upon their knowledge and experiences to make decisions regarding antimicrobial use and related practices. Input from animal health professionals is rare and antimicrobials are sourced at local, privately owned agrovet drug shops. We also find that knowledge, attitudes, and particularly practices significantly varied across countries, with poultry farmers holding more knowledge, desirable attitudes, and prudent practices compared to pastoralist households. Multivariate models showed that variation in knowledge, attitudes and practices is related to several factors, including gender, disease dynamics on the farm, and source of animal health information. Study results emphasize that interventions to limit antimicrobial resistance should be founded upon a bottom-up understanding of antimicrobial use at the farm-level given limited input from animal health professionals and under-resourced regulatory capacities within most low- and middle-income countries. Establishing this bottom-up understanding across cultures and production systems will inform the development and implementation of the behavioral change interventions to combat antimicrobial resistance globally.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Fazendas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gado/microbiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas/microbiologia , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Gana , Humanos , Quênia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia , Zâmbia , Zimbábue
16.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 758-768, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926505

RESUMO

Causes of morbidity and mortality and a survey of infectious disease agents were collated from wild and colony-raised endangered Amargosa voles (Microtus californicus scirpensis). Six voles from the wild and 295 voles in the captive-breeding colony were included in the study upon identification of an infectious agent during screening, identification of clinical signs of disease, or finding a pathological condition or infectious agent on necropsy. Findings included 28 significant or incidental pathological conditions of seven organ systems and 19 parasitic, viral, bacterial, or fungal agents. Several voles captured in the wild had fungal osteomyelitis of the tail that disseminated systemically in a vole brought from the wild to the colony and may have been caused by a Penicillium sp. Three voles reintroduced from the colony to the wild experienced inanition and subsequent severe hepatic and moderate renal tubular lipidosis. The most common significant pathological conditions in colony-reared voles were chronic interstitial nephritis with proteinosis; cardiomyopathy; trichobezoars that, in intestines or cecocolic junctions, sometimes induced local rupture or infarction with peritonitis; multifocal gastrointestinal ulceration and colibacillosis; acute renal tubular necrosis or nephritis; sepsis; hepatic and renal lipidosis; molar apical elongation sometimes progressing to invasion of the calvarium; and mammary tumors. Uncommon diagnoses included intervertebral disc disease; microvascular dysplasia; and multifocal bacterial abscessation. Common or clinically important infectious agents included Demodex sp. mites in hair follicles, Demodex sp. in esophageal mucosa, and an outbreak of tropical rat mites thought to have been introduced via the straw bedding; gastrointestinal Helicobacter sp.; attaching and effacing Escherichia coli; and Citrobacter braakii, a possible zoonotic bacterium. This survey of species-specific diseases and pathogens was possible because the established health surveillance program that is part of the species recovery plan allowed for monitoring of voles throughout the duration of their natural life spans in captivity.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Arvicolinae , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/etiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Abrigo para Animais , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/patologia , Doenças dos Roedores/mortalidade , Doenças dos Roedores/patologia
17.
Zoo Biol ; 39(1): 29-36, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621114

RESUMO

Pangolins (Manis spp.) are myrmecophagous mammals with a wild diet of termites and ants. Diets are not yet readily acceptable by all pangolins and lack soil and chitin compared to their wild diet. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of including soil and chitin in pangolin diets by measuring changes in digestibility, food mean retention time, faecal scoring and body weight changes. Two male and two female Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) from Night Safari (Singapore) were fed their typical gruel-type diets, with soil and chitin added in various amounts throughout 10 different treatments. Diet intake was calculated daily and faecal boluses were collected for digestibility analysis. Chromium oxide was added to the diet to measure mean retention time four times per animal per treatment. Faecal consistency scores were recorded daily where 1 is firm and 5 is liquid. Every animal was weighed weekly. Adding soil or chitin to the diet had various effects on the apparent digestibility of organic matter, crude protein and fiber with little effects on crude fat or calcium. Soil had a general positive influence on organic matter and fiber digestion. The addition of chitin and soil together had the stronger effects. Only at 25% inclusion of soil did the faecal score begin to improve. The overall maintenance energy requirements for adult M. javanica was 79.28 Kcal/kg BW0.75 /day, similar to other myrmecophagous mammals. The usage of soil and chitin in pangolin diets may be helpful in controlling weights while preventing behaviours associated with hunger.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Quitina , Fezes/química , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Solo , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Masculino
18.
Zoo Biol ; 39(1): 56-62, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663179

