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PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232660, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401804


Visual-spatial abilities are usually neglected in academic settings, even though several studies have shown that their predictive power in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics domains exceeds that of math and verbal ability. This neglect means that many spatially talented youths are not identified and nurtured, at a great cost to society. In the present work, we aim to identify behavioral and electrophysiological markers associated with visual spatial-ability in intellectually gifted adolescents (N = 15) compared to age-matched controls (N = 15). The participants performed a classic three-dimensional mental rotation task developed by Shepard and Metzler (1971) [33] while event-related potentials were measured in both frontal and parietal regions of interest. While response time was similar in the two groups, gifted subjects performed the test with greater accuracy. There was no indication of interhemispheric asymmetry of ERPs over parietal regions in both groups, although interhemispheric differences were observed in the frontal lobes. Moreover, intelligence quotient and working memory measures predicted variance in ERP's amplitude in the right parietal and frontal hemispheres. We conclude that while gifted adolescents do not display a different pattern of electroencephalographic activity over the parietal cortex while performing the mental rotation task, their performance is correlated with the amplitude of ERPs in the frontal cortex during the execution of this task.

Criança Superdotada , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Adolescente , Mapeamento Encefálico , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Processamento Espacial
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805663


Whilst in other curriculum subjects, it exists observation criteria to detect gifted pupils, there is a paucity of information in Physical Education. For that reason, we aimed to reveal the observation criteria for identifying gifted pupils in Physical Education in an invasion game. Physical Education (PE) talent was evaluated combining results of questionnaire to experts, parents, and students. A validated nomination scale (NSIFT) and the Game Performance Evaluation Tool (GPET) were used. The research approach used in this study was transversal, descriptive, and inferential. The talent pool was composed of 18 gifted pupils aged 8-14 (Mage = 11.67, SD = 1.53). The results showed that the most discriminating criteria to identify PE talent were found to be precocity in both execution and decision-making in the acquisition of tactical principles and tactical-technical skills. Getting free was the skill that they best mastered. In conclusion, the importance of tactical principles and decision-making as observation criteria is emphasized. Future studies should focus on developing mentoring programs in Physical Education.

Criança Superdotada , Jogos Recreativos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Adolescente , Criança , Currículo , Tomada de Decisões , Pessoal de Educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(3): 255-262, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185351


Background: Gifted and talented students have different functioning in some components of executive functions, such as working memory. This meta-analysis examines the differences between students with high abilities and with average intelligence in working memory. Method: A total of 17 articles with 33 different studies were analyzed. A random effects model was used, calculating the effect size with Hedges g. The moderating variables were analyzed using a meta-regression model for continuous variables and ANOVA for categorical variables. Results: Results show an average effect size of g+=0.80 (95% CI: 0.621, 0.976) and high heterogeneity (Q(32)=196.966; p<.001; I2=83.754%). In the studies that measured verbal working memory, the effect size was g+=0.969 (95% CI: 0.697, 1.241) and heterogeneity I2=83.416%. In those assessing visual working memory, g+=0.674 (95% CI: 0.443, 0.906) and the heterogeneity was 83.416%. The analysis of the moderating variables identified the way of measuring working memory as the only significant variable. Conclusions: There is a significant effect in favor of gifted and talented students in both verbal and visual working memory, with significant influence of the procedure used to measure working memory

Antecedentes: los estudiantes superdotados y con talento tienen un funcionamiento diferencial en algunas componentes de las funciones ejecutivas como la memoria de trabajo. Este meta-análisis estudia las diferencias entre estudiantes con alta capacidad intelectual y con inteligencia promedio en memoria de trabajo. Método: un total de 17 artículos con 33 estudios diferenciados fueron analizados. Se empleó un modelo de efectos aleatorios, calculando el tamaño del efecto con g de Hedges. Las variables moderadoras se analizaron empleando una meta-regresión para las continuas y ANOVA para las categóricas. Resultados: los resultados muestran un tamaño del efecto de g+=0.80 (95% CI: 0.621, 0.976) y una alta heterogeneidad (Q(32)=196.966; p<.001; I2=83.754%). En los estudios que miden memoria de trabajo verbal, el tamaño del efecto fue de g+=0.969 (95% CI: 0.697, 1.241) y la heterogeneidad I2=83.416%. En los que evalúan memoria de trabajo visual, g+=0.674 (95% CI: 0.443, 0.906) y la heterogeneidad I2 =83.416%. El análisis de variables moderadoras identificó la forma de medir la memoria de trabajo como la única variable significativa. Conclusiones: existe un efecto significativo en favor de los estudiantes superdotados y con talento, tanto en memoria de trabajo verbal como visual, con influencia del procedimiento utilizado para medir memoria de trabajo

