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2.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(3): 218-235, 2020 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394820

RESUMO

Do Children and Adolescents with Different Reasons for Admission Equally Benefit from Institutional Care? Currently, almost 150.000 children and adolescents are placed in institutional care in Germany with the aim to improve their living conditions. Various studies showed positive effects concerning the development of those institutionalized children and adolescents. Within the present study, 500 children and adolescents in institutional care were examined regarding the improvement of quality of life and social competencies during their care placement depending on the respective reason for admission (group A: admission due to mental health and behavior problems; group S: problems in the context of the school; group O: no mental health problems, but other reasons). Furthermore, differences in the development of children and adolescents who initiated the placement by themselves and those who did not were examined. Results show that over a period of 18-24 months, all three groups developed effectively equally. Group A had a lower initial level regarding quality of life and social competencies compared to group S and group O and therefore reached lower outcomes within the investigation period. Development was irrespective of whether or not children and adolescents initiated the institutional placement by themselves. The results demonstrate that all three groups were able to benefit from institutional care, although children and adolescents with mental health problems had a notable potential for further development.


Assuntos
Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Criança , Alemanha , Humanos , Saúde Mental
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 641-649, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907309

RESUMO

Early childhood deprivation is associated with higher rates of neurodevelopmental and mental disorders in adulthood. The impact of childhood deprivation on the adult brain and the extent to which structural changes underpin these effects are currently unknown. To investigate these questions, we utilized MRI data collected from young adults who were exposed to severe deprivation in early childhood in the Romanian orphanages of the Ceaușescu era and then, subsequently adopted by UK families; 67 Romanian adoptees (with between 3 and 41 mo of deprivation) were compared with 21 nondeprived UK adoptees. Romanian adoptees had substantially smaller total brain volumes (TBVs) than nondeprived adoptees (8.6% reduction), and TBV was strongly negatively associated with deprivation duration. This effect persisted after covarying for potential environmental and genetic confounds. In whole-brain analyses, deprived adoptees showed lower right inferior frontal surface area and volume but greater right inferior temporal lobe thickness, surface area, and volume than the nondeprived adoptees. Right medial prefrontal volume and surface area were positively associated with deprivation duration. No deprivation-related effects were observed in limbic regions. Global reductions in TBV statistically mediated the observed relationship between institutionalization and both lower intelligence quotient (IQ) and higher levels of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The deprivation-related increase in right inferior temporal volume seemed to be compensatory, as it was associated with lower levels of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. We provide compelling evidence that time-limited severe deprivation in the first years of life is related to alterations in adult brain structure, despite extended enrichment in adoptive homes in the intervening years.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Carência Psicossocial , Adoção , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inteligência , Testes de Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Orfanatos , Estudos Prospectivos , Romênia , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5771, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852902