RESUMO

Caring for all aspects of zoo elephants' well-being is considered a major challenge. Providing an appropriate flooring substrate to facilitate lying rest presents a meaningful part of a holistic management concept. Investigating the impact of a new sand flooring on the nocturnal resting behavior of a breeding group of seven African elephants living at one zoo revealed more total lying rest, longer bouts of lying rest and a reduced side preference in the adult females. With an average total daily lying rest of about 1.5-2.0 hrs, the investigated zoo elephants expressed longer lying rest compared to recently reported data from free-ranging individuals in Botswana. In addition, the presence of nursing calves in the observed elephant group seemed to impact the resting pattern of all group members, with around 60% of all lying bouts being discontinued after interruption by the youngsters. With respect to observed nursing during leaning rest, we encourage the installation of appropriate horizontal structures in breeding facilities to support leaning rest behavior of their female elephants. In doing so, zoos may improve rest quality of nursing females, and, in general, the welfare aspect of sleep for their elephants.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Comportamento Animal , Elefantes/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Descanso , Comportamento Social , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , 24975
19.
Zoo Biol ; 39(1): 3-12, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682017

RESUMO

The relationship between inadequate foraging opportunities and the expression of oral repetitive behaviors has been well documented in many production animal species. However, this relationship has been less-well examined in zoo-housed animals, particularly avian species. The expression of oral repetitive behavior may embody a frustrated foraging response, and may therefore be alleviated with the provision of foraging enrichment. In this study, we examined the effect of different foraging-based enrichment items on a group of captive red-tailed black cockatoos who were previously observed performing oral repetitive behavior. A group of six cockatoos were presented with five foraging enrichment conditions (no enrichment (control), sliced cucumber, fresh grass, baffle cages, and millet discs). Baseline activity budgets were established over a 10-day preintervention period and interventions were then presented systematically over a 25-day experimental period. This study demonstrated that the provision of foraging interventions effectively increased the median percentage of time spent foraging compared to control conditions (range, 5.0-31.7% across interventions vs. 5.0% for control), with two of the interventions; grass and millet discs, significantly decreasing the expression of oral repetitive behaviors (control = 16.6 vs. 8.3% for both grass and millet discs). Finally, a rapid-scoring method utilized by zookeepers during the study proved to be a useful proxy for the amount of time the cockatoos spent interacting with the foraging interventions and overall time spent foraging.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais de Zoológico , Comportamento Animal , Cacatuas/fisiologia , Comportamento Estereotipado , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
20.
Zoo Biol ; 39(1): 37-50, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710122

RESUMO

To more closely simulate the diet of free-ranging elephants, the diet of six (2.4) African elephants (Loxodonta africana) was altered to include more browse and less pelleted complete feed (5% total diet). Dietary proximate compounds, minerals, vitamins A (and carotenoids), D and E, and fatty acids were analyzed on pelleted diet items and forages including hay, grass, and browse. A total of 42 browse species were offered over 1 year with an average total diet inclusion of 5.2% (dry matter basis) per day. Dietary Na and Se were low while Fe and Mn were high compared to published intake levels for elephants. Analyzed nutrients within browse varied widely among seasons and species. Ingredient analyses were used to create predicted elephant nutrient intake for (a) the current diet, (b) a diet excluding pellets, and (c) a diet excluding pellets and providing browse at doubled levels. Formulated diets excluding pellets had lower mineral levels than the current diet and doubled browse did not alter mineral inclusions of concern. This study provides seasonal data on the nutrient levels of Southeastern browse species important for various pachyderm and herbivorous species. Predicted nutrient intake with new diet scenarios does not support the exclusion of pellets in the diets of African elephants without greater browse quantity availability, strict diet management, or additional supplements.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Dieta/veterinária , Elefantes/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Feminino , Masculino
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