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1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 209-219, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541700

RESUMO

Sheep operations will be subject to movement controls during a US foot and mouth disease outbreak and should be prepared to manage animal and product movement disruptions. The voluntary Secure Sheep and Wool Supply (SSWS) Plan for Continuity of Business provides tools for the sheep industry to develop contingency plans, write enhanced, operation-specific biosecurity plans, and learn about disease surveillance opportunities and challenges. The SSWS Plan is science-based and risk-based, funded by the American Sheep Industry Association, and developed collaboratively with industry, government officials, and veterinarians at Iowa State University. For more information, visit www.securesheepwool.org.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lã/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria Têxtil , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 33-54, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541701

RESUMO

This article discusses key welfare issues for small ruminants and gives practical management advice. Welfare assessment is vital to ensure that optimal conditions are provided. Practitioners can play a key role in identifying areas of potential welfare compromise and implement interventions. With the knowledge and careful identification of indicators of welfare, practitioners and producers can develop a management plan that can ensure proper nutrition, environment, and health to allow for natural behaviors and a positive affective state; identification of animal health and management issues; and (3) allocation of adequate resources to improve the welfare of sheep and goats.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal/organização & administração , Cabras , Ovinos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Ruminantes , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle
3.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100946, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518336

RESUMO

Broiler chicks usually hatch in the hatchery without access to feed and water until placement at the farm. This can affect their health and welfare negatively. Therefore, alternative strategies have been developed, for instance providing chicks with early nutrition in the hatchery or hatching eggs directly on-farm. However, information on the physical and mental welfare of chicks hatched in these systems compared to conventionally hatched chicks is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alternative hatching systems on the welfare of broiler chickens in early and later life. A system comparison was performed with chickens that hatched conventionally in a hatchery (HH), in a system which provided light, feed, and water in a hatcher (hatchery-fed, HF), or on-farm (on-farm hatched, OH, where feed and water were available and transport of day-old chicks from the hatchery to the farm was not necessary). Chickens were reared in 3 batches, in 12 floor pens per batch (approximately 1,155 animals per pen), with a total of 12 replicates per treatment. Animal-based welfare indicators were assessed following standard protocols: plumage cleanliness, footpad dermatitis (FPD), hock burn, skin lesions (all at day 21 and 35 of age), and gait score (day 35). Furthermore, a set of behavioral tests was carried out: novel environment (day 1 and 21), tonic immobility, novel object, and avoidance distance test (day 4 and 35). Plumage cleanliness, hock burn, and skin lesions were affected by age but not by hatching system, with older broilers scoring worse than younger ones (P < 0.05). An effect of hatching system was only found for FPD, with the highest prevalence in HH chickens, followed by HF and OH chickens (P < 0.05). All responses measured in the behavioral tests were affected by age but not by hatching system. In later life, chickens were significantly less fearful than during the first days of life. The results indicate that conventionally hatched chickens scored significantly worse for FPD, whereas, in general, hatching system seemed to have minor effects on other broiler welfare indicators.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Galinhas , Zigoto , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Métodos de Alimentação/normas , Estado Nutricional , Zigoto/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 1-8, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357671

RESUMO

In commercial egg production, laying hen chicks are exposed to several stressful events during incubation, hatching, and their first hours in life. We have previously shown that hatching and processing are associated with increased corticosterone concentration and further affect behavior and stress sensitivity in a short- as well as long-term perspective. However, it is not known whether these long-term stress effects are caused by the hatchery processing (sex sorting, vaccination, conveying, and loading for transport) or if they are mainly caused by potentially stressful events before processing, during incubation and hatching. In the present study, the aim was to assess the effects of incubation and hatching only, compared to stress effects from the entire hatchery processing. We compared Lohmann LSL chicks incubated, hatched, and processed in a commercial hatchery with chicks incubated and hatched at the same time but not further processed. We studied behavior in a novel arena and during tonic immobility, as well as weight development and corticosterone reaction during a stress challenge. Processed chicks had poorer weight development and were more active in the novel arena test. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in corticosterone reactivity or tonic immobility. When comparing with previous data, both groups had elevated corticosterone concentrations compared to what we had previously reported from chicks hatched under calm and non-stressful conditions. In conclusion, incubation and hatching alone caused long-term stress effects in chickens, but further processing exacerbated these effects to some extent.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Galinhas , Estresse Fisiológico , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/fisiologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Masculino , Ganho de Peso
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244055, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338060

