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1.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 109020, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896019

RESUMO

Haemonchus contortus is one of the most important gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) infecting sheep, goats, and cattle worldwide. We developed a SYBR Green real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for detection and quantification of H. contortus by using specific primers based on a conserved region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mt-COI) gene, and evaluated this technique in the detection of H. contortus infections in cattle in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. The newly developed qPCR assay successfully discriminated H. contortus from other GIN species infecting cattle in the specificity evaluations, with a specific melt peak of 77.5 °C. Our results revealed the efficient amplification of the proposed target COI region within the range of plasmid copies, from 2 × 106 to 2 × 101 per µl, with 96.9 % efficiency, R² value of 0.999, and a slope of -3.398. Among the 920 cattle fecal samples from the field, 58 samples (6.3 %) were positive with qPCR assay, whereas 45 samples (4.9 %) were positive, as determined by larval culture, suggesting the utility of SYBR Green qPCR. Phylogenetic characterization of the partial COI gene of H. contortus isolates was also evaluated for 100 eggs and third stage larvae recovered from positive cattle faecal samples, which were verified with the qPCR assay prior to analyses. COI sequences were classified into three haplotypes (THC1 to THC3) with intraspecific nucleotide differences of 0.50 to 0.76 %. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the haplotypes grouped with H. contortus isolates from several countries in a monophyletic cluster, with evidence of at least two main haplogroups. Overall, the SYBR Green qPCR assay was highly specific and sensitive, suggesting that it can be used for screening of H. contortus infections in livestock populations in epidemiological studies and the control of this important parasite.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Hemoncose/diagnóstico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Especificidade da Espécie , Turquia
2.
J Insect Sci ; 20(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927595

RESUMO

Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a notorious insect pest that attacks diverse vegetables and fruits worldwide. The sterile insect technique has been developed as an environmentally friendly and effective control method that depends on the mass production of target flies. Because dietary yeast (protein) and sucrose (carbohydrate) are important in adult diets, yeast:sucrose (Y:S) mixtures are crucial for the mass-rearing of B. dorsalis. In this study, we found adult diets with different ratios of yeast to sucrose-influenced fecundity, and an extremely high or low Y:S ratios significantly decreased egg production of B. dorsalis. Additionally, the maximum oviposition efficiency was realized at dietary yeast to sucrose ratios of 1:1 and 1:3, suggesting their potential use to produce more eggs for the mass production of B. dorsalis. Here, new gel diets having different yeast concentrations (g/L water) were also assessed for rearing B. dorsalis larvae. Gel diets containing 20 g/L yeast led to a higher pupation, pupal weight and adult eclosion rate, and a shorter developmental time than other yeast concentrations. Moreover, the present gel diet also resulted in greater pupal production and adult emergence rates than previously used liquid and solid artificial diets, revealing that it is suitable for rearing B. dorsalis larvae. This research provides a useful reference on artificial diets mixtures for mass rearing B. dorsalis, which is critical for employing the sterile insect technique.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Oviposição , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Tephritidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fermento Seco/administração & dosagem
3.
Zoo Biol ; 39(1): 3-12, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682017

RESUMO

The relationship between inadequate foraging opportunities and the expression of oral repetitive behaviors has been well documented in many production animal species. However, this relationship has been less-well examined in zoo-housed animals, particularly avian species. The expression of oral repetitive behavior may embody a frustrated foraging response, and may therefore be alleviated with the provision of foraging enrichment. In this study, we examined the effect of different foraging-based enrichment items on a group of captive red-tailed black cockatoos who were previously observed performing oral repetitive behavior. A group of six cockatoos were presented with five foraging enrichment conditions (no enrichment (control), sliced cucumber, fresh grass, baffle cages, and millet discs). Baseline activity budgets were established over a 10-day preintervention period and interventions were then presented systematically over a 25-day experimental period. This study demonstrated that the provision of foraging interventions effectively increased the median percentage of time spent foraging compared to control conditions (range, 5.0-31.7% across interventions vs. 5.0% for control), with two of the interventions; grass and millet discs, significantly decreasing the expression of oral repetitive behaviors (control = 16.6 vs. 8.3% for both grass and millet discs). Finally, a rapid-scoring method utilized by zookeepers during the study proved to be a useful proxy for the amount of time the cockatoos spent interacting with the foraging interventions and overall time spent foraging.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais de Zoológico , Comportamento Animal , Cacatuas/fisiologia , Comportamento Estereotipado , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
4.
N Z Vet J ; 68(2): 92-100, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722187