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Atitude , Criança Superdotada/psicologia , Inteligência , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Análise de Variância , Intervalos de Confiança , Testes de Inteligência , Tamanho da Amostra
Psicothema ; 31(3): 255-262, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292039


BACKGROUND: Gifted and talented students have different functioning in some components of executive functions, such as working memory. This meta-analysis examines the differences between students with high abilities and with average intelligence in working memory. METHOD: A total of 17 articles with 33 different studies were analyzed. A random effects model was used, calculating the effect size with Hedges g. The moderating variables were analyzed using a meta-regression model for continuous variables and ANOVA for categorical variables. RESULTS: Results show an average effect size of g +=0.80 (95% CI: 0.621, 0.976) and high heterogeneity (Q(32)=196.966; <.001; I2 =83.754%). In the studies that measured verbal working memory, the effect size was g +=0.969 (95% CI: 0.697, 1.241) and heterogeneity I2 =83.416%. In those assessing visual working memory, g +=0.674 (95% CI: 0.443, 0.906) and the heterogeneity was 83.416%. The analysis of the moderating variables identified the way of measuring working memory as the only significant variable. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant effect in favor of gifted and talented students in both verbal and visual working memory, with significant influence of the procedure used to measure working memory.

Aptidão , Criança Superdotada/psicologia , Inteligência , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Criança , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Tamanho da Amostra
Brain Struct Funct ; 224(7): 2373-2383, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250156


Gifted children learn more rapidly and effectively than others, presumably due to neurophysiological differences that affect efficiency in neuronal communication. Identifying the topological features that support its capabilities is relevant to understanding how the brain structure is related to intelligence. We proposed the analysis of the structural covariance network to assess which organizational patterns are characteristic of gifted children. The graph theory was used to analyse topological properties of structural covariance across a group of gifted children. The analysis was focused on measures of brain network integration, such as, participation coefficient and versatility, which quantifies the strength of specific modular affiliation of each regional node. We found that the gifted group network was more integrated (and less segregated) than the control group network. Brain regional nodes in the gifted group network had higher versatility and participation coefficient, indicating greater inter-modular communication mediated by connector hubs with links to many modules. Connector hubs of the networks of both groups were located mainly in association with neocortical areas (which had thicker cortex), with fewer hubs in primary or secondary neocortical areas (which had thinner cortex), as well as a few connector hubs in limbic cortex and insula. In the group of gifted children, a larger proportion of connector hubs were located in association cortex. In conclusion, gifted children have a more integrated and versatile brain network topology. This is compatible with the global workspace theory and other data linking integrative network topology to cognitive performance.

Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança Superdotada , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Adolescente , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Criança , Conectoma/métodos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248205


The differential characteristics of gifted students can make them vulnerable to cyberbullying. There is very little empirical evidence about cyberbullying and giftedness. In the Spanish context, it is unexplored. The main goal of this work is to determine the prevalence of cyberbullying, its distribution in the different roles, and its relationship with other psychological variables. A cross-sectional study was performed with 255 gifted students (M = 11.88 years, SD = 2.28 years) in Spain (155 males, 60.8%). We used the cyberbullying test and the Spanish versions of the DASS-21, ISEL, KIDSCREEN-10, and the SWLS. The results indicate that 25.1% of the students are pure-cybervictims, 3.9% pure-cyberbullies, and 6.6% cyberbully-victims. Pure-cybervictims and cyberbully-victims present worse scores (p < 0.001) in health-related quality of life, depression, life satisfaction and stress than the uninvolved individuals. The results suggest that the gifted sample presents more cybervictimization and less cyberbullying than observed in other studies of the general population.

Criança Superdotada/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Prevalência , Espanha
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 196: 87-95, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005781


This study investigated the potential of dynamic testing of geometric analogical reasoning in differentiating between the potential for learning of gifted and average-ability children (aged 9-10 years old). In doing so, it was analysed whether planning, a higher-order executive function, was related to outcomes of the dynamic test, and to instructional needs during training. Employing a pretest-training-post-test control group design, participants were split into four subgroups: gifted dynamic testing (n = 24), gifted control (n = 26), average-ability dynamic testing (n = 48) and average-ability control (n = 50). The results revealed that children who were dynamically tested progressed more in accuracy from pre-test to post-test than their peers who received practice opportunities only. Gifted children outperformed their average-ability peers in accuracy, but showed similar levels of improvement after training or practice only. Moreover, gifted children showed they needed fewer prompts during training than their average-ability peers. Planning was found to be related only to pre-test accuracy, and the number of prompts needed at the first training session, but not to post-test accuracy or the number of prompts needed at the second training session. In the discussion, educational implications of the findings were discussed.