RESUMO

Porcine cysticercosis and associated human infections are endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Poor agricultural practices, sanitary practices, and lack of knowledge increase the burden of the diseases in susceptible populations. This study investigates the seroprevalence of Taenia spp. in township pigs in Gauteng, South Africa and describes knowledge and farming practices of pig farmers regarding T. solium infections. Blood samples were collected from 126 pigs in three Gauteng township areas, and analyzed for active Taenia spp. infection using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Farmer questionnaire surveys were conducted in four township areas to investigate the level of knowledge and practices associated with porcine cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between predictor variables and the outcome variable, knowledge of porcine cysticercosis or knowledge of neurocysticercosis. Overall, 7% of the pigs were seropositive for active Taenia spp. infection. 46% of farmers practiced a free-ranging system, while 25% practiced a semi-intensive system. Latrines were absent on all farms; however, 95% of farmers indicated that they have access to latrines at home. Most farmers had no knowledge of porcine cysticercosis (55%) or neurocysticercosis (79%), and this was not associated with any of the factors investigated. The prevalence of active Taenia spp. infection was reasonably low in this study, yet the knowledge level was also low, thus calling for further educational and training programmes to prevent Taenia spp. transmission in these communities.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Cisticercose/psicologia , Cisticercose/transmissão , Humanos , Prevalência , Testes Sorológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , África do Sul , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Taenia solium/classificação , Taenia solium/patogenicidade , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931522

RESUMO

The rising public health threat of antimicrobial resistance, the influence of food service companies, as well as the overall lack of positive image of using medical products in intensive farming are major drivers curbing antimicrobial use. In the future, government policies may affect practices of antimicrobial use in beef production in feedlots, a prominent current user of antimicrobials in animal agriculture, but also the agricultural industry generating the highest cash receipt in the U.S. Our objective was to estimate the cost effect from the following policies in feedlots: 1) using antimicrobials for disease prevention, control, and treatment; 2) using antimicrobials only for treatment of disease; and 3) not using antimicrobials for any reason. We modelled a typical U.S. feedlot, where high risk cattle may be afflicted by diseases requiring antimicrobial therapy, namely respiratory diseases, liver abscesses and lameness. We calculated the net revenue loss under each policy of antimicrobial use restriction. With moderate disease incidence, the median net revenue loss was $66 and $96 per animal entering the feedlot, for not using antimicrobials for disease prevention and control, or not using any antimicrobials, respectively, compared to using antimicrobials for disease prevention, control, and treatment. Losses arose mainly from an increase of fatality and morbidity rates, almost doubling for respiratory diseases in the case of antimicrobial use restrictions. In the case of antimicrobial use prohibition, decreasing the feeder cattle price by 9%, or alternatively, increasing the slaughter cattle price by 6.3%, would offset the net revenue losses for the feedlot operator. If no alternatives to antimicrobial therapy for prevention, control and treatment of current infectious diseases are implemented, policies that economically incentivize adoption of non-antimicrobial prevention and control strategies for infectious diseases would be necessary to maintain animal welfare and the profitability of beef production while simultaneously curbing antimicrobial use.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Antibacterianos/normas , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Fazendas/economia , Políticas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/economia , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Simulação por Computador , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Análise Custo-Benefício , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fazendas/normas , Incidência , Modelos Econômicos , Carne Vermelha/economia
7.
Vet Rec ; 186(15): 499, 2020 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358126
8.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(2): 375-383, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451031

RESUMO

Confined cow-calf operations are a relatively new production model in the United States. As with any new technology, there will be a learning curve for producers and veterinarians as we attempt to optimize animal health and profitability. It is critical that cattle are managed properly in these units if disease issues are to be minimized. Allowing for adequate space in the pen and at the feed bunk is a critical factor affecting animal welfare, nutritional management, and disease transmission.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/etiologia , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
9.
Vet Rec ; 186(14): 458-459, 2020 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299986
12.
Vet Rec ; 186(9): 282, 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little research has been carried out into how guinea pigs are cared for in the UK, and information regarding potential welfare issues is sparse. This study was designed to examine the five welfare needs, collecting data on the extent to which these are each met by a sample of UK guinea pig owners. METHODS: A survey of 4590 owners was conducted. RESULTS: Guinea pigs were housed in a variety of ways, but a hutch or cage, with no attached run, was the most common enclosure. The majority reportedly lived with a conspecific, although some lived on their own, or with a rabbit. Significant associations between aspects of housing and husbandry, and behaviour and health were found, for example, the frequency of positive behaviours displayed was higher in those guinea pigs housed with a conspecific and those in larger enclosures, while the number of reported health issues was lower in animals receiving green vegetables more often. CONCLUSION: This study has identified common practices, and highlighted some potential welfare issues, which would benefit from further research. The authors suggest improved availability of targeted information may enable owners to improve issues identified here.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobaias , Animais de Estimação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Feminino , Cobaias/psicologia , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Abrigo para Animais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propriedade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
13.
N Z Vet J ; 68(3): 150-156, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973682

