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3.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875908

RESUMO

Optimal hygiene management is an essential part of maintaining a high standard of health in conventional pig production systems and for the successful interruption of infection chains. Currently, efficiency assessments on cleaning and disinfection are only performed by visual inspection or are neglected completely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available methods for on farm monitoring of hygiene, identify critical points in pig pens and use the data obtained for training purposes. In addition to visual inspection by assessing the cleanliness, microbiological swab samples, i.e., aerobic total viable count (TVC), total coliform count, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and extended-spectrum ß-lactamases-producing bacteria (ESBL), swab samples for ATP as well as protein residues and agar contact plates combined with 3 different culture media, were applied and ranked according to their suitability for livestock farming. Samples were collected on at least 15 critical points from one representative pen on 6 pig fattening farms with various hygiene management practices after cleaning and disinfection. After the first sampling, farmers were trained with their individual results, and sampling was repeated 6 mo after training. Nipple drinkers, feeding tubes (external and inner surface), and troughs (external and inner surface) showed the greatest bacterial loads (TVC: 4.5-6.7 log10 cfu cm-2) and values for ATP and protein residues; therefore, these surfaces could be identified as the most important critical points. Spearman rank correlations (P < 0.01) were found between the different assessment methods, especially for the TVC and ATP (r = 0.82, P < 0.001). For rapid assessment on farms, ATP tests represented an accurate and cost-efficient alternative to microbiological techniques. Training improved cleaning performance as indicated by a lower rating for visual inspection, TVC, ATP, MRSA, and ESBL in the second assessment. The monitoring of cleaning efficiency in pig pens followed by training of the staff constitutes a valuable strategy to limit the spread of infectious diseases and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Special attention should be paid to the sufficient hygiene of drinkers and feeders.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Desinfecção/métodos , Fazendeiros/educação , Higiene/educação , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fazendas , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Suínos
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 702-713, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629510

RESUMO

Little is known about the combination of factors that motivate changes in calf management on dairy farms. Providing information to farmers may help promote change, but it is unclear how this approach affects and is affected by the farmer's relationship with the advisors such as the herd veterinarian. The goal of this study was to understand how benchmarking measures related to calf immune development and growth affected farmer and veterinarian cooperation and influenced the farmer's view of the veterinarian as an advisor for calf management. Veterinarians provided their clients (n = 18 dairy farms in the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia) with 2 benchmark reports providing information on transfer of passive immunity and calf growth. Farmers were interviewed before and after receiving these reports to understand how they perceived their veterinarian as a calf advisor. Qualitative analysis identified 2 major themes indicating that benchmarking (1) improved farmer perception of their veterinarian's capacities to advise on calves and (2) strengthened the social influence of the veterinarian. We conclude that benchmarking can help promote stronger relationships between farmers and veterinarians.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Benchmarking , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Fazendeiros , Médicos Veterinários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Feminino , Humanos
5.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 481-491, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672200

RESUMO

Donkeys and mules have been critical to the development of human civilization, since being domesticated some 6000 years ago. However, they suffer from being undervalued or ignored by development agencies and animal protection nongovernmental organizations. Where they are recognized as affecting agriculture and the economy it is often because they are seen as being either invasive pests or an anachronism in the developing countries of the twenty-first century. Even in the wealthier societies of the world, donkeys suffer from ignorance about their proper management or a booming industry in health care products based on donkey skin gelatin and milk byproducts.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Equidae , Cavalos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais
6.
Prev Vet Med ; 173: 104801, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683188