Criança Superdotada/psicologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1445(1): 39-51, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875101


System theories postulate that a system needs resources in order to evolve and function as an entirety. According to the actiotope model of giftedness, exogenous and endogenous resources needed to develop excellence include five forms of educational capital (economic, cultural, social, infrastructural, and didactic) and five forms of learning capital (organismic, telic, actional, episodic, and attentional), independent of domain and level of talent development. In three studies, we addressed several blind spots in the empirical basis of the educational and learning capital (ELC) approach. The studies were conducted in different domains, with different samples, and on various levels of talent development, as well as with regard to different functions for which resources can be used. Study 1, comprising 365 sixth graders, showed that ELC have an incremental validity beyond IQ for predicting scholastic achievement. In study 2 with 90 women holding a university degree in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), we provide evidence that in the collegiate actiotopes of women who were later successful in STEM, more ELC had been available and was used to serve different functions than in the actiotopes of less successful women in STEM. In study 3 with 74 long-distance runners, we found a similar pattern of results for different achievement levels in an athletics domain.

Sucesso Acadêmico , Criança Superdotada/psicologia , Escolaridade , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Logro , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência/fisiologia , Masculino , Motivação
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79(Suppl 1): 33-37, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776277


Perfectionism is a psychological construct related o excellence and an optimal manifestation of high intellectual ability (HIA). The main goal of the present work was to compare types and dimensions of perfectionism in students with HIA and an age-gender matched comparison group. We selected 137 participants with diagnosis of HIA and a comparison group of 137 matched by gender and age. The mean age was 11.77 years (SD = 1.99). The Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R) and the Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale-12 (PNPS-12) were used. The cluster analysis for the total sample identified 3 groups of participants (non-perfectionist, unhealthy perfectionist/negative, and healthy perfectionist/ positive). The HIA group presented a higher prevalence of healthy perfectionists and a lower prevalence of unhealthy perfectionists, in comparison with the group of students without a diagnosis of HIA. When comparing the average scores of APS-R and PNPS-12 between the ACI and the comparison group, statistically significant differences were found in high standards, order, discrepancy, positive and negative perfectionism. In all cases, the comparison group yielded higher mean scores than the HIA group. These results have clear implications in the understanding of the phenotypic expression of perfectionism related to excellence and optimal manifestation of the high intellectual potential.

Criança Superdotada/psicologia , Perfeccionismo , Adolescente , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
J Psycholinguist Res ; 48(2): 417-429, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361951


Gifted children are described as very talented children who achieve more than their age mates in one or more domains (Steiner and Carr in Educ Psychol Rev 15(3):215-246, 2003). These children potentially share a cognitive advantage enabling them to excel in language, but also in other domains. In the present study we explored whether gifted children have a relatively advanced procedural memory. We further investigated the relation between procedural memory and complex syntactic comprehension. 25 gifted children and as many non-gifted children between ages 8 and 13 were administered a serial reaction time (SRT) task and a relative clause comprehension task. Results from the SRT task showed no significant difference between gifted children and their TD peers, whereas gifted children showed significant better comprehension of object relative clauses. No significant correlations were found between the two tasks. There was thus no evidence that gifted children excel in procedural memory. Possibly some other factor, such as meta-linguistic knowledge or a beneficial social environment, contributed to their advanced linguistic comprehension.

Criança Superdotada , Compreensão , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória de Longo Prazo , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino
Annu Rev Psychol ; 70: 551-576, 2019 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089229


Gifted students are individuals who are recognized for performance that is superior to that of their peers. Although giftedness is typically associated with schooling, gifted individuals exist across academic and nonacademic domains. In this review, we begin by acknowledging some of the larger debates in the field of gifted education and provide brief summaries of major conceptual frameworks applied to gifted education, dividing them into three categories: frameworks focused on ability, frameworks focused on talent development, and integrative frameworks. We then discuss common practices used to identify gifted students, giving specific attention to the identification of those in underrepresented groups, followed by brief overviews of the numbers of students who are classified as gifted, programming options for gifted students, and social and emotional issues associated with being gifted. We conclude with a discussion of several unresolved issues in the field.