RESUMO

Aims: To investigate the seroprevalence of infection with bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus among 75 beef herds and seroconversion in cattle during early pregnancy, and to determine the practices and opinions of farmers towards BVD control and their association with real and perceived herd serological status.Methods: Blood samples were collected before mating in 75 beef herds across New Zealand from 15 unvaccinated heifers that had delivered their first calf that season. Serum samples were tested for BVD antibodies using ELISA individually, and after pooling samples for each farm. Animals that were antibody-negative were retested at either pregnancy diagnosis or weaning. Farmers were asked to complete a detailed survey about herd demographics, BVD testing and vaccination practices, and opinions towards national BVD control.Results: Based on the pooled serum antibody ELISA results, there were 28/75 (37%) negative herds, 15/75 (20%) suspect herds, and 32/75 (43%) positive herds. Of 1,117 animals sampled 729 (65.3%) tested negative for BVD virus antibodies; when retested, 47/589 (8.0%) animals from 13/55 (24%) herds had seroconverted. Among 71 famers providing survey responses 11 (15%) believed their herd was infected with BVD, 24 (34%) were unsure and 36 (51%) did not think their herd was infected. Only 19/71 (18%) farmers had performed any BVD testing within the past 5 years and 50/70 (71%) had not vaccinated any cattle for BVD. Support for national BVD eradication programme was strong in 51/71 (56%) respondents, but the biggest challenge to BVD control was considered to be famer compliance. Compared to farmers who did not think their herd was infected, more farmers who thought BVD was present in their herds had previously tested for BVD, would consider testing all replacement calves, and would support establishing a national BVD database; fewer would consider purchasing BVD tested or vaccinated cattle only.Conclusions and clinical relevance: Only 15% of the beef farmers in this study believed their herds were infected with BVD virus and few of them had undertaken BVD screening. Nevertheless many were supportive of implementing a national BVD control programme. It is likely that the lack of farmer awareness around BVD and the failure of farmers to recognise the potential impacts in their herds are hindering progress in controlling the disease in New Zealand. There are opportunities for New Zealand veterinarians to be more proactive in helping beef farmers explore BVD management options.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Fazendeiros , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/virologia , Bovinos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 702-713, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629510

RESUMO

Little is known about the combination of factors that motivate changes in calf management on dairy farms. Providing information to farmers may help promote change, but it is unclear how this approach affects and is affected by the farmer's relationship with the advisors such as the herd veterinarian. The goal of this study was to understand how benchmarking measures related to calf immune development and growth affected farmer and veterinarian cooperation and influenced the farmer's view of the veterinarian as an advisor for calf management. Veterinarians provided their clients (n = 18 dairy farms in the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia) with 2 benchmark reports providing information on transfer of passive immunity and calf growth. Farmers were interviewed before and after receiving these reports to understand how they perceived their veterinarian as a calf advisor. Qualitative analysis identified 2 major themes indicating that benchmarking (1) improved farmer perception of their veterinarian's capacities to advise on calves and (2) strengthened the social influence of the veterinarian. We conclude that benchmarking can help promote stronger relationships between farmers and veterinarians.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Benchmarking , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Fazendeiros , Médicos Veterinários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Feminino , Humanos
6.
Glob Health Action ; 12(sup1): 1697541, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795863