RESUMO

Childhood adversity may sensitize certain individuals to later stress which triggers or amplifies psychopathology. The current study uses data from a longitudinal randomized controlled trial to examine whether severe early neglect among children reared in institutions increases vulnerability to the effects of later stressful life events on externalizing problems in adolescence, and whether social enrichment in the form of high-quality foster care buffers this risk. Children abandoned to Romanian institutions were randomly assigned to a foster care intervention or care-as-usual during early childhood. A sample of never-institutionalized children served as a comparison group. Here we report that, among those with prolonged institutional rearing, more stressful life events in preadolescence predicted higher externalizing problems in adolescence. This effect was not observed for never-institutionalized children or those in foster care, thus providing experimental evidence that positive caregiving experiences protect against the stress-sensitizing effects of childhood neglect on externalizing problems in adolescence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Romênia/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 40: e20180412, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To know the caregiver's perception about the work/care with the institutionalized child. METHODS: Qualitative research that used the Theory of Attachment and Symbolic Interactionism as theoretical references and the Grounded Theory as a methodological reference. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 15 caregivers of a child sheltering institution, in the year 2015. The analysis was performed from the open coding and categorization. RESULTS: Care work aims to meet the needs of institutionalized children, focusing on food, hygiene and education. In addition, it is little recognized, which generates a feeling of devaluation in caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: Continued qualification and support to the caregivers is indispensable for elaborating more effective and integral work/care strategies.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Cuidado da Criança/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Criança Institucionalizada/educação , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Relações Interpessoais , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Apego ao Objeto , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Salários e Benefícios , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 129, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are an important issue among institutionalized children. Although positive communication with parents is essential for children's well-being, it has not been sufficiently verified how interactions with parents affect mental health among institutionalized children, who have experienced childhood adversity and likely lack secure attachment formation with their parents. The objectives of this study were to investigate the association between parental visitation and depressive symptoms among institutionalized children in Japan, and to explore whether the established security of attachment interacts with that association. METHODS: A cross-sectional data from 399 institutionalized children aged 9 to 18 in Japan was used for the analysis. A mixed effects regression analysis was conducted to investigate the associations. RESULTS: Institutionalized children who had parental visitation showed higher depressive symptoms than those who did not. In particular, father's visitations were significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms. There was a significant interaction with score of secure attachment; children with low scores on secure attachment showed higher levels of depression with their father's visitation, whereas children with high scores on secure attachment did not. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggested that parental visitation and the frequency of visitation were not actually associated with better psychological status, but that instead, father's visitations were associated with higher depressive symptoms among institutionalized children. It should be noted that our cross-sectional results cannot infer any causal relationship and do not emphasize that parental visitation should be avoided. However, it may be important to conduct careful assessment before starting parental visitation, especially when children seem to have problems with attachment formation.


Assuntos
Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Visitas a Pacientes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 54(12): 1575-1586, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098773

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Children and adolescents living in youth welfare institutions often have a below average quality of life (QoL), for reasons that include developmental difficulties, history of traumatic experiences, and mental disorders. Youth welfare measures are needed that would have a positive impact, but there is a lack of longitudinal research on which measures are most effective. This study investigated what factors are associated with an improvement in QoL during residential stay. METHODS: Residents of youth care facilities in Switzerland and their professional caregivers completed questionnaires that addressed QoL, psychopathology, and experience of traumatic events at two time points. In addition, information regarding mental disorders was obtained through structured clinical interviews. Analyses were conducted on the data obtained from 204 respondents aged 11-18 years. Comparisons with a school sample were conducted. RESULTS: Compared to a school sample, a majority of participants rated their QoL equal, whereas their caregivers rated it as lower. Factors predictive of a poorer QoL were high levels of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, presence of co-morbidities, and female gender. At the second assessment, the caregivers reported a small improvement, which was associated with reductions in both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that a reduction in severity of psychopathology may result in an improvement in QoL underlines the importance of providing professional support for mentally ill residents of youth welfare institutions. Further research is needed to determine the causality of this association.


Assuntos
Adolescente Institucionalizado/psicologia , Serviços de Proteção Infantil , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Cuidadores , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psicopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça
8.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 106: 161-164, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991311

RESUMO

Young children living in institutional settings often show a range of deficits in social, physical, and cognitive functioning. Whereas the diurnal production of cortisol has been examined among post-institutionalized children in a number of investigations, studies of children continuing to live in institutions are limited. In this study, we assessed wake-up and bedtime cortisol among 73 children living in Russia, with 52 institutionally-reared (n = 31 at time 2), and 21 family-reared (n = 18 at time 2). Institutionally-reared children showed a blunter wake-up to bedtime slope than family-reared children at both time 1 and time 2, with significantly higher cortisol levels at bedtime. These findings highlight the deleterious effects of institutional care on children's developing neuroendocrine regulation.