Sucesso Acadêmico , Aptidão , Criança Superdotada , Currículo , Desenvolvimento Humano , Inteligência , Estudantes , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos
Aval. psicol ; 18(1): 58-66, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-999635


Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar dois tipos de medidas (Teste de Raciocínio e Nomeação por Pais) utilizadas na avaliação de dotação intelectual. Para tanto, aplicaram-se a Bateria de Provas de Raciocínio (BPR-5) e a versão para pais das Escalas de Sobre-Excitabilidade, mais especificamente a escala de Sobre-Excitabilidade Intelectual (SEI), em alunos do ensino fundamental (n=67) e em seus pais ou responsáveis (n=67), respectivamente. Ao comparar as duas medidas, observou-se que os estudantes que apresentaram melhor desempenho no escore geral da BPR-5 também tenderam a apresentar médias mais altas na SEI. Foram obtidas correlações positivas, significativas, que variaram de fracas a moderadas, entre a SEI, a capacidade cognitiva geral e alguns tipos de raciocínio (verbal, abstrato e numérico). A comparação e as associações positivas entre os dois instrumentos permitem sugerir que ambos investigam construtos correlatos. Entretanto, as medidas devem ser consideradas como complementares e não substitutivas. (AU)

This study aimed to compare two types of measures (reasoning test and parent's nomination) used in the assessment of intellectual giftedness. Accordingly, the Reasoning Test Battery (BPR-5) and the parents version of the Overexcitability Scales, more specifically the Intellectual Overexcitability scale (SEI) were applied with elementary school students (n=67) and their parents or guardians (n=67), respectively. When comparing the two measures, it was observed that students who performed better in the BPR-5 also tended to receive higher means in the SEI. Significant positive correlations, which ranged from weak to moderate, were obtained between the SEI, the general reasoning ability, and some types of reasoning (verbal, abstract, and numeric). The comparison and positive associations between the two instruments indicate that both investigate related constructs. However, the measures should be considered as complementary rather than substitutive. (AU)

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comparar dos tipos de medidas (prueba de raciocinio y nombramiento por padres) utilizadas en la evaluación de dotación intelectual. Razón por la cual, se aplicaron la Batería de Pruebas de Razonamiento (BPR-5) y la versión para padres de las Escalas de Sobreexcitabilidad, más específicamente se aplicó la Escala de Sobreexcitabilidad Intelectual (SEI) en alumnos de la enseñanza básica (n=67) y en sus padres o responsables (n=67). Al comparar las dos medidas, se observó que los estudiantes que presentan mejor desempeño en la BPR-5, también tienden en presentar medias más altas en la SEI. Se obtuvo correlaciones positivas, significativas y débiles entre la SEI y la capacidad general de razonamiento. La SEI también se correlacionó positiva y significativamente con algunos tipos de razonamiento (Verbal, Abstracto y Numérico). La comparación y las asociaciones positivas entre los dos instrumentos permiten sugerir que ambos investigan constructos relacionados. Con todo, las medidas deben ser consideradas como complementarias y no substitutivas. (AU)

Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança Superdotada/psicologia , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Testes de Inteligência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Encephale ; 44(5): 446-456, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340779