RESUMO

Demand for poultry meat is rising in low- and middle-countries, driving the expansion of large commercial farms where antimicrobials are used as surrogates for hygiene, good nutrition. This routine use of antimicrobials in animal production facilitates the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Despite potentially serious consequences for the animal industry, few studies have documented trends in antimicrobial use (AMU) at the farm-level in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate AMU in a broiler chicken farm in Pakistan over a five-year period and to extrapolate national AMU in commercial broiler farming. Between 2013 and 2017, we monitored AMU in 30 flocks from a commercial broiler farm in Punjab, the most populous province of Pakistan. The amount of antimicrobials administered was calculated in milligram/population unit of the final flock weight (mg/fPU) and in used daily dose (UDD). The annual on-farm antimicrobial use was 250.84 mg of active ingredient per kilogram of the final flock weight. This consumption intensity exceeds the amount of antimicrobial used per kilogram of chicken of all countries in the world except China. Measured in mg per kg of final flock weight or population unit (fPU), medically important drugs such as colistin (31.39 mg/fPU), tylosin (41.71 mg/fPU), doxycycline (81.81 mg/fPU), and enrofloxacin (26.19 mg/fPU) were the most frequently used antimicrobials for prophylactic or therapeutic use. Lincomycin was the most frequently used antimicrobial used in-feed (29.09 mg/fPU). Our findings suggest that the annual consumption of antimicrobials in the broiler sector in Pakistan could be as high as 568 tons. This alarmingly high consumption estimate is the first baseline study on antimicrobial use in animals in Pakistan. Our findings call for immediate actions to reduce antimicrobial use in Pakistan, and countries with comparable farming practices.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Galinhas , Humanos , Paquistão , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0222780, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869323

RESUMO

Soy protein concentrate (SPC), as a protein source, is widely used to replace partial fishmeal (FM) in aquafeeds, especially for carnivorous fish. This study investigated the effects of partial FM replacement by SPC for juvenile pearl gentian grouper. The fish were fed with diets containing six levels of SPC (SPC 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75) for 6 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, average body weight gain (BWG), specific growth ratio (SGR), and weight gain ratio (WGR) had the highest values in fish fed with diet SPC 15, followed by that of fish fed with SPC 0 while fish fed with SPC 75 had the lowest values (P < 0.05). Fish fed with diet SPC 15 and SPC 30 had the highest protein efficiency ratio (PER) while fish fed with diet SPC 15, SPC 30, and SPC 45 had the highest feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.05). Daily feed intake (DFI) was significantly decreased in fish fed with diets containing any level of SPC (P < 0.05). Survival rate was significantly higher in fish fed with diets SPC 15, SPC 30, and SPC 45 as compared to other treatments. Fish fed the diet including less than 30% FM replacement showed a higher protein content in the muscle. The ADC of dietary protein and some amino acids were significantly higher in diets SPC 0, followed by SPC 15; while SPC 75 had the lowest content (P < 0.05). Similarly, fish fed with SPC 30 and SPC 15 showed significantly higher protein and amino acid (AA) retention than other dietary treatments. The optimal FM replacement with SPC for specific growth ratio (SGR) was estimated to be 14.41% using a non-linear higher order regression model. These results indicated that pearl gentian grouper has a limited ability to utilize SPC as a protein source, and the FM replacement with SPC should be less than 30% (FM45.5 g 100g -1 and SPC18g 100g -1).


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bass/metabolismo , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Aminoácidos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Peixes , Perciformes/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos
8.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0218360, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887112

RESUMO

Microbial ingredients such as Candida utilis yeast are known to be functional protein sources with immunomodulating effects whereas soybean meal causes soybean meal-induced enteritis in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Inflammatory or immunomodulatory stimuli at the local level in the intestine may alter the plasma proteome profile of Atlantic salmon. These deviations can be helpful indicators for fish health and, therefore potential tools in the diagnosis of fish diseases. The present work aimed to identify local intestinal tissue responses and changes in plasma protein profiles of Atlantic salmon fed inactive dry Candida utilis yeast biomass, soybean meal, or combination of soybean meal based diet with various inclusion levels of Candida utilis. A fishmeal based diet was used as control diet. Inclusion of Candida utilis yeast to a fishmeal based diet did not alter the morphology, immune cell population or gene expression of the distal intestine. Lower levels of Candida utilis combined with soybean meal modulated immune cell populations in the distal intestine and reduced the severity of soybean meal-induced enteritis, while higher inclusion levels of Candida utilis were less effective. Changes in the plasma proteomic profile revealed differences between the diets but did not indicate any specific proteins that could be a marker for health or disease. The results suggest that Candida utilis does not alter intestinal morphology or induce major changes in plasma proteome, and thus could be a high-quality alternative protein source with potential functional properties in diets for Atlantic salmon.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmo salar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Dieta , Expressão Gênica , Intestinos/fisiologia , Proteínas , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Soja
9.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 481-491, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672200