RESUMO

This review outlines the processes followed by New Zealand Thoroughbred Racing (NZTR) when developing its Thoroughbred Welfare Assessment Guidelines. It accepted that guidance on welfare management must be based on up-to-date knowledge of how animal welfare is understood scientifically. NZTR established an expert panel to facilitate this process. First, major changes in animal welfare science thinking over the last 40 years were considered. For example, the separate biological function and affective state orientations were later accepted as dynamically interacting elements within the body operating as an integrated whole entity; conceptual problems with the Five Freedoms framework led to the formulation of the Five Provisions and Welfare Aims paradigm and development of the Five Domains Model for assessing nutritional, environmental, health, behavioural and mental facets of animal welfare; and the initial major focus on negative experiences evolved to include both negative and positive experiences. The Five Domains Model was very effective for illustrating up-to-date understanding of animal welfare and its use demonstrated how comprehensive animal welfare assessments may be conducted. The NZTR panel followed a sequential approach that included an update on animal welfare thinking and the Five Provisions and Welfare Aims paradigm; the generic Five Domains Model was refocused specifically on equids; a detailed model assessment of equine welfare practices was conducted; enhanced equine welfare practices were emphasised by comparing them to inadequate welfare practices; guidelines were framed in terms which provide domain-specific advice on provisions that achieve positive welfare; other domain-specific guidelines were focused on welfare-compromising consequences of inadequate provisions; and welfare-appropriate conditions were clarified for all stages of a Thoroughbred's life cycle (in work and rest) to facilitate exercising a life-long duty of care. Finally, the guidelines were expressed in general terms to avoid them becoming overly detailed and unwieldy. They therefore do not address specific welfare issues such as use of whips, bits, spurs and tight nosebands, however the Five Domains Model may also be used for these specific purposes. The guidelines, and the way they were formulated, provide an example of one approach which other organisations may find immediately useful, or which may stimulate them to devise their own approaches when progressing such equine welfare initiatives.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Guias como Assunto , Cavalos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Nova Zelândia
14.
Animal ; 14(5): 1052-1066, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769382

RESUMO

Comparison of bacterial counts (BCs) among common bedding types used for dairy cows, including straw, is needed. There is concern that the microbial content of organic bedding is elevated and presents risks for dairy cow udder health and milk quality. The objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) % DM and BCs (Streptococcus spp., all gram-negatives and specifically Klebsiella spp.) in different types of bedding sampled, and to investigate housing and farm management factors associated with % DM and BCs; (2) if bedding type was associated with hygiene of cow body parts (lower-legs, udder, upper-legs and flank) and housing and management factors associated with hygiene and (3) bedding types associated with higher BCs in cow milk at the farm level and bulk tank milk and management factors that were associated with highest BCs. Seventy farms (44 free-stall and 26 tie-stall) in Ontario, Canada were visited 3 times, 7 days apart from October 2014 to February 2015. At each visit, composite samples of unused and used bedding were collected for % DM determination and bacterial culture. Used bedding samples were collected from the back third of selected stalls. Data were analyzed using multivariable linear mixed models. Bedding classification for each farm were: new sand (n = 12), straw and other dry forage (n = 33), wood products (shavings, sawdust; n = 17) and recycled manure solids (RMSs)-compost, digestate (n = 8). In used bedding, across all bedding samples, sand was driest, compared to straw and wood, and RMS; higher % DM was associated with lower Streptococcus spp. count. Streptococcus spp. and all Gram-negative bacteria counts increased with increasing days since additional bedding was added. Gram-negative bacteria counts in used bedding varied with type: RMS = 16.3 ln colony-forming units (cfu)/mL, straw = 13.8 ln cfu/mL, new sand = 13.5 ln cfu/mL, and wood = 10.3 ln cfu/mL. Klebsiella spp. counts in used bedding were lower for wood products (5.9 ln cfu/mL) compared to all other bedding types. Mean cow SCC tended to be higher on farms with narrower stalls. Farms with mattress-based stalls had a higher prevalence of cows with dirty udders compared to those using a deep bedding system (often inorganic sand). Wider stalls were associated with lower bulk milk bacteria count. Lower % DM of used bedding was associated with higher bulk milk bacteria count. In conclusion, bedding management may have a profound impact on milk quality, bacterial concentrations in the bedding substrates, and cow hygiene.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Abrigo para Animais , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Carga Bacteriana/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Higiene , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 702-713, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629510