RESUMO

Since 2006, farmers in England have received new recommendations on best practice to manage lameness in sheep through a range of knowledge exchange activities. The adoption of each recommendation varied, but in 2013 approximately 50% of farmers reported treating all lame sheep within 3 days of onset of lameness (prompt treatment), 41% did not practice routine foot trimming, 50% culled sheep that had been lame and 14% vaccinated against footrot; all recommended best practices. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of lameness in ewes in England from 2013 to 2015 and to identify changes in practice to manage lameness between 2013 and 2015 and the population attributable fraction for these managements. A longitudinal study with a cohort of 154 English sheep farmers was run for three years, farmers completed questionnaires on lameness in their flock for the previous 12 months in 2013, 2014 and 2015. The geometric mean prevalence of lameness in ewes was 4.1% in 2015, significantly higher than 3.3% and 3.2% for the same 128 farmers who provided data in both 2013 and 2014. Between 2013 and 2015 there was a significant reduction in farmers practising prompt treatment (50.6%-28.6%) but an increase in not practising routine foot trimming (40.9%-79.2%), culling sheep that had been lame (49.4%-81.8%), and vaccinating against footrot (14.3%-29.2%). Not practising prompt treatment, ≥5% of sheep feet bleeding during routine foot trimming, vaccinating ewes for <6 years or not vaccinating at all, and other flocks mixing with the flock, were associated with a significantly higher flock prevalence of lameness. Culling sheep that had been lame was not associated with prevalence of lameness. The population attributable fractions (PAFs) for not vaccinating for>5 years, not treating lame sheep promptly, ≥5% of sheep feet bleeding during routine foot trimming, and mixing of flocks were 34.5%, 25.3%, 2.9% and 2.4%. In 2013, when 50% of farmers used prompt treatment, the PAF for not using prompt treatment was only 13.3%. We conclude that the change in practice by these farmers towards flock-level managements and a reduction in individual prompt treatment of lame sheep negatively impacted the prevalence of lameness in sheep. This change occurred despite the evidence that prompt treatment of lame sheep is highly effective at reducing the prevalence of lameness in sheep flocks and is an example of cognitive dissonance.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/terapia , Animais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Coxeadura Animal/terapia , Estudos Longitudinais , Ovinos
7.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 244-250, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the integrated schistosomiasis control model in mountainous and hilly endemic regions, so as to provide insights into the development of the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. METHODS: Five hilly and mountainous areas endemic for schistosomiasis were selected as the integrated control demonstration areas in Sichuan Province from 2011 to 2015. According to the epidemic characteristics, economic levels and overall development planning of the demonstration areas, the goals, strategies and measures were developed, and the effectiveness of schistosomiasis control was evaluated following implementation of the integrated control. RESULTS: The support system of the integrated schistosomiasis control model was built in the integrated control demonstration areas in Sichuan Province from 2011 to 2015, and five ecological, industrialized and sustainable development models of integrated schistosomiasis control were developed, including integration of balancing rural and urban development, systematic ecological improvement, intensified ecological agriculture, scientific management and health education of schistosomiasis control and ecological ethnic circular economy. Since the implementation of the integrated schistosomiasis control model, the snail habitats were completely changed. Until 2015, 92.0% of all historical areas with snails were managed, the coverage of safe drinking water was 100.0%, and more than 95.0% of the livestock were fenced. The coverage of sanitary toilets increased by 93.0%, 96.8%, 78.8%, 87.1% and 82.0% from 2011 to 2015, respectively, and the farmers'mean yearly income increased by 32.7% in the demonstration areas. From 2011 to 2015, the seroprevalence of human Schistosoma japonicum infections reduced from 3.1% in 2011 to 1.6% in 2015 in the demonstration areas, and no egg-positives were identified. In addition, the number of fenced bovines reduced year by year, and no egg-positives were detected. The areas of snail habitats were 398.7, 108.2 hm2 and 52.9 hm2 in the demonstration areas from 2011 to 2013, with no infected snails found, and no snails were detected since 2014. The awareness of schistosomiasis control knowledge and percentage of correct behavior formation increased year by year among residents in the demonstration areas from 2011 to 2015. CONCLUSIONS: The five integrated schistosomiasis control models meet the needs of the current schistosomiasis control activities in mountainous and hilly endemic areas of Sichuan Province, and achieve the goals of controlling the sources of S. japonicum infections, economic development, social progress and improving the ecological environment, which provides new insights into schistosomiasis elimination in the country.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Esquistossomose , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/tendências , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Caramujos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10369-10378, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495614