RESUMO

Donkeys and mules have been critical to the development of human civilization, since being domesticated some 6000 years ago. However, they suffer from being undervalued or ignored by development agencies and animal protection nongovernmental organizations. Where they are recognized as affecting agriculture and the economy it is often because they are seen as being either invasive pests or an anachronism in the developing countries of the twenty-first century. Even in the wealthier societies of the world, donkeys suffer from ignorance about their proper management or a booming industry in health care products based on donkey skin gelatin and milk byproducts.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Equidae , Cavalos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais
10.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5234-5240, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581757

RESUMO

Assessing keel bone damage reliably and accurately is a requirement for all research on this topic. Most commonly, assessment is done on live birds by palpation and is therefore prone to bias. A 2-day Training School of the COST Action "Identifying causes and solutions of keel bone damage in laying hens" with 16 participants of variable experience was held where palpation of live hens was followed by consulting corresponding radiographic images of keel bones. We hypothesized that the inter-observer and intra-observer repeatabilities as well as the agreement between palpation and assessment from the radiograph (considered as the accuracy) would increase from day 1 to 2. Repeatability estimates were calculated using the R-package rptR and the change in level of accuracy on day 1 and 2 was analyzed with generalized linear models. As predicted, the inter-observer repeatabilities of the assessments of the fractures and deviations were improved by training, but this improvement differed for fractures and deviations between the cranial, middle, and caudal parts of the keel bone. Intra-observer repeatabilities before training also differed between the different parts of the keel bone and were highest for fractures at the caudal part of the keel bone. The training affected the accuracy of palpation to different degrees for the different parts of the keel bone. A training effect was found for the caudal part of the keel bone in regard to fractures and deviations, but for fractures the training effect was missing for the cranial part and for deviations it was missing for the middle part of the keel bone. In conclusion, the training school involving radiographs improved inter-observer repeatabilities in the diagnosis of fractures and deviations of keel bones and thus had the potential to lead to more comparable results among research groups.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Galinhas , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Palpação/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Radiografia/veterinária , Esterno/patologia , Animais , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Variações Dependentes do Observador
11.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 643-658, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587970

RESUMO

This article provides a review of hoof anatomy and care in donkeys and mules. Hoof disease is a major cause of poor welfare and mortality globally. Problems associated with hoof disease are discussed in the context of behavior, diet, treatment, and prevention. The most common conditions encountered are discussed, including laminitis, the overgrown unbalanced hoof, white line disease, flexural deformities, and other significant issues. Differences between donkey and horse hoof anatomy are described.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Equidae , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Casco e Garras , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Animais , Doenças do Pé/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Pé/terapia , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Cavalos
12.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 535-556, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590901

