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1.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 163(3): 203-217, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650521

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of new animal husbandry concepts includes, beyond the exploration of chosen parameters, that the question is addressed whether economic benefits for producers and ethical benefits for society result of the new system when compared to traditional systems. In a previous study, a novel management and housing concept for veal production («outdoor veal calf¼, OVC) was tested from October 2016 to July 2018. The OVC concept was associated with distinctly lower antimicrobial use while average daily weight gain was similar and calf welfare better; furthermore mortality was lower compared to conventional label fattening. The aim of the present study was to compare economics between the OVC concept on intervention farms (IF) and the IP-SUISSE label concept on control farms (CF) by calculating contribution margins (CM). The CM indicates the difference between the performance of a production branch (e. g. slaughter return) and the allocable costs for this production branch (e. g. feed costs). In the present study, two different approaches were used for CM calculation to analyze the available data in detail. No substantial differences in CM between the OVC concept and the IP-SUISSE concept were found in either approach. However, the specific CM varied between the approaches as different calculation criteria for quantities and prices were applied (approach «real¼ with accurate costs and returns from the OVC study and approach «standardized¼ with costs and returns based on the CM catalogue). The CM varied slightly for the CM per man-hour (IF «real¼: 6.96 CHF/man-hour, «standardized¼: 4.49 CHF/man-hour; CF: 7.90 CHF/man-hour and 8.08 CHF/man-hour, respectively) and considerably for the CM per fattening space and year (IF «real¼: -380.36 CHF, «standardized¼: -559.50 CHF; CF: -244.70 CHF and -318.80 CHF, -respectively). Producing veal with the OVC concept -allowed for achieving comparable CM/man-hour as in conventional label production. Thus, the farmers' economic interests should be warranted when implementing the OVC concept.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Abrigo para Animais , Suíça
2.
Zoo Biol ; 40(2): 160-168, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544907

RESUMO

The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior and welfare in captivity of reptiles and of freshwater turtles in particular, which are popular aquarium and pet species, is very little studied compared to other taxa. We carried out a small scale case-study on the effect of colored object enrichment, with and without fish scent, on the behavior of a group of 15 cooters (Pseudemys sp.) and sliders (Trachemys scripta ssp.) on display at a public aquarium. The new enrichment aimed to reduce the escape behavior (interaction with transparent boundaries) and increase exploration and random swimming. We used simultaneous recording of behavior at whole group level and for focal individually-marked turtles. The escape behavior decreased on days with new enrichment before feeding at whole group level and for the focal turtles overall, in spite of the relatively low interest in the colored objects. Fish-scented objects attracted significantly more interest. Random swimming, enrichment focus, aggression and submission increased significantly, and basking decreased significantly at whole group level before feeding, with smaller differences after feeding. There were large differences between individual turtles with respect to activity budgets and changes in behavior on days with new enrichment, with both increases and decreases seen in escape behavior, aggression, and levels of activity. Our outcomes suggested that introducing new colored objects with food scent may be beneficial for reducing escape behavior in captive freshwater turtles. However, careful monitoring of effects at individual level and much larger scale investigations, including postenrichment periods, are needed.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Comportamento Animal , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Agressão , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Feminino , Masculino , Odorantes
3.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 420-430, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518093

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the performance of broiler chickens fed on 3 black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) and Greenleaf desmodium (Desmodium intortum)-based meals. We evaluated growth performance, carcass quality, and profitability under various commercial pathways (doorstep, retail, whole, and assorted). Desmodium and BSFL powders were formulated into 3 ratios: T1 25:75, T2 50:50, and T3 75:25. A commercial feed was used as a control. One hundred and twenty mixed-sex 1-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb) were reared in pens for 42 d in a completely randomized design. The chickens were weighed weekly to monitor their growth rate. After the 42-day rearing period, they were slaughtered for carcass quality evaluation and recording of the weights of internal organs. During the initial growth phase (7-21 d), significant effects of fish meal replacement were found on the chickens' average weight (P < 0.001), average daily body weight gain (P < 0.001), average daily feed intake (P < 0.001), and feed conversion ratio (P < 0.001). However, during the second phase (21-42 d), no significant effect of the replacement was detected except on average daily feed intake (P = 0.003). No significant differences were found in terms of the relative weights of internal organs. It was found that Desmodium-BSFL-based feeds were more profitable than the control feed, and the assorted and retail modes of sale generated more revenue compared to when the chickens were sold at doorstep and on whole-chicken basis. The return on investment was higher for a push-pull adopter compared to a non-adopter. The study found that a BSFL-Desmodium mixture can be a valuable replacement for the protein component in conventional feed and would provide a new impetus for the adoption of push-pull.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Ração Animal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Dípteros , Agricultura/métodos , Ração Animal/economia , Ração Animal/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/economia , Dieta/normas , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Quênia , Larva , Carne/economia , Carne/normas
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1120-1131, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518071