RESUMO

Cattle lameness is an important welfare concern that also has an economic impact on the dairy industry. It can be a significant problem among pasture-based herds. Our objectives were to identify cow- and herd-level factors related to lameness and hoof lesions in dairy cows grazing year-round in Minas Gerais, Brazil. We performed a cross-sectional study in 48 pasture-based dairy herds, visiting each farm in a single visit. We evaluated 2,262 cows for mobility score (0-3) and 392 cows for hoof lesions. We used a questionnaire and checklist to capture herd management data. All information obtained was used to build multivariable models. The factors associated with lameness were low body condition score, longer time spent in the corral, being kept in paddocks during the drought period, and poor hygiene. For hoof lesions, track features were the most significant factor in determining the likelihood of heel horn erosion, white line fissure, and sole hemorrhage-by more than 3 times. Different factors related to unhygienic conditions such as leg cleanliness, frequency of cleaning, and longer time spent in the corral were associated with infectious hoof lesions. Poor human-animal relationship was related to sole hemorrhage, but patient handling of cows on the track was a protective factor against interdigital hyperplasia. The results of this study suggest that improving hygiene conditions, track features, and cow handling can improve dairy cattle mobility scores in pasture-based farms under tropical conditions. These findings also represent a first step toward planning actions aimed at decreasing lameness and hoof lesions in the studied region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Casco e Garras/patologia , Coxeadura Animal/etiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Lista de Checagem , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Fazendas/classificação , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Marcha , Higiene , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Registros/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Clima Tropical
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 79-82, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395209

RESUMO

The astigmatid mite Psoroptes ovis (Acari: Proroptidae) causes the highly contagious and debilitating ovine disease, sheep scab. This ectoparasitic infection has a high economic and animal welfare impact on British sheep farming. Following recent work demonstrating resistance of Psoroptes mites to moxidectin, a widely used macrocyclic lactone (ML) treatment for scab, the current study compared the toxicity of three of the commonly administered macrocylic lactone therapeutic treatments (moxidectin, ivermectin and doramectin) to P. ovis from outbreak populations that had appeared unresponsive to treatment. These outbreak populations were from Wales and south west England. The data presented demonstrate that there is resistance to all three available ML compounds in populations of Psoroptes mites. However, considerable variation in response suggested that resistance alone was not responsible for the reported lack of efficacy in all of the submitted cases; lack of response in others may be associated with inappropriate treatment application or management. These data highlight the importance of the appropriate use of these compounds to manage national scab incidence at levels that are consistent with acceptable animal welfare standards, while attempting to reduce the development and spread of resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Lactonas/administração & dosagem , Lactonas/farmacologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Psoroptidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Inglaterra , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/prevenção & controle , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , País de Gales
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 307: 108274, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404780

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic characterization of ciprofloxacin resistant- Escherichia coli recovered from 7 different integrated broiler operations in Korea. Among the 157 E. coli isolated from chicken meat produced by integrated broiler operations, 75 (47.8%) were observed to be ciprofloxacin resistant-E. coli. However, the prevalence varied from 25.0 to 75.0%, in chicken meat, indicating variation in ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli occurrence among the operations. Among the 75 ciprofloxacin resistant-E. coli isolates, 10 showed plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrS1 and qnrB4. Among the 10 PMQR-positive E. coli, a double amino-acid exchange in both gyrA and parC with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations of ≥16 µg/mL was noted in 8 isolates, and 4 transconjugants (40.0%) expressed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns and revealed the presence of PMQR genes and ß-lactamase genes. Our findings suggest that E. coli with resistance to ciprofloxacin can now be found in association with integrated broiler operations, thus highlighting the need for monitoring and prevention programs in integrated operations.


Assuntos
Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Carne/microbiologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Escherichia coli/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 31-37, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303200

RESUMO

The recovery of fenbendazole efficacy against Haemonchus contortus was attempted in a sheep intensive production system, using a strategy of population replacement in which the initial absolute efficacy of fenbendazole was 0%. The strategy was based on managing the parasite populations in refugia. Firstly, the resistant parasite population was reduced by means of anthelmintic treatments with efficacious drugs (Phase I), then a new, susceptible population was introduced in summer by way of artificially infected lambs at weaning, which were left to graze on the experimental pasture for eleven months (Phase II). Lastly, the impact of the replacement strategy, in terms of benzimidazole efficacy, was measured (Phase III). Faecal egg counts from permanent lambs and worm burdens as a measure of pasture infectivity from tracer lambs were determined throughout the study. During Phase I, faecal egg counts diminished from a peak of 2968 (300-7740) epg to 0 epg at the end, while adult worm burdens of H. contortus were reduced from 2625 (800-5100) to 0, which showed that the treatment strategy used in Phase I was effective in reducing the resistant population. These parameters also showed that good levels of pasture contamination and infectivity were achieved in Phase II, as faecal egg counts of up to 7275 (3240-13080) epg and adult worm burdens of 500 (200-800) H. contortus were reached. The absolute benzimidazole efficacy on H. contortus estimated at 16 months post-population replacement (Phase III) was 97.58%. The results lead to the conclusion that the recovery of anthelmintic efficacy of fenbendazole against a resistant population of H. contortus may be achieved by means of a strategy based on management of refugia and a subsequent introduction of a susceptible population. This strategy might be translatable to other resistant nematode genera.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fenbendazol/farmacologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Fenbendazol/uso terapêutico , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/prevenção & controle , Ovinos
12.
PLoS Biol ; 17(6): e3000343, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220074