Assuntos
Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Adoção/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção/psicologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Masculino , Orfanatos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Federação Russa , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
9.
Neural Plast ; 2019: 1676285, 2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774652

RESUMO

Experience plays an essential role in building brain architecture after birth. The question we address in this paper is what happens to brain and behavior when a young child is deprived of key experiences during critical periods of brain development. We focus in particular on the consequences of institutional rearing, with implication for the tens of millions of children around the world who from an early age experience profound psychosocial deprivation. Evidence is clear that deprivation can lead to a host of both short- and long-term consequences, including perturbations in brain structure and function, changes at cellular and molecular levels, and a plethora of psychological and behavioral impairments.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Carência Psicossocial , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
10.
Brain Behav Immun ; 77: 168-177, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639443

RESUMO

The developing immune system is an adaptive system, primed by antigens, responsive to infectious pathogens, and can be affected by other aspects of the early rearing environment, including deviations from the normal provision of parental care. We investigated whether early rearing in an institutional setting, even when followed by years living in supportive and well-resourced families, would be associated with a persistent shift in T cell profiles. Immunophenotyping was used to enumerate CD4+ CD57+ and CD8+ CD57+ subsets, with gating strategies employed to differentiate naïve, central-memory, effector-memory, and terminally differentiated EM cells expressing CD45RA (TEMRA). Blood samples were collected from 96 adolescents, and PBMC isolated via Ficol gradient, followed by an optimized immunophenotypic characterization. CMV antibody titers were determined via ELISA. Adopted adolescents had lower CD4/CD8 ratios than did the control adolescents. Early rearing had a significant effect on the T cells, especially the CD8+ CD57+ CM, EM, and TEMRA cells and the CD4+ CD57+ EM cells. Adolescents who had spent their infancy in institutions before adoption were more likely to be seropositive for CMV, with higher antibody titers. CMV antibody titers were significantly correlated with the percentages of all CD8+ CD57+ cell subsets. In the statistical modeling, CMV antibody titer also completely mediated the relationship between institutional exposure and the ratio of CD4-to-CD8 cells, as well as the percentages of CD4+ CD57+ and CD8+ CD57+ subsets. These findings demonstrate that persistent immune differences are still evident even years after adoption by supportive American families. The shift in the T cells was associated with being a latent carrier of CMV and may reflect the role of specific T cell subsets in Herpes virus containment. In older adults, sustained CMV antigen persistence and immunoregulatory containment ultimately contributes to an accumulation of differentiated T cells with a decreased proliferative capacity and to immune senescence.


Assuntos
Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Criança Adotada/psicologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev ; 22(2): 208-224, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196471

RESUMO

We review a series of interrelated studies on the development of children residing in institutions (i.e., orphanages) in the Russian Federation or placed with families in the USA and the Russian Federation. These studies rely on a single population, and many potential parameters that typically vary in the literature are similar across studies. The conceptual focus is on the role of early caregiver-child interactions and environmental factors that influence those interactions in children's development. Generally, children residing in institutions that provided minimal caregiver-child interactions displayed delayed physical, cognitive, and social-emotional development. Children and adolescents adopted from such institutions at 18 months of age or older had higher rates of behavioral and executive function problems, even many years after adoption. An intervention that improved the institutional environment by increasing the quality of caregiver-child interactions-without changes in nutrition, medical care, sanitation, and safety-led to substantial increases in the physical, cognitive, and social-emotional development of resident children with and without disabilities. Follow-up studies of children in this intervention who were subsequently placed with USA and Russian families revealed some longer-term benefits of the intervention. Implications are discussed for theoretical understanding of the role of early caregiver-child interactions in development as well as for practice and policy.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança/normas , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Criança Adotada/psicologia , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Federação Russa , Estados Unidos
12.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 50(3): 425-438, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368618

RESUMO

Recent approaches have begun to identify common variance across co-occurring childhood adversities (CAs) and their associations with symptoms of psychopathology. However, few studies have investigated these questions in high-risk samples, and in different cultural contexts. This study examined common variance amongst 18 types of CAs and associated symptomatology in 457 children and adolescents living in 24 residential homes in Japan. Principal component analysis identified four significant components that explained 35.1% of the variance: parental abuse, parental psychosocial risks, parental absence, and parental neglect. Path analysis revealed general as well as differential associations with negative outcomes: parental abuse, parental neglect, and parental psychosocial risks significantly associated with conduct problems, whereas parental abuse uniquely associated with peer problems, and parental neglect with hyperactivity/inattention. As well as confirming prior knowledge, these findings also extended understanding of these associations to a new cultural context. Future studies should take into account the multidimensional nature when assessing CAs.