RESUMO

In this study, we analyzed the parent stock of ISA Brown hens reared in closed and open aviary (CA and OA, respectively) sections with regard to the productive performance of hens, hatchability, and quality of chicks. The flocks were reared (1,570 cocks and 17,515 hens) for 16 wk in a three-level aviary system. On the 7th wk of rearing, half of the birds (OA group of birds) were allowed to leave the section and use half of the area of the poultry house and to use all levels. The remaining half of the birds were kept in the CA section for the entire duration of rearing. After the duration of rearing, the birds were moved to 2 neighboring production poultry houses (OA = 680 cocks and 8,126 hens; CA = 685 cocks and 8,133 hens). Reproduction was performed in a litter system in accordance with the norms for parent stock of laying hens. During the production cycle (53 wk), laying performance, feed conversion ratio, water consumption, and mortality were analyzed. On 27th, 37th, and 49th wk of production, the following analysis was performed: rate of fertilization (%), rate of hatching (%), and quality of chick. In accordance with the results, birds in OA flock required less amount of feed (P < 0.001) and water (P = 0.020) to produce a laid egg, a hatching egg (respectively: P < 0.001; P = 0.009), and a chick (both P < 0.001) in comparison with the birds in CA flock. In addition, a lower number of litter eggs were found in the OA flock (P < 0.001). Mean laying production, production of hatching eggs, and number of waste eggs did not depend on the flock rearing system (P > 0.05); however, a combined analysis of all these parameters using multivariate analysis of variance demonstrated a better (P < 0.001) result for OA flock than that of CA flock. Rate of fertilization, rate of hatching, and quality of chicks did not depend on the flock rearing system (P > 0.05). In summary, it is possible to rear parent ISA Brown hens in open sections of aviary system without the fear of subsequent deterioration of indicators of future egg production.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais/classificação , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Oviposição/fisiologia
5.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100840, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531152

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of 3 rearing systems (FL: flooring litter rearing, MC: multilayer cage rearing, PN: plastic net rearing) with or without supplemental narasin on growth performance, gastrointestine development and health of broilers. A total of 2,400 one-day-old Ross 308 mixed-sex broilers (1:1 ratio of males and females) were used in a completely randomized design utilizing a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, with 12 replicates per treatment. Each replicate for FL, MC, and PN consisted of 34 birds per floor pen, 30 birds per cage, and 36 birds per net pen, respectively, ensuring the same stocking density (12 birds/m2) across the 3 systems. Results showed that lower ADG (average daily gain), ADFI (average daily feed intake), and FCR (feed conversation ratio) observed in the MC group than those of the other 2 systems from 1 to 36 d of age (P < 0.05). Narasin inclusion in the diets decreased ADFI and FCR significantly (P < 0.05). Multilayer cage and PN rearing systems reduced the relative weight of the gizzard significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with FL, MC reduced the relative weight of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of the ileal IL-1ß and IFN-γ in FL were higher than those in PN and MC (P < 0.05). Narasin decreased the ileal mRNA expression of TNF-α (P < 0.05). Different rearing systems changed the ileal microflora structure of broilers. The FL system increased the ileal microbial diversity of broilers and the relative abundance of Actinobacteria. Narasin combined with MC increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria. In conclusion, birds reared in PN had a higher body weight. The MC birds had poorer intestinal development and health condition, higher abundance of Proteobacteria, but better FCR. The FL rearing appeared to be propitious for gastrointestinal development and health. Narasin inclusion in the diets improved FCR and changed the relative abundance Proteobacteria of broilers.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal , Piranos , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biodiversidade , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Moela das Aves/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Piranos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória
6.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100953, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518300