RESUMO

The zebrafish Danio rerio is a powerful model system to study the genetics of development and disease. However, maintenance of zebrafish husbandry records is both time intensive and laborious, and a standardized way to manage and track the large amount of unique lines in a given laboratory or centralized facility has not been embraced by the field. Here, we present FishNET, an intuitive, open-source, relational database for managing data and information related to zebrafish husbandry and maintenance. By creating a "virtual facility," FishNET enables users to remotely inspect the rooms, racks, tanks, and lines within a given facility. Importantly, FishNET scales from one laboratory to an entire facility with several laboratories to multiple facilities, generating a cohesive laboratory and community-based platform. Automated data entry eliminates confusion regarding line nomenclature and streamlines maintenance of individual lines, while flexible query forms allow researchers to retrieve database records based on user-defined criteria. FishNET also links associated embryonic and adult biological samples with data, such as genotyping results or confocal images, to enable robust and efficient colony management and storage of laboratory information. A shared calendar function with email notifications and automated reminders for line turnover, automated tank counts, and census reports promote communication with both end users and administrators. The expected benefits of FishNET are improved vivaria efficiency, increased quality control for experimental numbers, and flexible data reporting and retrieval. FishNET's easy, intuitive record management and open-source, end-user-modifiable architecture provides an efficient solution to real-time zebrafish colony management for users throughout a facility and institution and, in some cases, across entire research hubs.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Peixe-Zebra , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Sistemas de Gerenciamento de Base de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Laboratórios , Software
13.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218603, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216326

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify the main on-farm welfare issues likely to be encountered in extensive sheep farming systems. Thirty-two commercial sheep farms in Victoria, Australia were involved in this study. Of the 32 farms involved, 30 were visited twice (at mid-pregnancy and weaning), and 2 farms only once (both at weaning). In total, 62 visits were conducted and 6,200 ewes (aged 2-5 years) were examined using six animal-based indicators: body condition score (BCS), fleece condition, skin lesions, tail length, dag score and lameness. In addition, the number of ewes that needed further care (such as sick or injured sheep) was recorded and reported to the farmers. Generalised linear mixed models were conducted to investigate associations between welfare outcomes and visit, ewe breed and location, with all three, and their interactions, as fixed factors. In all instances, farm was set as a random factor to account for specific variation between farms. Overall, the welfare of the ewe flocks, based on the six indicators measured, was considered good. A total of 86.9% of the ewes were in adequate BCS (2.5-3.5), 91% had good fleece condition, 69.2% had no skin lesions, 97.1% had low dag scores, and overall lameness was 4.7%. An important and prevalent risk to welfare identified across farms was short tail length; with 85.7% of ewes having tails docked shorter than the third palpable joint. While the welfare of the flock was good, ewes in need of further care were identified at all farms. There were 185 (3.0%) cases needing further care, and the extent of welfare compromise of these animals was considered significant. Main reasons for further care were moderate/severe lameness or foot-related issues, BCS ≤ 2 and active dermatophilosis or broken wool. To our knowledge, this study constitutes the largest assessment of ewes conducted in Australia, and the findings provide valuable insight into the main welfare issues likely to be encountered in extensive sheep farming enterprises. Future studies should develop practical technologies that can assist in the detection of the welfare issues identified in this study. In addition, the thresholds identified here could be used for future comparison and sheep welfare benchmarking programs to assess farm performance and measure continuous improvements.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar do Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Austrália
15.
Lab Anim ; 53(5): 429-446, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068070