Assuntos
Adolescente Institucionalizado , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Filho de Pais Incapacitados , Criança Institucionalizada , Transtornos Mentais , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adolescente Institucionalizado/psicologia , Adolescente Institucionalizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Sintomas Comportamentais/diagnóstico , Sintomas Comportamentais/psicologia , Criança , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Criança Institucionalizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pais , Psicopatologia
13.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(4): 1477-1487, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588896

RESUMO

Early institutional rearing is associated with increased risk for subsequent peer relationship difficulties, but the underlying mechanisms have not been identified. Friendship characteristics, social behaviors with peers, normed assessments of social problems, and social cue use were assessed in 142 children (mean age = 10.06, SD = 2.02; range 7-13 years), of whom 67 were previously institutionalized (PI), and 75 were raised by their biological families. Anxiety and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, often elevated among PI children, were examined as potential mediators of PI status and baseline social functioning and longitudinal follow-ups (2 and 4 years later). Twenty-seven percent of PI children fell above the Child Behavior Checklist Social Problems cutoff. An examination of specific social behaviors with peers indicated that PI and comparison children did not differ in empathic concern or peer social approach, though parents were more likely to endorse aggression/overarousal as a reason that PI children might struggle with friendships. Comparison children outperformed PI children in computerized testing of social cue use learning. Finally, across these measures, social difficulties exhibited in the PI group were mediated by ADHD symptoms with predicted social problems assessed 4 years later. These findings show that, when PI children struggle with friendships, mechanisms involving attention and behavior regulation are likely contributors.


Assuntos
Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado
14.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 40: e20180412, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043033

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To know the caregiver's perception about the work/care with the institutionalized child. Methods: Qualitative research that used the Theory of Attachment and Symbolic Interactionism as theoretical references and the Grounded Theory as a methodological reference. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 15 caregivers of a child sheltering institution, in the year 2015. The analysis was performed from the open coding and categorization. Results: Care work aims to meet the needs of institutionalized children, focusing on food, hygiene and education. In addition, it is little recognized, which generates a feeling of devaluation in caregivers. Conclusions: Continued qualification and support to the caregivers is indispensable for elaborating more effective and integral work/care strategies.


Resumen Objetivo: Conocer la percepción del cuidador acerca del trabajo/cuidado con el niño institucionalizado. Métodos: Investigación cualitativa que utilizó la Teoría del Apego y el Interaccionismo Simbólico como referenciales teóricos y la Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos como referencial metodológico. Se recolectaron los datos a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas con 15 cuidadoras de una institución de acogida infantil en el año 2015. Se realizó el análisis a partir de la codificación y la categorización. Resultados: El trabajo del cuidado busca atender las necesidades de los niños institucionalizados, enfocándose en la alimentación, la higiene y la educación. Además, es poco reconocido, lo que genera un sentimiento de desvalorización en las cuidadoras. Conclusiones: La calificación continuada y el apoyo a las cuidadoras son indispensables para elaborar estrategias de trabajo/cuidado más efectivas e integrales.