RESUMO

In on-farm hatching systems, eggs are transported at d 18 of incubation to the broiler farm, where chickens have immediate access to feed and water after hatching. In hatchery-fed systems, newly hatched chickens have immediate access to feed and water in the hatchery and are transported to the farm thereafter. Conventionally hatched chickens can remain without access to feed and water up to 72 h after hatching until placement on the farm. The current study compared day-old chicken quality, performance, and slaughter yield of broiler chickens that were on-farm hatched (OH), hatchery-fed (HF), or conventionally hatchery-hatched (HH). The experiment was performed in 6 rooms in 1 house. Each room contained 2 duplicate pens with approximately 1,155 chickens per pen; 2 rooms with each 2 duplicate pens were assigned to 1 treatment. The experiment was repeated during 3 consecutive production cycles. Chickens originated from young parent stock flocks. Results showed that HF and OH chickens were heavier and longer than HH chickens at day (D) 1. Relative weight of stomach and intestines were highest for OH chickens. The OH chickens had worse day-old chicken quality in terms of navel condition and red hocks than HH and HF chickens. Treatments did not differ in first wk and total mortality. From D0 until slaughter age, body weight was highest for OH, followed by HF and HH. Furthermore, carcass weight at slaughter age (D40) was highest for OH chickens, followed by HF and HH chickens. Breast fillets showed a higher incidence of white striping and wooden breast in HF and OH chickens compared with HH chickens. In conclusion, the current study showed that both OH and HF chickens of young parent flocks had better growth performance, which could explain the higher prevalence of breast myopathies, compared with HH. The worse day-old chicken quality for OH compared with HH and HF does not seem to affect first wk mortality and later life performance.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Galinhas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Carne/normas , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Transportes , Zigoto/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100946, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518336

RESUMO

Broiler chicks usually hatch in the hatchery without access to feed and water until placement at the farm. This can affect their health and welfare negatively. Therefore, alternative strategies have been developed, for instance providing chicks with early nutrition in the hatchery or hatching eggs directly on-farm. However, information on the physical and mental welfare of chicks hatched in these systems compared to conventionally hatched chicks is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alternative hatching systems on the welfare of broiler chickens in early and later life. A system comparison was performed with chickens that hatched conventionally in a hatchery (HH), in a system which provided light, feed, and water in a hatcher (hatchery-fed, HF), or on-farm (on-farm hatched, OH, where feed and water were available and transport of day-old chicks from the hatchery to the farm was not necessary). Chickens were reared in 3 batches, in 12 floor pens per batch (approximately 1,155 animals per pen), with a total of 12 replicates per treatment. Animal-based welfare indicators were assessed following standard protocols: plumage cleanliness, footpad dermatitis (FPD), hock burn, skin lesions (all at day 21 and 35 of age), and gait score (day 35). Furthermore, a set of behavioral tests was carried out: novel environment (day 1 and 21), tonic immobility, novel object, and avoidance distance test (day 4 and 35). Plumage cleanliness, hock burn, and skin lesions were affected by age but not by hatching system, with older broilers scoring worse than younger ones (P < 0.05). An effect of hatching system was only found for FPD, with the highest prevalence in HH chickens, followed by HF and OH chickens (P < 0.05). All responses measured in the behavioral tests were affected by age but not by hatching system. In later life, chickens were significantly less fearful than during the first days of life. The results indicate that conventionally hatched chickens scored significantly worse for FPD, whereas, in general, hatching system seemed to have minor effects on other broiler welfare indicators.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Galinhas , Zigoto , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Métodos de Alimentação/normas , Estado Nutricional , Zigoto/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 125-137, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541694

RESUMO

Estrus synchronization and manipulation are a tool that has been used by producers to provide uniform lamb and kid meat production and dairy sheep and goat milk production, to concentrate work and labor cost, and to plan for the lambing and kidding time. Breeders can also use estrus synchronization to stimulate ewes and does to exhibit estrus and ovulate outside of the breeding season, although both the ovulation rate and pregnancy rate may be decreased. To increase the ovulation rate outside of the breeding season, a variety of estrus synchronization methods have been used.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Cabras/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Estações do Ano
9.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 149-174, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541696

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is the most important cause of clinical mastitis in goats, and non-aureus staphylococci is the most common isolate from subclinical mastitis. Environmental streptococci are a severe problem. Somatic cell counts and California mastitis test are a screening test for mastitis and an indicator of poor udder health, but values should be interpreted differently than with dairy cattle. Somatic cell scores likely are a more useful way of viewing data. High bacterial counts in milk are common; mastitis may be involved as a cause. Proper udder preparation, milking procedure, and postmilking management are key factors in mastitis control.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Mastite/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mastite/diagnóstico , Mastite/microbiologia , Mastite/prevenção & controle , Leite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária
10.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 209-219, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541700