RESUMO

Colostrum management is the single most important management factor in determining calf health and survival. Additional benefits of good colostrum management include improved rate of gain and future productivity. Successful colostrum management requires producers to provide calves with a sufficient volume of clean, high-quality colostrum within the first few hours of life. This article reviews the process of colostrogenesis and colostrum composition, and discusses key components in developing a successful colostrum management program. In addition, the article discusses approaches for monitoring and proposes new goals for passive immunity in dairy herds.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Colostro/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos/imunologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Colostro/imunologia , Feminino , Imunização Passiva , Gravidez
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 341, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor hygiene of housing induces a systemic inflammatory response. Because inflammation and oxidative stress are processes that can sustain each other, the ways pigs are able to activate their antioxidant defenses are critical for production performance and health during periods when the immune system is solicited. Selection for production performance can also influence reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and expression levels of genes involved in cellular response to oxidative stress in different tissues. To establish the extent by which poor hygiene and selection for feed efficiency affected redox status, pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) were housed in poor or good hygiene during 6 weeks. At the end, blood was collected in all pigs, and half of them were killed for tissue sampling. The remaining pigs were reared in good hygiene conditions during a recovery period of 7-8 weeks. RESULTS: At week 6, poor hygiene was associated with a lower total antioxidant capacity assessed by plasma ferric reducing ability in all pigs, and with greater plasma levels of hydrogen peroxides in the high RFI pigs (less efficient). Adipose tissue of high RFI pigs exhibited higher activities of catalase and glutathione reductase, and greater thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations when compared with the low RFI pigs (more efficient). Poor hygiene conditions activated the antioxidant enzymes activities (glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) in adipose tissue of both lines, but led to higher ROS production by mature adipocytes isolated from the high RFI pigs only. In liver and muscle, there were only minor changes in antioxidant molecules due to genetics and hygiene conditions. After the resilience period, adipose tissue of pigs previously challenged by poor hygiene maintained higher antioxidant enzyme activities, and for the high RFI line, displayed higher TBARS concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Pigs selected for improved feed efficiency showed a lower susceptibility to oxidative stress induced by poor hygiene conditions. This could led to a lower inflammatory response and less impaired growth when these pigs are facing sanitary challenges during the production period.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/enzimologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Animais , Feminino , Higiene , Masculino , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/genética , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1686-1694, set.-out. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038671

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a pastagem, o desempenho, o conforto térmico e os parâmetros hematológicos de bovinos Nelore na fase de terminação em sistemas integrados de produção agropecuária com duas densidades de árvores (ILPF-1L= 196 árvores ha-1 e ILPF-3L=448 árvores ha-1) e em pleno sol (ILP). Foram avaliados a massa e a composição morfológica da forragem, o ganho médio diário, o ganho de peso por área e a taxa de lotação no verão e no outono, bem como as variáveis climáticas dos sistemas em três horários e parâmetros hematológicos dos animais (n=60). A massa de forragem foi superior no tratamento ILP e no verão (P<0,05). Porém, a redução da massa de forragem nos sistemas ILPFs não interferiu no desempenho dos animais (P>0,05). A temperatura ambiente, a temperatura do globo e o índice de temperatura e umidade foram melhores nos tratamentos com sombreamento e no período da manhã, proporcionando maior conforto aos animais, sendo ainda confirmado pelo menor volume globular dos bovinos em ILP (P<0,05). Conclui-se que os sistemas com componente arbóreo diminuem a massa de forragem, mas essa redução não altera o desempenho dos animais na fase de terminação. Além disso, os sistemas ILPFs melhoram o conforto térmico, entretanto essa melhora não foi suficiente para favorecer o desempenho.(AU)


The objective of this work was to evaluate pasture, performace, thermal comfort, and haematological parameters of Nellore cattle in the finishing phase in integrated crop-livestock systems with two tree densities (ICLF-1L= 196 ha -1 trees and ICLF-3L= 448 ha -1 trees) and in full sun (ICL). The forage mass morphological composition of the pasture average daily gain, weight gain per area, stocking rate of the animals were evaluated in summer and autumn, and the climatic variables of systems we evaluated at three different times, and haematological parameters of the animals (n= 60). The forage mass was higher in the ICL treatment and summer (P<0.05). However, the reduction of the forage mass in the ILPFs systems did not interfere with the performance of the animals (P>0.05). Ambient temperature, globe temperature and temperature and humidity index were better in shade treatments and in the morning, providing greater comfort to the animals, and was also confirmed by the lower globular volume of the bovines in ICL (P<0.05). It is concluded that the systems with trees reduce the forage mass but this reduction does not alter the animals' performance in the finishing phase. In addition, ICLFs improve the thermal comfort of the animals, however, this improvement was not enough to favor their performance.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Ganho de Peso , Pastagens/métodos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Pinus taeda , Poaceae/anatomia & histologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos
15.
Animal ; 13(12): 3009-3017, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516101