RESUMO

The genetic and biological similarity between non-human primates and humans has ensured the continued use of primates in biomedical research where other species cannot be used. Health-monitoring programmes for non-human primates provide an approach to monitor and control both endemic and incoming agents that may cause zoonotic and anthroponotic disease or interfere with research outcomes. In 1999 FELASA recommendations were published which aimed to provide a harmonized approach to health monitoring programmes for non-human primates. Scientific and technological progress, understanding of non-human primates and evolving microbiology has necessitated a review and replacement of the current recommendations. These new recommendations are aimed at users and breeders of the commonly used non-human primates; Macaca mulatta (Rhesus macaque) and Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque). In addition, other species including Callithrix jacchus (Common marmoset) Saimiri sciureus (Squirrel monkey) and others are included. The important and challenging aspects of non-human primate health-monitoring programmes are discussed, including management protocols to maintain and improve health status, health screening strategies and procedures, health reporting and certification. In addition, information is provided on specific micro-organisms and the recommended frequency of testing.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Guias como Assunto , Nível de Saúde , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , Callithrix , Saimiri
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 132, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a critical need to develop appropriate on-farm euthanasia methods for poultry species. Euthanasia methods should affect the brain first causing insensibility, followed by cardiorespiratory arrest. Neck or cervical dislocation methods, either manual (CD) or mechanical (MCD), are reported to cause a prolonged time to loss of sensibility and death with inconsistent results upon application, especially MCD methods. However, there is limited information on cervical dislocation in turkeys. The overall objective of this study was to assess the welfare implications of CD and a newly developed MCD device for euthanasia of cull turkeys in comparison with intravenous (IV) pentobarbital sodium (1 mL/4.5 kg), the gold standard euthanasia method. Time to death using electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioural responses were monitored in eight and eighteen week-old turkeys for five minutes after each euthanasia method application. Spectral analyses of EEG responses and onset of isoelectric EEGs were compared to baseline EEG recordings of birds under anesthesia and behavioural responses were studied among euthanasia treatments. A significant decrease in brain activity frequencies analysis and isoelectric EEG were recorded as time of brain death. RESULTS: All turkeys euthanized with IV pentobarbital sodium presented a rapid and irreversible decrease in the EEG activity at approximately 30s post-injection with minimal behavioural responses. CD and MCD methods caused EEG responses consistent with brain death at approximately 120 s and 300 s, respectively. Additionally, isoelectric EEGs resulted in all pentobarbital sodium and CD groups, but only in 54 and 88% of the eight and eighteen week-old turkeys in the MCD groups, respectively. There were few clear patterns of behavioural responses after CD and MCD application. However, cessation of body movement and time to isoelectric EEG after CD application were positively correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Use of CD and MCD resulted in a prolonged time to death in both age groups of turkeys. MCD application presents a number of welfare risks based on electroencephalographic and behavioural findings. Intravenous pentobarbital sodium induced rapid brain death, but possesses several on-farm limitations. To develop improvements in cervical dislocation methods, further investigations into combined or alternative methods are required to reduce the prolonged time to insensibility and death.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Eutanásia , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Aves Domésticas/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/veterinária , Tecnologia de Alimentos/normas
17.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214500, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995253

RESUMO

Livestock industries are vulnerable to disease threats, which can cost billions of dollars and have substantial negative social ramifications. Losses are mitigated through increased use of disease-related biosecurity practices, making increased biosecurity an industry goal. Currently, there is no industry-wide standard for sharing information about disease incidence or on-site biosecurity strategies, resulting in uncertainty regarding disease prevalence and biosecurity strategies employed by industry stakeholders. Using an experimental simulation game, with primarily student participants, we examined willingness to invest in biosecurity when confronted with disease outbreak scenarios. We varied the scenarios by changing the information provided about 1) disease incidence and 2) biosecurity strategy or response by production facilities to the threat of disease. Here we show that willingness to invest in biosecurity increases with increased information about disease incidence, but decreases with increased information about biosecurity practices used by nearby facilities. Thus, the type or context of the uncertainty confronting the decision maker may be a major factor influencing behavior. Our findings suggest that policies and practices that encourage greater sharing of disease incidence information should have the greatest benefit for protecting herd health.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Tomada de Decisões , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Jogos Experimentais , Medidas de Segurança , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Agricultura , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Disseminação de Informação , Gado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suínos , Incerteza , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Agric Saf Health ; 25(1): 25-36, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893974