RESUMO

Sheep operations will be subject to movement controls during a US foot and mouth disease outbreak and should be prepared to manage animal and product movement disruptions. The voluntary Secure Sheep and Wool Supply (SSWS) Plan for Continuity of Business provides tools for the sheep industry to develop contingency plans, write enhanced, operation-specific biosecurity plans, and learn about disease surveillance opportunities and challenges. The SSWS Plan is science-based and risk-based, funded by the American Sheep Industry Association, and developed collaboratively with industry, government officials, and veterinarians at Iowa State University. For more information, visit www.securesheepwool.org.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lã/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria Têxtil , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 33-54, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541701

RESUMO

This article discusses key welfare issues for small ruminants and gives practical management advice. Welfare assessment is vital to ensure that optimal conditions are provided. Practitioners can play a key role in identifying areas of potential welfare compromise and implement interventions. With the knowledge and careful identification of indicators of welfare, practitioners and producers can develop a management plan that can ensure proper nutrition, environment, and health to allow for natural behaviors and a positive affective state; identification of animal health and management issues; and (3) allocation of adequate resources to improve the welfare of sheep and goats.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal/organização & administração , Cabras , Ovinos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Ruminantes , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 94, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415457

RESUMO

The effect of pasture management on CH4 emissions was investigated from goats in a tropical climate. Two experiments were conducted in a "Tanzania Guinea grass" (Panicum maximum Jacq.) pasture to assess enteric CH4 production in a completely randomized design. Emissions from light, moderate, and heavy grazing intensities were analyzed in the first experiment, and variations between grazing days were explored in the second experiment. Grazing intensity was defined as 2.4, 1.6, and 0.8 post-grazing leaf area index. Pasture management employed intermittent grazing with variable stocking rate using Anglo Nubian female adult goats. SF6 tracer gas technique was used to measure CH4 production. Grazing intensity was not found to affect CH4 emissions per animal, dry matter forage intake (DMI), and gross energy (GE) intake. However, the second experiment showed that CH4 production was influenced by the grazing day. CH4 emissions were 18.1 g day-1, and the variables were 0.88 g kg-1 of metabolic weight, 17.45 g kg-1 of DMI, and 5.5% of GE. CH4 production increased linearly with the grazing day, possibly reflecting a reduction in forage quality. These findings suggest that the day of occupation in intermittent grazing has a greater effect on CH4 emissions than that by grazing intensity and that a single day grazing of Tanzania Guinea grass could mitigate CH4 emissions.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Cabras/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Brasil , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Pradaria
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 96, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415523

RESUMO

Three experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of different molting methods on the growth performance, detection of estrogen receptors (ERs), and immunohistochemical properties of some tissues in pre-, during, and post-molting of layers. In experiment 1, 302 Hy-line W-36 were reared from 75 to 76 weeks. In experiment 2, a total of 252 Hy-line W-36 were randomly allocated to 7 groups, with 6 replications and 6 birds in each. Hens fed in the E and D groups reached 30% of loss weight sooner (P < 0.05). Egg production was also sooner stopped in the FW group than in other ones (P < 0.05). In experiment 3, after inducing molting, each group in experiment 2 was divided into 2 groups with and without Humulus lupulus (Hop). The E group feed intake was increased, as compared to groups F and C (P < 0.05). A significant increase in egg weight was found by applying Hop and molting methods (P < 0.05). Days for return to the initial egg production and 10% egg laying were significantly decreased in the birds fed by Hop in the E and D groups (P < 0.05). The W-D, N-D, W-E, and N-E groups sooner returned to 50% egg laying, in comparison to other treatments (P < 0.05). Plasma estrogen and ERs were decreased by the molting programs, as compared with pre-molting; however, Hop increased their post-molting. After the molting period, egg production and ERs were increased significantly, as compared with the pre-molting period. To conclude, the white button mushroom residual, through decreasing ERs, could be used successfully for forced molting, and Hop could lead to a good performance by increasing ERs in the second laying cycle.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Galinhas/fisiologia , Humulus/química , Muda/efeitos dos fármacos , Portulaca/química , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória
14.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(4): 1489-1497, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398398