RESUMO

Economic pressures continue to mount on modern-day livestock farmers, forcing them to increase herds sizes in order to be commercially viable. The natural consequence of this is to drive the farmer and the animal further apart. However, closer attention to the animal not only positively impacts animal welfare and health but can also increase the capacity of the farmer to achieve a more sustainable production. State-of-the-art precision livestock farming (PLF) technology is one such means of bringing the animals closer to the farmer in the facing of expanding systems. Contrary to some current opinions, it can offer an alternative philosophy to 'farming by numbers'. This review addresses the key technology-oriented approaches to monitor animals and demonstrates how image and sound analyses can be used to build 'digital representations' of animals by giving an overview of some of the core concepts of PLF tool development and value discovery during PLF implementation. The key to developing such a representation is by measuring important behaviours and events in the livestock buildings. The application of image and sound can realise more advanced applications and has enormous potential in the industry. In the end, the importance lies in the accuracy of the developed PLF applications in the commercial farming system as this will also make the farmer embrace the technological development and ensure progress within the PLF field in favour of the livestock animals and their well-being.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Fazendeiros , Fazendas/economia , Gado , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Fazendas/organização & administração , Humanos
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3028-3038, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529878

RESUMO

Reasonable rotation is of great significance to grassland management. We examined the distribution characteristics, stability, organic carbon content and contribution rate of 0-30 cm soil aggregates in the forbidding grazing, continuous grazing, and rotation in the two-paddock, four-paddock and six-paddock rotational districts in a desert steppe in Ningxia. The results showed that except for the forbidding grazing grassland that was dominated by mechanically stable large aggrega-tes, other water-stable aggregates were mainly composed of microaggregates. Increasing the rotational grazing zoning was conducive to maintain the content of water-stable aggregates in the surface soil and increase the content of large aggregates. The mechanical stability aggregate fractal dimension was the largest in continuous grazing, increased the fractal dimension of the rotation and shepherd partition to reduce the trend, but the fractal dimension of water-stable aggregates did not change. The average weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the aggregates were the largest in the pastoral grassland and increased with the increases of the rotational grassland partition. MWD and GMD were negatively correlated with the microaggregate content. The organic carbon content in water-stable large aggregate was higher in the six-paddock rotational district and forbidding grazing, and the two-paddock rotational grazing and continuous grazing were lower. The contribution rate of micro-aggregates organic carbon to soil organic carbon content was higher in this region. In the 0-20 cm soil layer, the contribution rate of organic carbon in large aggregates increased with the increases of rotation. Considering the characteristics of soil aggregates and their organic carbon, the rotation of six-paddock was the most suitable method for rotational grazing in the desert steppe of the study area.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Carbono , Herbivoria , Solo , China , Clima Desértico , Fractais , Água
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 11317-11327, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563309

RESUMO

Dairy farms producing 98% of the US milk supply participate in the Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM) Animal Care Program. Producers who sell milk to cooperatives or processors participating in FARM must follow program standards. The objectives of this study were to assess producer perceptions about the knowledge, experience, and value of FARM and to determine whether perceptions differ based on demographics. A concurrent triangulation design was implemented through collecting quantitative and qualitative data using a 30-question survey instrument. Quantitative questions aimed to address project objectives, and qualitative data were provided through 1 open-ended survey question that asked participants what they thought the main goal of the FARM program was. Participants offered additional feedback through providing text in comment boxes, writing on the back of the survey, or writing a separate letter and returning it with their survey. Quantitative data were analyzed using principal components analysis and modeling, and qualitative data were analyzed through thematic analysis. Dairy producers from cooperatives or processors that participate in the FARM program were recruited via electronic and postal mail. A total of 487 respondents from 40 states completed the survey. Of the survey participants, 414 (85.0%) answered the open-ended question and 190 (39.0%) provided additional qualitative feedback. Thematic analysis revealed 5 main themes: distrust of program, producers on the defense, anger, efficiency, and nostalgia. Of respondents, 73.6% reported being knowledgeable about the FARM Animal Care Program. Greater level of formal education and larger herd size were associated with greater producer knowledge. More dairy producer input in the revisions of FARM was identified as a need by 83.3% of respondents. Although 89.3% of respondents reported positive experiences with evaluations and relationships with evaluators, 45.6% did not think that the program had value overall. Respondent age was positively associated with perceived value of FARM. Respondent age was also significant in determining the reasons why FARM was considered to be important. Results indicate that to increase buy-in and positive perceptions from producers, future versions of FARM should solicit producer input during the development of program standards, target specific producer demographics for program promotion, and address perceived communication deficits and program inequalities. Findings from this study can be used to inform future versions of the program.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendeiros , Adulto , Idoso , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54 Suppl 3: 29-37, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512321