Resumo Objetivo: Conhecer a percepção do cuidador acerca do trabalho/cuidado com a criança institucionalizada. Métodos: Pesquisa qualitativa que utilizou a Teoria do Apego e o Interacionismo Simbólico como referenciais teóricos e a Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados como referencial metodológico. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com 15 cuidadoras de uma instituição de acolhimento infantil, no ano de 2015. A análise foi realizada a partir da codificação e categorização. Resultados: O trabalho do cuidado visa atender às necessidades das crianças institucionalizadas, focando na alimentação, higiene e educação. Além disso, é pouco reconhecido o que gera um sentimento de desvalorização nas cuidadoras. Conclusões: a qualificação continuada e o suporte às cuidadoras são indispensáveis para a elaboração de estratégias de trabalho/cuidado mais efetivas e integrais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Percepção , Salários e Benefícios , Cuidado da Criança/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Criança Institucionalizada/educação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Teoria Fundamentada , Relações Interpessoais , Atividades de Lazer , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Apego ao Objeto
15.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 71(suppl 6): 2650-2658, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to understand the perspective of caregivers about the formation and disruption of bonds with institutionalized children. METHOD: a qualitative research that used as a theoretical framework the Attachment Theory and the Symbolic Interactionism, and the Grounded Theory as methodological framework. Participating in the study were 15 female caregivers of children aged zero to three years, from a child care institution in the south of Brazil, from April to July 2015. RESULTS: three categories were elaborated: "Experiencing the formation of bond and attachment"; "Disrupting with the established bonds and detaching"; "Learning how to work with formation and disruption of bond". FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: we need to think of ways to minimize the negative effects formation and disruption of bonds. In this sense, active listening and the offer of psychological support favor the sharing of experiences and the emotional strengthening of the female caregivers.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Brasil , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Infant Ment Health J ; 39(6): 718-729, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339735

RESUMO

The present study is focused on child socioemotional problems 6 months after institutionalization, by considering the putative predictive role of child maltreatment, of developmental functioning at admission and the following months, and of the quality of institutional relational care. Fifty institutionalized infants and toddlers participated in this study. Child developmental functioning (i.e., cognitive, language, and motor development) was assessed at admission to the institution (Wave 0), and 3 (Wave 1) and 6 months (Wave 2) thereafter. The quality of institutional relational care-operationalized in terms of caregivers' sensitivity and cooperation-was measured at Wave 2. Caregivers reported on the presence of disturbed socioemotional behaviors at Wave 2. Child gestational age, birth weight, age, and stunted growth at admission to the institution served as covariates. Results revealed significant associations between socioemotional difficulties and lower levels of motor development at Waves 0 and 1, child maltreatment, and less sensitive caregiving. A logistic regression showed that child maltreatment and caregiver insensitivity were the only significant predictors of disturbed socioemotional functioning by the end of 6 months of institutionalization.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/reabilitação , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/prevenção & controle , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Ajustamento Emocional , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Autoimagem
17.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 67(6): 529-548, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182823

RESUMO

Symptoms of Attachment Disorder, Behavioral Regulation and Physiological Stress in Institutionalized Children The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of attachment status (availability of a specific caregiver) and caregiving quality on behavioral and physiological adaptation and attachment disorder in institutionalized children. In a sample of children from a Georgian children's home, attachment disorder symptoms were assessed by interview and attachment and exploration behavior as well as self-regulatory behavior were assessed by observation in the natural group setting as well in structured dyadic situations. The child circadian cortisol level was determined to assess physiological adaption. Quality of caregiving was assessed in terms of sensitivity by observation. While attachment status affected the occurrence of attachment disorder symptoms and physiological stress, patterns of regulation in terms of attachment-exploration-balance and self-regulatory behavior were predicted by caregiver sensitivity.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Transtorno Reativo de Vinculação na Infância/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Lactente , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Orfanatos , Determinação da Personalidade , Transtorno Reativo de Vinculação na Infância/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Reativo de Vinculação na Infância/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
18.
Psychiatr Pol ; 52(2): 345-353, 2018 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975371