RESUMO

The composition of microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract is closely related to the intestinal microenvironments and the exterior growth environments of host. In this study, 16S rDNA sequencing technology was adopted to investigate the influence of fermentation bed on the cecum microorganisms of ducks. Two feeding density treatment groups were set up, including group A (n = 4brids/m2) and group B (n = 6brids/m2). Samples were collected from the intermediate core fermentation layer (10-20 cm) of the fermented mattress materials and from the intestinal contents of ducks at 4, 6 and 8 weeks, respectively. Results showed that Bacteroidetes (20.12-27.17%) and Ruminococcaceae UCG-014 (2.97-10.1%) were the predominant microorganisms in duck cecum, while the Truepera (5.08-6.29%), Pricia (4.44-5.44%) and Luteimonas (3.62-4.99%) were the dominant microorganisms in fermentation mattress material. The cecum bacteria exhibited great difference among different growth periods of the ducks. Increasing the stocking density of ducks had a negative effect on the beneficial bacteria in the cecum. The microbial populations in fermentation mattress material were very different from that in the cecal. In summary, our findings can provide a scientific data for the rational use of fermentation bed feeding mode in poultry production.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Ceco , Patos , Fermentação , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacteroidetes/genética , Ceco/microbiologia , Patos/genética , Patos/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
15.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 1-8, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357671

RESUMO

In commercial egg production, laying hen chicks are exposed to several stressful events during incubation, hatching, and their first hours in life. We have previously shown that hatching and processing are associated with increased corticosterone concentration and further affect behavior and stress sensitivity in a short- as well as long-term perspective. However, it is not known whether these long-term stress effects are caused by the hatchery processing (sex sorting, vaccination, conveying, and loading for transport) or if they are mainly caused by potentially stressful events before processing, during incubation and hatching. In the present study, the aim was to assess the effects of incubation and hatching only, compared to stress effects from the entire hatchery processing. We compared Lohmann LSL chicks incubated, hatched, and processed in a commercial hatchery with chicks incubated and hatched at the same time but not further processed. We studied behavior in a novel arena and during tonic immobility, as well as weight development and corticosterone reaction during a stress challenge. Processed chicks had poorer weight development and were more active in the novel arena test. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in corticosterone reactivity or tonic immobility. When comparing with previous data, both groups had elevated corticosterone concentrations compared to what we had previously reported from chicks hatched under calm and non-stressful conditions. In conclusion, incubation and hatching alone caused long-term stress effects in chickens, but further processing exacerbated these effects to some extent.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Galinhas , Estresse Fisiológico , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/fisiologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Masculino , Ganho de Peso
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 94-102, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357712

RESUMO

Hatchery efficiency is based on hatchability and the number of salable chicks. The hatchery sector has been seeking new alternatives to optimize production rates, including the use of different systems (multistage [MS] or single-stage [SS] machines) to improve incubation conditions. The present study aimed to compare results for hatchability, chick quality, and broiler performance of chicks from 2 incubator systems-MS and SS. The experimental design for hatchability, hatch window, egg weight loss, and chick performance variables was completely randomized with 2 treatments (MS and SS). Performance variables were analyzed as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (incubator type x chick sex). Egg weight loss between incubation and transfer was higher for eggs incubated in MS (P < 0.05). Hatchability was higher for eggs incubated in SS (P < 0.05), and chicks in SS had a longer hatch window (P < 0.05). Embryo diagnosis revealed higher final mortality for embryos incubated in MS (P < 0.05), as well as higher percentages of alive and dead pipped and cracked eggs (P < 0.05). Physical quality was better for chicks from SS (P < 0.05). There was no interaction between the studied factors for performance results (P > 0.05). Incubator type did not affect broiler performance for any of the studied ages (P > 0.05), whereas male broilers had better performance than females (P < 0.05). The SS incubation system proved better than the MS system at meeting embryo requirements during embryo development, with better hatching rates and chick quality, although performance variables were not influenced by incubation type.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Galinhas , Incubadoras , Zigoto , Criação de Animais Domésticos/instrumentação , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Embrião de Galinha/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Incubadoras/normas , Incubadoras/veterinária , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores Sexuais , Zigoto/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 314-318, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357695

RESUMO

A new poultry litter disinfection methodology against pathogenic Salmonella spp. serovars using gaseous ammonia is proposed in this study. In the laboratory, the poultry litter was disposed into plastic containers and experimentally contaminated with 3 Salmonella spp. serovars separately. Positive and negative control groups were tested. With a system of hoses, 1% gaseous ammonia was injected into the containers in cycles for 48 h. Samples of the poultry litter were collected and submitted to bacteriological analysis. For the second part, we selected a broiler poultry farm with positive litters for Salmonella heidelberg in 2 houses. The littler was treated by gaseous ammonia in a concentration of 2,411 ppm and wrapped with a plastic cover for 48 h during the sanitary break. After the treatment, a new broiler batch was housedand swab samples were collected in the 25-day-old. After the action of the gaseous compound, there was no reisolation of the serovars, and the batches housed on the ammonia-treated litter no longer showed positive results for Salmonella. The total elimination of the pathogenic microorganisms by the new method suggests that the controlled use of ammonia gas in poultry litter may represent a viable disinfection technique.