RESUMO

Little is known about the combination of factors that motivate changes in calf management on dairy farms. Providing information to farmers may help promote change, but it is unclear how this approach affects and is affected by the farmer's relationship with the advisors such as the herd veterinarian. The goal of this study was to understand how benchmarking measures related to calf immune development and growth affected farmer and veterinarian cooperation and influenced the farmer's view of the veterinarian as an advisor for calf management. Veterinarians provided their clients (n = 18 dairy farms in the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia) with 2 benchmark reports providing information on transfer of passive immunity and calf growth. Farmers were interviewed before and after receiving these reports to understand how they perceived their veterinarian as a calf advisor. Qualitative analysis identified 2 major themes indicating that benchmarking (1) improved farmer perception of their veterinarian's capacities to advise on calves and (2) strengthened the social influence of the veterinarian. We conclude that benchmarking can help promote stronger relationships between farmers and veterinarians.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Benchmarking , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Fazendeiros , Médicos Veterinários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Feminino , Humanos
16.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(2): 725-732, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578668

RESUMO

Cattle markets play a major role in economic empowerment among cattle-keeping communities in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the structure and performance of selected cattle markets in western Kenya. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire administered to livestock traders who visited markets and by conducting focus group interviews. Data was collected on availability of market information, price setting behavior, marketing costs, practices of traders on livestock movements, sources of working capital, and characteristic of respondents. A total of 252 questionnaires and six focus group discussions were conducted for the study. Cattle market concentration indices were analyzed by calculation of Gini coefficient and plotting of Lorenz curves. Additionally, gross marketing margins were calculated to evaluate market performance. The results from this study showed a positive marketing margin in study markets for all cattle categories, the relatively high Gini coefficient of 0.65, and Lorenz curves revealing that in some markets 20% of traders control about 48% of the market share which is an indication of high market concentration. The high Gini coefficient and positive marketing margin obtained imply that study markets were highly concentrated but profitable which is an indication of inequality in the markets. The main barriers to entry in these livestock markets included lack of adequate market information, high operational capital requirements, and high costs of transporting animals. In conclusion, cattle marketing within western Kenya is profitable. However, the high concentration index in markets and presence of entry barriers including lack of flow of information on sources of livestock for trade, mechanism of price setting within markets' high capital outlay, may encourage poor trade practices which may compromise biosecurity standards within markets, and hence necessitating increased risk for spread of livestock diseases and even zoonoses to connected farms and systems.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Fazendas/economia , Marketing/métodos , Adulto , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Comércio , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Dados , Escolaridade , Fazendas/normas , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Quênia , Gado , Masculino , Marketing/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zoonoses
17.
Lab Anim ; 54(3): 213-224, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510859

RESUMO

This article provides recommendations for the care of laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio) as part of the further implementation of Annex A to the European Convention on the protection of vertebrate animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes, EU Commission Recommendation 2007/526/EC and the fulfilment of Article 33 of EU Directive 2010/63, both concerning the housing and care of experimental animals. The recommendations provide guidance on best practices and ranges of husbandry parameters within which zebrafish welfare, as well as reproducibility of experimental procedures, are assured. Husbandry procedures found today in zebrafish facilities are numerous. While the vast majority of these practices are perfectly acceptable in terms of zebrafish physiology and welfare, the reproducibility of experimental results could be improved by further standardisation of husbandry procedures and exchange of husbandry information between laboratories. Standardisation protocols providing ranges of husbandry parameters are likely to be more successful and appropriate than the implementation of a set of fixed guidance values neglecting the empirically successful daily routines of many facilities and will better reflect the wide range of environmental parameters that characterise the natural habitats occupied by zebrafish. A joint working group on zebrafish housing and husbandry recommendations, with members of the European Society for Fish Models in Biology and Medicine (EUFishBioMed) and of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) has been given a mandate to provide guidelines based on a FELASA list of parameters, 'Terms of Reference'.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais de Laboratório/fisiologia , Guias como Assunto , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Ciência dos Animais de Laboratório/normas , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais
18.
Lab Anim ; 54(3): 225-238, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403890