RESUMO

Emergence of mental health problems in childhood can seriously affect further development of a man and thus hamper his adaptation to adult life. Children in residential institutions may be particularly vulnerable at risk of abnormal mental development, this includes so-called 'children's homes'. In the article we present an overview of the few studies carried out so far in the European residential institutions, including children's homes, over the years 1940-2011 in the UK, Germany, Romania, and Poland. Firstly, we briefly describe a classic research carried out in the world in the 1940s among children from children's homes. Secondly, we present a study conducted in the UK among children and youth from different age groups staying in residential institutions, including children's homes. Then we focus on studies carried out among children and adolescents form German residential institutions and on a group of preschool children from Romanian children's homes. At the end of the article we describe the first epidemiological study carried out in Poland on the population of children and young people staying in children's homes in Warsaw. The review of researches shows that children from day-care facilities are a population with a high prevalence of psychiatric disorder. Children and youth staying in residential institutions probably require specialized psychiatric, psychological and psychotherapeutic care.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Criança Abandonada/psicologia , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Criança Abandonada/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança Institucionalizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cuidados no Lar de Adoção/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Orfanatos , Polônia , Prevalência , Roma , Reino Unido
19.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 16(1): 151, 2018 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A good quality of life (QOL) is important for the physical and mental well-being of all children. However, young people who live in an institutional setting may face different challenges than those who are raised in a traditional family. While a few quantitative studies of institutionalized children's QOL have been conducted, no research has investigated the QOL of young people living in Children's Homes (CHs) in Japan. This research compared the QOL of children and adolescents in Japan who live in CHs with that of children and adolescents living in traditional families. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2016 with 204 students (grades three through nine), 47 of whom lived in a CH, and 157 of whom lived in a traditional family. Ages ranged from 8 to 15 years (CH: 55.8% Female, 44.2% Male; Traditional: 54.1% Female, 45.9% Male). Participants answered the kid-Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (Translated from German: Children's quality of life questionnaire; KINDL®) Japanese Version, which covers six subscales of QOL; they filled in the questionnaires at home. Analysis of variance was used to compare QOL between the two samples. RESULTS: The total QOL score for all students (combined elementary school students and junior high school students) from CHs was statistically significantly lower than that for students from traditional families. Scores for the subscales, emotional well-being and family, were also significantly lower for CH young people than for those in traditional families. While elementary pupils in CHs reported lower QOL than those in traditional families, no significant differences in QOL were seen between junior high school students from CHs and their peers from traditional families. CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented support previous research showing that the QOL of elementary school students living in CHs is significantly lower than that of their peers in traditional families. However, this difference was not observed among junior high school students. This contrast suggests that QOL changes with age. Future research is needed to evaluate the determinants of QOL among all generations and family contexts.


Assuntos
Adolescente Institucionalizado/psicologia , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Orfanatos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções
20.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 96: 93-99, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29920425

RESUMO

This study examined the association between early life adversity, in the form of early rearing in an institution (orphanage), and the slope of cortisol in the first thirty minutes after waking in 277 children, aged 7 through 15 years old, who had either been adopted between 6 and 60 months of age into well-resourced homes in the United States or born into similar homes. The adopted youth were divided at the median (age 16 months) into those adopted earlier (earlier-adopted, EA) and later (later-adopted, LA). The purpose of this study was to examine the post-waking slope in cortisol in post-institutionalized youth, predicting that it would be blunted, especially in later-adopted youth, when compared to the non-adopted (NA) youth. A secondary goal was to examine whether there would be some evidence of less blunting of the first 30 min of the cortisol awakening response among the children further along in pubertal development (i.e., Pubertal Recalibration Hypothesis). Pubertal stage was determined by nurse exam. Salivary cortisol was assessed at 0 and 30-min post-awakening on three days. The results showed that LA children had a blunted wake-30 min cortisol slope relative to NA and EA children. Neither the age by group nor pubertal stage by group analyses were significant. However, the majority of the sample were in early stages of puberty (56% in stages 1 & 2), thus the power was low for detecting such an interaction. This is the first year of a cohort-sequential longitudinal study examining early experiences and pubertal influences on the HPA axis, so it will be important to re-examine this question as the sample ages.


Assuntos
Criança Adotada/psicologia , Hidrocortisona/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Adolescente , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Fatores Etários , Criança , Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Orfanatos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Vigília/fisiologia
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