Assuntos
Amônia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Desinfecção , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Aves Domésticas , Salmonelose Animal , Amônia/farmacologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Desinfecção/métodos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonella , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle
18.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 221-236, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358316

RESUMO

There are hundreds of small reindeer operations scattered across the continental United States. These facilities house small groups of reindeer, typically between 2 and 30 animals. Small ruminant practitioners often are called on to help diagnose and treat a variety of conditions in these reindeer herds. This article discusses the restraint, anesthesia, reproductive management, common diseases, and problems that a veterinarian may encounter when providing care for Rangifer species.


Assuntos
Rena , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais
19.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0229478, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378382

RESUMO

Livestock keepers in sub-Saharan Africa face a range of pressures, including climate change, land loss, restrictive policies, and population increase. Widespread adaptation in response can lead to the emergence of new, non-traditional typologies of livestock production. We sought to characterise livestock production systems in two administrative regions in northern Tanzania, an area undergoing rapid social, economic, and environmental change. Questionnaire and spatial data were collected from 404 livestock-keeping households in 21 villages in Arusha and Manyara Regions in 2016. Multiple factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to classify households into livestock production systems based on household-level characteristics. Adversity-based indicators of vulnerability, including reports of hunger, illness, and livestock, land and crop losses were compared between production systems. Three distinct clusters emerged through this process. The ethnic, environmental and livestock management characteristics of households in each cluster broadly mapped onto traditional definitions of 'pastoral', 'agro-pastoral' and 'smallholder' livestock production in the study area, suggesting that this quantitative classification system is complementary to more qualitative classification methods. Our approach allowed us to demonstrate a diversity in typologies of livestock production at small spatial scales, with almost half of study villages comprising more than one production system. We also found indicators of change within livestock production systems, most notably the adoption of crop agriculture in the majority of pastoral households. System-level heterogeneities in vulnerability were evident, with agro-pastoral households most likely to report hunger and pastoral households most likely to report illness in people and livestock, and livestock losses. We demonstrate that livestock production systems can provide context for assessing household vulnerability in northern Tanzania. Policy initiatives to improve household and community well-being should recognise the continuing diversity of traditional livestock production systems in northern Tanzania, including the diversity that can exist at small spatial scales.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Gado , Agricultura/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Animais , Humanos , Tanzânia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239156, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970742

RESUMO

A study evaluating apparent digestibilities of protein and amino acids and their corresponding digestion rates in four small intestinal sites in broiler chickens was completed to further investigate dietary optimisation via synchronised nutrient digestion and absorption. A total of 288 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were offered semi-purified diets with eight protein-rich feedstuffs, including; blood meal (BM), plasma protein meal (PPM), cold pressed (CCM) and expeller-pressed (ECM) canola meal, high (SBM HCP) and low (SBM LCP) crude protein soybean meals, lupins and peas. Diets were iso-caloric, iso-nitrogenous and the test ingredient was the sole source of dietary nitrogen. Each diet was offered to 6 bioassay cages with 6 birds per cage from day 21 to 28 post hatch. On day 28, all birds were euthanized and digesta samples were collected from the proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, proximal ileum and distal ileum to determine apparent protein and amino acids digestibility coefficients, digestion rates and potential digestible protein and amino acids. Dietary protein source significantly influenced energy utilisation, nitrogen retention, apparent protein (N) digestibilities, digestion rates and potential digestible protein along the small intestine. Diets containing BM and SBM LCP exhibited the highest protein digestion rate and potential digestible protein, respectively. Digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of the majority of amino acids in four sections of the small intestine were influenced by dietary protein source (P < 0.01) and blood meal had the fastest protein digestion rate. In general, jejunal amino acid and protein digestibilities were more variable in comparison to ileal digestibilities, and the differences in protein and amino acid disappearance rates were more pronounced between types of feedstuffs than sources of similar feedstuffs.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Íleo/metabolismo , Jejuno/metabolismo , Masculino
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