RESUMO

Driven by the longer lifespans of humans, particularly in Westernised societies, and the need to know more about 'healthy ageing', ageing mice are being used increasingly in scientific research. Many departments and institutes involved with ageing research have developed their own systems to determine intervention points for potential refinements and to identify humane end points. Several good systems are in use, but variations between them could contribute to poor reproducibility of the science achieved. Working with scientific and regulatory communities in the UK, we have reviewed the clinical signs observed in ageing mice and developed recommendations for enhanced monitoring, behaviour assessment, husbandry and veterinary interventions. We advocate that the default time point for enhanced monitoring should be 15 months of age, unless prior information is available. Importantly, the enhanced monitoring should cause no additional harms to the animals. Where a mouse strain is well characterised, the onset of age-related enhanced monitoring may be modified based on knowledge of the onset of an expected age-related clinical sign. In progeroid models where ageing is accelerated, enhanced monitoring may need to be brought forward. Information on the background strain must be considered, as it influences the onset of age-related clinical signs. The range of ageing models currently used means that there will be no 'one-size fits all' solution. Increased awareness of the issues will lead to more refined and consistent husbandry of ageing mice, and application of humane end points will help to reduce the numbers of animals maintained for longer than is scientifically justified.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais de Laboratório/fisiologia , Camundongos/fisiologia , Animais , Reino Unido
19.
J Appl Anim Welf Sci ; 23(1): 108-115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773911

RESUMO

World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recommends member countries to comply with global standards of animal welfare. The present study was conducted to reveal the compliance of animal welfare standards in slaughterhouses in Tehran province (Iran). The following three major parameters were evaluated through direct observation, study of plant records, and interviewing slaughterhouse staff across all 14 operative animal slaughterhouses in Tehran province: (1) employing trained and committed workers; (2) appropriate environment and proper design parameter; and (3) proper construction, equipment, and tools. Only 30% of modern slaughterhouses employed trained personnel for handling livestock in an appropriate way, which reaches zero for traditional slaughterhouses. Regarding electrical stunning application for sheep, animal welfare quality was significantly greater in modern slaughterhouses than in the traditional ones (P < 0.05). Out of nine slaughterhouses with unloading platforms and animal lairage, 55% and 35.7% were found to comply with standards, respectively. Concerning lairage parameters and entrance hall, modern plants stood higher compared to traditional slaughterhouses (P > 0.05). It is recommended training courses for involved veterinarians and slaughterhouse staff along with upgrading slaughterhouse construction.


Assuntos
Matadouros/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Bovinos , Irã (Geográfico) , Ovinos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875908

RESUMO

Optimal hygiene management is an essential part of maintaining a high standard of health in conventional pig production systems and for the successful interruption of infection chains. Currently, efficiency assessments on cleaning and disinfection are only performed by visual inspection or are neglected completely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available methods for on farm monitoring of hygiene, identify critical points in pig pens and use the data obtained for training purposes. In addition to visual inspection by assessing the cleanliness, microbiological swab samples, i.e., aerobic total viable count (TVC), total coliform count, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and extended-spectrum ß-lactamases-producing bacteria (ESBL), swab samples for ATP as well as protein residues and agar contact plates combined with 3 different culture media, were applied and ranked according to their suitability for livestock farming. Samples were collected on at least 15 critical points from one representative pen on 6 pig fattening farms with various hygiene management practices after cleaning and disinfection. After the first sampling, farmers were trained with their individual results, and sampling was repeated 6 mo after training. Nipple drinkers, feeding tubes (external and inner surface), and troughs (external and inner surface) showed the greatest bacterial loads (TVC: 4.5-6.7 log10 cfu cm-2) and values for ATP and protein residues; therefore, these surfaces could be identified as the most important critical points. Spearman rank correlations (P < 0.01) were found between the different assessment methods, especially for the TVC and ATP (r = 0.82, P < 0.001). For rapid assessment on farms, ATP tests represented an accurate and cost-efficient alternative to microbiological techniques. Training improved cleaning performance as indicated by a lower rating for visual inspection, TVC, ATP, MRSA, and ESBL in the second assessment. The monitoring of cleaning efficiency in pig pens followed by training of the staff constitutes a valuable strategy to limit the spread of infectious diseases and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Special attention should be paid to the sufficient hygiene of drinkers and feeders.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Desinfecção/métodos , Fazendeiros/educação , Higiene/educação , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fazendas , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Suínos
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