RESUMO

In an effort to change unsafe tractor operating behaviors among Appalachian youth resulting from practices and habits learned through a socialization process (termed an "apprenticeship of observation"), this study implemented a four-part intervention in high school agricultural education classes that included implementation of a cost-effective rollover protective structure (CROPS) curriculum. The curriculum included farm safety information, specific NIOSH plans for CROPS construction, and procedures for CROPS installation on unprotected tractors. In this exploratory study, pre- and post-assessments were conducted using theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs to measure changes in four factors that influence changes in learner behavior: learner attitude, perceived social norms, behavioral control, and perceived behavioral intention. Students' perceived knowledge and skills gained through the intervention were also measured because they are integral components in assessing the effectiveness of a curriculum intervention. Participants (N = 83) were high school students from seven schools in three states in the Appalachian region. Findings revealed statistically significant differences in student attitudes toward the use of life-saving CROPS and in perceived knowledge and skills gained through the curriculum implementation. The CROPS curriculum can be an effective intervention effort for addressing the social and behavioral effects of farm youths' apprenticeships of observation by creating more positive attitudes and learning outcomes among youth at risk for tractor rollover fatalities. Recommendations are provided for expanding the applications of the curriculum intervention and the TPB constructs.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Abrigo para Animais , Exposição Ocupacional , Adolescente , Agricultura , Animais , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Suínos , Estados Unidos
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 81, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes substantial economic losses and has a strong impact on public health. The main objective of this paper is to determine the risk factors for new infections of Brucella abortus on Colombian cattle farms previously certified as being free of brucellosis. A case-control study was conducted by comparing 98 cases (farms certified as brucellosis-free for three or more years but became infected) with 93 controls (farms that remained brucellosis-free during at least the previous three years). The farms were matched by herd size and geographical location (municipality). Information was obtained via a questionnaire completed by veterinary officers through a personal interview with the herd owners. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the herds (67%) were dairy herds, 16% were beef herds, and 17% were dual-purpose (beef and milk) herds. After exploratory univariate analysis, all explanatory variables with a p-value of ≤0.20 were included in a logistic regression model using the forward stepwise method to select the model with the best goodness of fit. The significant risk factors were the replacement of animals from farms not certified as brucellosis-free compared to replacement from certified brucellosis-free farms (OR = 4.84, p-value < 0.001) and beef cattle farms compared to dairy cattle farms (OR = 3.61, p-value = 0.017). When herds with and without artificial insemination were compared, it was observed that farms that used natural breeding with bulls from non-certified herds had a higher risk than farms using artificial insemination (OR = 2.45, p-value = 0.037), but when the bulls came from brucellosis-free farms, farms with natural breeding were less affected (OR = 0.30, p-value = 0.004) than farms using artificial insemination, whether with frozen semen from certified brucellosis-free herds or fresh semen from uncontrolled herds. The latter is commonly sold to neighbouring farms. CONCLUSIONS: The government should make efforts to inform farmers about the risks involved in the introduction of semen and replacement heifers from farms that are not certified as brucellosis-free and to establish measures to control these practices.


Assuntos
Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Brucelose Bovina/prevenção & controle , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Brucella abortus/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose Bovina/transmissão , Bovinos , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Criopreservação , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Preservação do Sêmen
20.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(3): 153-163, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843522

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The transfer of piglets is associated with stress for the transported animals. In addition, animal transports are a risk factor for the spread of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant bacteria and for the introduction of diseases into the herd. In the present study, 101 randomly selected transports of piglets were accompanied from the breeding facility to the pig farm. Parameters related to animal health, animal welfare and biosecurity were assessed. Transported piglets showed signs of abscesses, hernias or cannibalism in 30% and diarrhea or cough in 15% of the cases. The proportion of animals with injuries from conflicts were higher after (15%) than before transport (8%). Suboptimal conditions in regard to density, temperature and lighting were found in 19%, 55% and 36% of the transports. Vehicles were cleaned and disinfected only in 55% of transports before arriving at the breeding facility. Thirty percent of the vehicles were soiled and 20% had already loaded piglets when arriving at the sending facility. Vehicles were neither cleaned nor disinfected in 83% between two piglet transports. Overall, there was a great potential for improvement in animal loading and risk of disease transmission in the investigated piglet transports.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar do Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Suínos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Desinfecção/estatística & dados numéricos , Suínos/lesões , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Suíça
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