We have been sensitized to children with high intellectual potential (HIP) having difficulties given the number of children consulting in our outpatient medico-psychological centres for scholastic problems (possibly leading to school failure), anxiety disorders or behavioral disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and in which a high intellectual potential was discovered during psychological assessments. It is the contrast, and more precisely the paradox, between the high intellectual potential of these children and their scholastic difficulties (including school failure), and the psychic suffering expressed by some of them, which led us to question, challenge and propose therapeutic and educational care adapted to these children. It is in this context that we created in December 2005 the CNAHP (National Center for Assistance to High Potential children and adolescents) which is a public centre integrated into the hospital-university department of child and adolescent psychiatry at Rennes. It is noteworthy that not all children with HIP have difficulties, and children with school failure or behavioral problems are not always children with HIP. However, it is necessary not to minimize the problem raised by children with HIP with difficulties by ignoring its frequency or by considering that these children are "intelligent" enough to manage by themselves and do not need to be helped, whereas some of them can show school failure and even be de-scholarized. Indeed, based on the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO) of an intellectual Quotient (IQ) above 130 (level corresponding to a statistical threshold), the frequency of children with HIP represents 2.3% of the population of schoolchildren aged 6 to 16. The frequency is therefore not so rare. However, it remains to be determined by French epidemiological studies what is the actual frequency of children with difficulties within a population of children with HIP. The analysis of the CNAHP research data from a clinical population (children with HIP consulting for difficulties) highlights that children with HIP can show major school problems (including school failure, defined here as having or foreseeing repetition of a grade), which corresponds to 7.5% of 611 children with HIP consulting at the CNAHP) and socioemotional problems (emotional regulation disorders) in relation to their high intellectual potential. In particular, anxiety disorders were the most frequent psychiatric disorders observed in this population (40.5%) and were significantly associated with high verbal potential. This significant association requires further studies to avoid establishing a simplistic unidirectional and reductive linear cause-effect relationships. Indeed, a high verbal potential can elicit and/or reinforce anxiety-producing representations, but anxiety disorders may also lead to a defensive over investment of verbal language. The results are discussed in this article and suggest that scholastic and/or psychological difficulties encountered by some children with HIP can be related to their high intellectual potential. It is necessary to develop therapeutic and educational care adapted to these children from a better understanding, based on research results, of their possible difficulties but also cognitive abilities. Even when children with HIP have scholastic and/or psychological difficulties, some of their cognitive skills can be preserved contrary to appearances, with for example, as seen in the CNAHP results, excellent attentional capacities shown by cognitive tests contrasting with behavioral attention deficit reported by parents. These skills are important to identify as they are resources which support the therapeutic and educational project. It is probably through an articulation among professionals from national education, health and research, in alliance with the family (parents, child, and siblings), that advances will be made. In the same way that professionals have been interested in children with intellectual disabilities, it is important to be concerned by children with HIP and difficulties located at the other end of the continuum. It is a question of ethics which concerns both caregivers and teachers. It is also a societal issue that concerns all of us given that the expression of high intellectual and creative potential in children may be essential to the societal development of innovative strategies and each nation's future. Finally, the discussion can be extended to all children, independent of their potential. What we learn from children with HIP and difficulties can be applied to each child: it is important at family, school and societal levels to facilitate the expression of the potential of children, to value their skills, and to help them to remove possible inhibitions of their potential based on individualized projects. The acceptance of singularity and differences in children can contribute to tolerance and the development of creativity, in the interest of the subject and of society.

Fracasso Acadêmico , Criança Superdotada , Inteligência/fisiologia , Fracasso Acadêmico/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Criança Superdotada/psicologia , Criança Superdotada/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Psicologia da Criança , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 35(3): 259-263, jul.-set. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-953532


This article describes the work that the author has been focusing on over the last 15 years: understanding the social and emotional world of the gifted child and adolescent. The article describes the history behind how the author came to develop his thinking on the now popular concept, "strengths of the heart". Strengths of the heart include a triad of psychological concepts: social skills, emotional intelligence, and character strengths and virtues. Together, this triad of psychological concepts, strengths of the heart, predict to important life outcomes, including success, psychological health, happiness, and subjective well-being.

Este artigo descreve o trabalho em que o autor tem se focado nos últimos 15 anos: compreender o mundo social e emocional da criança e do adolescente superdotados. O artigo descreve a história por trás de como o autor veio a desenvolver seu pensamento sobre o conceito atualmente disseminado de "forças do coração". O conceito de forças do coração inclui uma tríade de conceitos psicológicos: habilidades sociais, inteligência emocional e forças e virtudes do caráter. Conjuntamente, essa tríade de conceitos psicológicos, as forças do coração, antevê importantes resultados na vida do indivíduo, incluindo sucesso, saúde psicológica, felicidade e bem-estar subjetivo.

Humanos , Criança Superdotada , Inteligência Emocional
Nutr Hosp ; 35(1): 38-43, 2018 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565147


OBJECTIVES: Physical activity (PA) has been shown to have multiple health and wellness benefits, but there is no such information for adolescents with high intellectual ability (HIA). Thus, the aim of this study is to assess body composition and PA in HIA Chilean adolescents. METHODS: Weight and body composition were measured by bioelectrical impedance in 73 adolescents (39 female) aged 14-18 years from the Valparaíso region of Chile. HIA was assessed via Raven's Progressive Matrices (> 75th percentile) and PA, via questionnaire. Obesity was defined as a body fat percentage (BF%) ≥ 25 (for boys) or ≥ 30 BF% (for girls). RESULTS: Obesity prevalence was 43.59% in females and 8.82% in males. A total of 69% of adolescents performed more than two hours of weekly exercise, with the amount being greater in males. BF% and fat mass index were significantly different (p < 0.05) in adolescents who engaged in fewer than two hours of weekly exercise. On the contrary, subjects who performed more than two hours of weekly exercise exhibited higher mass muscle percentages (p < 0.01). After controlling for socioeconomic status and PA, the obesity odds ratio (OR = 7.6; 95% CI: 1.9-30.9) was significantly higher in females (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with HIA reported elevated PA. However, obesity was more prevalent in females, who also reported less weekly PA than males.

Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança Superdotada , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(supl.1): S51-S56, 1 mar., 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171891


Introducción. Desde una perspectiva diferencial, la alta capacidad intelectual es una expresión del funcionamiento intelectual con unos correlatos funcionales característicos y unos correlatos estructurales de la actividad neural subyacente que sugieren una capacidad ejecutiva mejorada como característica relevante, destacando en ella una memoria de trabajo más eficaz. Desarrollo. Se analizan las evidencias neurocientíficas sobre los mecanismos neurales que pueden explicar las diferencias entre el funcionamiento intelectual de la alta capacidad intelectual y la capacidad intelectual típica, y se revisan las posibilidades que ofrece el registro de potenciales evocados para apresar procesos mentales fundamentales que permitan explicar las diferencias entre ellas. Conclusiones. Las evidencias neurocientíficas mediante electroencefalografía u otras técnicas de imaginería mental muestran que el cerebro, como correlato estructural de la alta capacidad intelectual, tiene mayor eficiencia neural, interconectividad y diferencias en la citoarquitectura. Es un cerebro que captura, comprende e interpreta la realidad de forma cualitativamente diferente. Pero las diferencias neurales son estructurales y la alta capacidad intelectual emerge de su plasticidad funcional. Es decir, es un cerebro preparado para una mejor regulación ejecutiva que no siempre guarda relación directa con la excelencia y la eminente manifestación de su potencialidad porque precisa de otros condicionantes como la motivación, la organización del conocimiento, rasgos personales de temperamento o perfeccionismo, y condicionantes exógenos (AU)

Introduction. From a differential perspective, high intellectual ability is an expression of intellectual functioning with characteristic functional correlates and structural correlates of the underlying neural activity that suggests an improved executive capacity as a relevant characteristic, highlighting in it a more effective working memory. Development. The neuroscientific evidences about the neural mechanisms that can explain the differences are analyzed between the intellectual functioning of the high intellectual ability and the typical intellectual capacity. The possibilities that offer the recording of evoked potentials to capture fundamental mental processes that allow explain the differences between them are put under review. Conclusions. Neuroscientific evidences through electroencephalography or other mental imagery techniques show that the brain, as a structural correlate of high intellectual abilities, has greater neural efficiency, interconnectivity and differences in the cytoarchitecture. It is a brain that captures, understands and interprets reality in a qualitatively different manner. But the neural differences are structural and the high intellectual capacity emerges from its plasticity functional. That is, it is a brain prepared for better executive regulation that is not always directly related with excellence and the eminent manifestation of its potentiality because it requires other conditioning factors such as motivation, the organization of knowledge, personal traits of temperament or perfectionism, and exogenous conditions (AU)

Humanos , Criança , Adulto , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Testes de Inteligência/estatística & dados numéricos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Criança Superdotada/estatística & dados numéricos , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 38(1): 50-62, jan.-mar.2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-882619


A identificação de alunos com altas habilidades/superdotação (AH/SD) é um processo complexo e necessário. Em uma escola estadual de uma cidade do interior do estado de São Paulo, os 326 alunos que frequentavam os primeiros anos do ensino fundamental participaram de uma triagem para identificação de AH/SD. Utilizaram-se o teste das Matrizes Progressivas de Raven, o Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE) e a indicação do professor, via um protocolo de avaliação. Setenta e quatro alunos, de seis a 11 anos de idade, apresentaram indicadores de AH/SD em pelo menos dois dos instrumentos. O presente estudo pretendeu confirmar o alto desempenho intelectual deles utilizando o WISC-III. Para confirmar as AH/SD, adotou-se o critério de pelo menos dois indicadores, dos quatro instrumentos aplicados: apresentar um percentil de 90 ou mais no Raven; ter pelo menos dois resultados superiores nos subtestes do TDE; ser indicado pelo professor ou apresentar um QI de 130 ou mais em qualquer um dos subgrupos (QI Verbal, QI de Execução e QI Total) no WISCIII. Foram confirmados 11 alunos utilizando os critérios definidos. Também foram identificados 14 alunos que obtiverem pelo menos um QI superior no WISC-III. Os resultados apontaram que o WISC-III se mostrou adequado para confirmar a identificação de alunos com AH/SD e, também, apontar um grupo de alunos que apresentaram resultados superiores, potencialmente com AH/ SD, que se beneficiariam de serviços específicos. Considerando a idade dos participantes, sugerese que o WISC-III seja utilizado para monitorar sistematicamente o seu desempenho intelectual juntamente com instrumentos que avaliem seus interesses e habilidades....(AU)