RESUMO

Using reproduction parameters as indicators for cattle welfare has limitations and, at best, these parameters should only be viewed as indirect indicators of welfare. On a farm level, measures such as fertility rates emphasize biological performance of the herd but fail to consider the welfare of individual animals. Even on an individual level, the relationship between reproductive effectiveness and animal welfare is complex. Good reproductive performance does not automatically signify good welfare, as domestication and targeted breeding programmes have led to prioritization of high productive and reproductive performance in most modern farm animal species. In this review, we synthesize literature regarding cattle husbandry, reproduction, welfare and their multidimensional relationships. We argue that practices such as artificial insemination or the use of sexed semen may provide potential welfare advantages as these practices reduce the risk of disease transmission and injury or enable selection of specific beneficial traits. Furthermore, they may offer a solution to current practices jeopardizing welfare, such as the management of surplus bull calves in the dairy industry. Conversely, the animals' ability to perform natural behaviours such as oestrous expression, an aspect arguably contributing to welfare, is often limited on commercial farms; this limitation is particularly evident in housing systems such as tie stalls where movement is restricted. Moreover, common management practices such as oestrus manipulation may lead to negative attitudes in citizens who often regard naturalness as important element of animal welfare.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Bovinos , Reprodução , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Fertilidade , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007775, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553724

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The widespread emergence of resistance to insecticides used to control adult Aedes mosquitoes has made traditional control strategies inadequate for the reduction of various vector populations. Therefore, complementary vector control methods, such as the Sterile Insect Technique, are needed to enhance existing efforts. The technique relies on the rearing and release of large numbers of sterile males, and the development of efficient and standardized mass-rearing procedures and tools is essential for its application against medically important mosquitoes. METHODS: In the effort to reduce the cost of the rearing process, a prototype low-cost plexiglass mass-rearing cage has been developed and tested for egg production and egg hatch rate in comparison to the current Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency (FAO/IAEA) stainless-steel cage. Additionally, an adult-index was validated and used as a proxy to estimate the mosquito survival rates by counting the number of male and female mosquitoes that were resting within each of the 6 squares at a given point of time each day in the cage. RESULTS: The study has shown that the prototype mass-rearing cage is cheap and is as efficient as the FAO/IAEA stainless-steel cage in terms of egg production, with even better overall egg hatch rate. The mean numbers of eggs per cage, after seven cycles of blood feeding and egg collection, were 969,789 ± 138,101 and 779,970 ± 123,042, corresponding to 81 ± 11 and 65 ± 10 eggs per female over her lifespan, in the prototype and the stainless-steel-mass-rearing cages, respectively. The longevity of adult male and female mosquitoes was not affected by cage type and, the adult-index could be considered as an appropriate proxy for survival. Moreover, the mass-rearing cage prototype is easy to handle and transport and improves economic and logistic efficiency. CONCLUSION: The low-cost mass-rearing prototype cage can be recommended to produce Ae. aegypti in the context of rear and release techniques. The proposed adult-index can be used as a quick proxy of mosquito survival rates in mass-rearing settings.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais/economia , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criação de Animais Domésticos/instrumentação , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores
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