The identification of students with giftedness is a complex and necessary process. In a state school located in a city of the State of São Paulo, 326 pupils who have attended to the early years of elementary school were evaluated in order to identify giftedness. Raven's Progressive Matrices test, the School Achievement Test and teacher`s indication through an evaluation protocol were used. ness indicators in two instruments at least. This study intended to confirm the high intellectual development of those pupils using the WISC-III. In order to confirm giftedness, the chosen criterion was to consider at least two indicators of the four instruments used: presenting a percentile of 90 or higher in Raven's test; obtaining at least two higher results in School Achievement Test subtests; being pointed by the teacher or achieving a result of 130 or higher in any subgroups (Verbal IQ, Execution IQ and Total IQ) on WISC-III. Eleven students were confirmed by these criteria. Fourteen students who reached at least one higher IQ on WISC-III were identified as well. The WISC-III results were considered suitable to confirm the identification of students with giftedness and, also, pointed a group of pupils who showed higher results, potentially with giftedness, and were benefited from specific services. Considering the age of the participants, it is suggested that WISC-III could be used to track their intellectual development with instruments which could evaluate their interests and skills....(AU)

La identificación de alumnos con altas habilidades/superdotación (AH/SD) es un proceso  complejo y necesario. En una escuela estatal de una ciudad del interior del Estado de São Paulo, los 326 alumnos que frecuentaban los primeros años de la enseñanza primaria participaron en una selección para identificación de AH/SD. Se utilizó la prueba de las Matrices Progresivas de Raven, la Prueba de Desempeño Escolar y la indicación del profesor, a través de un protocolo de evaluación. 74 alumnos, de seis a 11 años de edad, presentaron indicadores de AH/SD en al menos dos de los instrumentos. El presente estudio pretendió confirmar el alto desempeño intelectual de ellos utilizando el WISC-III. Para confirmar las AH/ SD, se adoptó el criterio de al menos dos indicadores, de los cuatro instrumentos aplicados: presentar un percentil de 90 o más en el Raven; tener por lo menos dos resultados superiores en las subpruebas de la Prueba de Desempeño Escolar; ser indicado por el profesor o presentar un CI de 130 o más en cualquiera de los subgrupos (CI Verbal, CI de Ejecución y CI Total) en el WISC-III. Se han confirmados 11 alumnos utilizando los criterios definidos. También se han identificados 14 alumnos que obtienen al menos un CI superior WISC-III. Los resultados apuntaron que el WISC-III se mostró adecuado para confirmar la identificación de alumnos con AH/SD y, también, apuntar un grupo de alumnos que presentaron resultados superiores, potencialmente con AH/SD, que se beneficiaría de servicios específicos. Considerando la edad de los participantes, se sugiere que el WISC-III se utiliza para supervisar sistemáticamente su rendimiento intelectual junto con instrumentos que evalúen sus intereses y habilidades....(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Criança Superdotada , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Educação Especial , Testes Psicológicos , Estudantes , Docentes , Psicologia
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 35(1): 39-51, Jan.-Mar. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-891887


Procedures used for identifying giftedness have been widely discussed in the literature. The present study aimed to investigate the evidence of validity based on the internal structure of a self-report scale to identify characteristics of giftedness. The sample consisted of 276 Elementary and Middle School students, aged between 9 and 12 years, and was 60.0% female. The instrument used was the first version of this scale, which was composed of 44 items related to the topic. Exploratory Factor Analysis was carried out, and the results revealed a two-factor solution, explaining 40.4% of the total variance. The first factor was denominated Socio-emotional Characteristics, and the second factor was denominated Cognitive Characteristics. The results corroborate the data in the scientific literature, which suggest that giftedness is a multidimensional construct that encompasses attributes that go beyond the intellectual scope.

As diversas formas de identificação das Altas Habilidades/Superdotação têm sido amplamente discutidas na literatura. O presente estudo objetivou investigar as evidências de validade da estrutura interna de uma escala de autorrelato para identificação de características associadas ao tema. A amostra constituiu-se de 276 estudantes de ensino fundamental, com idades entre 9 e 12 anos, sendo 60,0% do sexo feminino. O instrumento respondido foi a primeira versão desta escala composta por 44 afirmações relacionadas ao tema. O procedimento de Análise Fatorial Exploratória apresentou uma solução de dois fatores, os quais explicariam 40,4% da variância total. O primeiro fator foi chamado de Características Socioemocionais e o segundo, Características Cognitivas. Os resultados corroboram a literatura científica, a qual compreende o construto como multidimensional, incluindo atributos que vão além do âmbito intelectual.

Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Criança Superdotada , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Fatorial , Autorrelato
Br J Dev Psychol ; 36(3): 514-520, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473180


Self-regulation skills refer to processes allowing emotional and cognitive adaptation of the individual. Some gifted adolescents are known for their imbalance between high intellectual abilities and low emotional skills. Thus, this study aimed at examining the interplay between emotion and cognition in gifted and non-gifted adolescents. A stop-signal task, a response inhibition task including neutral, happy, or sad faces as signal triggering inhibition, was administered to 19 gifted and 20 typically developing male adolescents (12-18 years old). Gifted adolescents showed lower response inhibition abilities than non-gifted adolescents in the neutral and happy face conditions. Sad faces in gifted adolescents were associated with higher response inhibition compared to happy condition. In typically developing adolescents, emotional information (happy or sad faces) was related to lower response inhibition compared to neutral face condition. This study highlights that gifted adolescents present different self-regulation skills than their typically developing peers. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Some gifted adolescents present higher intellectual abilities alongside with lower socio-emotional skills. Self-regulation skills refer to processes allowing emotional and cognitive adaptation. Self-regulation skills might help to understand gifted adolescents, but remain scarcely studied. What does this study adds? Task-relevant emotional information impaired cognitive control in typically developing adolescents. Gifted adolescents are able to use sad faces to enhance their cognitive control abilities.

Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Criança Superdotada , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Inibição Psicológica , Tristeza/fisiologia , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Criança , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino
Nutr. hosp ; 35(1): 38-43, ene.-feb. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-172086


Objectives: Physical activity (PA) has been shown to have multiple health and wellness benefits, but there is no such information for adolescents with high intellectual ability (HIA). Thus, the aim of this study is to assess body composition and PA in HIA Chilean adolescents. Methods: Weight and body composition were measured by bioelectrical impedance in 73 adolescents (39 female) aged 14-18 years from the Valparaíso region of Chile. HIA was assessed via Raven’s Progressive Matrices (> 75th percentile) and PA, via questionnaire. Obesity was defined as a body fat percentage (BF%) ≥ 25 (for boys) or ≥ 30 BF% (for girls). Results: Obesity prevalence was 43.59% in females and 8.82% in males. A total of 69% of adolescents performed more than two hours of weekly exercise, with the amount being greater in males. BF% and fat mass index were significantly different (p < 0.05) in adolescents who engaged in fewer than two hours of weekly exercise. On the contrary, subjects who performed more than two hours of weekly exercise exhibited higher mass muscle percentages (p < 0.01). After controlling for socioeconomic status and PA, the obesity odds ratio (OR = 7.6; 95% CI: 1.9-30.9) was significantly higher in females (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Adolescents with HIA reported elevated PA. However, obesity was more prevalent in females, who also reported less weekly PA than males (AU)

Objetivos: la actividad física (AP) ha demostrado múltiples beneficios en salud, pero no hay información en adolescentes con altas capacidades intelectuales (ACI). El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la composición corporal y AF en adolescentes chilenos con ACI. Métodos: la composición corporal fue evaluada por bioimpedancia en 73 adolescentes (39 mujeres) de 14 a 18 años de la Región de Valparaíso, Chile. La ACI se evaluó a través del test de matrices progresivas de Raven y la AF, a través de un cuestionario. La obesidad se definió mediante el porcentaje de grasa corporal (%GC) ≥ 25 (hombres) y ≥ 30% (mujeres). Resultados: la prevalencia de obesidad fue del 43,59% en mujeres y del 8,82% en hombres. Un 69% de los adolescentes realizan más de dos horas de ejercicio semanal, siendo mayor en hombres. El %GC y el índice de masa grasa fueron significativamente diferentes (p < 0,05) en adolescentes que realizan menos dos horas de ejercicio semanal. Por el contrario, los sujetos que realizan más de dos horas de ejercicio semanal presentaron mayores porcentajes de masa muscular (p < 0,01). Después de controlar por nivel socioeconómico y AF, el odds ratio para obesidad (OR = 7,6; IC del 95%: 1,9-30,9) fue significativamente asociado a las mujeres (p < 0,01). Conclusiones: los adolescentes con ACI reportaron alta AF semanal. Sin embargo, la obesidad fue más prevalente en mujeres, que también informaron menor AF semanal (AU)

Humanos , Adolescente , Criança Superdotada/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Impedância Elétrica , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Aptidão/fisiologia