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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239840, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970775

RESUMO

The association between alcohol outlets and violence has long been recognised, and is commonly used to inform policing and licensing policies (such as staggered closing times and zoning). Less investigated, however, is the association between violent crime and other urban points of interest, which while associated with the city centre alcohol consumption economy, are not explicitly alcohol outlets. Here, machine learning (specifically, LASSO regression) is used to model the distribution of violent crime for the central 9 km2 of ten large UK cities. Densities of 620 different Point of Interest types (sourced from Ordnance Survey) are used as predictors, with the 10 most explanatory variables being automatically selected for each city. Cross validation is used to test generalisability of each model. Results show that the inclusion of additional point of interest types produces a more accurate model, with significant increases in performance over a baseline univariate alcohol-outlet only model. Analysis of chosen variables for city-specific models shows potential candidates for new strategies on a per-city basis, with combined-model variables showing the general trend in POI/violence association across the UK. Although alcohol outlets remain the best individual predictor of violence, other points of interest should also be considered when modelling the distribution of violence in city centres. The presented method could be used to develop targeted, city-specific initiatives that go beyond alcohol outlets and also consider other locations.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/classificação , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Reino Unido
2.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 45(3): 98-107, jul.-sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188610

RESUMO

Introducción: En este artículo se analizan los datos del equipo técnico (psicólogo, trabajador social y educador) del juzgado de menores de Toledo (España) desde el año 2001 a 2012. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo de la serie anual de una muestra de 3.333 menores infractores y de sus características psicosociales, educativas y delictivas. Resultados: En los últimos años de la serie se tiende a infracciones de mayor gravedad cometidas por chicos de mayor edad. Conclusiones: La delincuencia de menores en esta provincia desde el año 2001 se mantuvo constante hasta el año 2009, en el que se observa un destacado repunte para volver a bajar durante los años 2011 y 2012. Sin embargo, en los últimos años de la serie (a partir de 2008) se constata un aumento de la gravedad de los hechos, al ser significativamente más numerosos los delitos que las faltas. También se ha detectado que probablemente el sistema infradiagnostica a los menores infractores, tanto en problemas de salud mental como en consumo de alcohol y otras drogas. Por lo tanto, estos menores no se beneficiarían adecuadamente de las medidas impuestas por el sistema de justicia juvenil


Introduction: This paper presents an analysis of the data of the technical team (psychologist, social worker and educator) of the juvenile court of Toledo (Spain) from 2001 to 2012. Methodology: Descriptive study of the annual series of a sample of 3,333 juvenile offenders and their psychosocial, educational and criminal characteristics. Results: In the latter years of the series there tends to be infractions of greater gravity committed by older boys. Conclusions: Juvenile delinquency in the province of Toledo remained constant from 2001 until 2009, when a sharp increase was observed, which lowered again during the years 2011 and 2012. However, in the latter years of the series (starting 2008) an increase in the gravity of the acts is noted, with the number of crimes increasing more significantly than the misdemeanours. The team has also detected that perhaps institutions underestimate the diagnosis of the juvenile misdemeanours, even in mental health issues, such as abuse of alcohol and other substances. Therefore, these minors may not achieve the benefits of the justice youth system


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Impacto Psicossocial , Crime/classificação , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(3): 4-8, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198196

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop a detailed applied classification of medical-criminalistic situational examinations. This paper proposes a classification of importance for practice and research of medical-criminalistic expertise on the reconstruction of events. The basic criteria which determine how the classification of situational examinations is performed are considered.


Assuntos
Crime/classificação , Ciências Forenses , Humanos
5.
J Correct Health Care ; 25(2): 121-133, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866710

RESUMO

This study examined clinical indicators of adult jail inmates' substance use severity and offending patterns. Clinical assessment and booking data were gathered from a random sample of 283 adult inmates using the Comprehensive Addiction and Psychological Evaluation-5, which is consistent with diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Greater substance use risk was associated with increased likelihood of detention for property-related offenses, nonviolent offenses, and multiple jail admissions. Inmates with greater substance use risk were also significantly less likely to be detained for violent offenses. The assessment and coordination of care for jail inmates in local detention centers is paramount to reducing jail bookings, especially for nonviolent offenses.


Assuntos
Crime/classificação , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198251, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874264

RESUMO

The ability of a wide range of psychological and actuarial measures to characterize crimes in the prison population has not yet been compared in a single study. Our main objective was to determine if the discriminant capacity of psychological measures (PM) and actuarial data (AD) varies according to the crime. An Ecuadorian sample of 576 men convicted of Robbery, Murder, Rape and Drug Possession crimes was evaluated through an ad hoc questionnaire, prison files and the Spanish adaptation of the Personality Assessment Inventory. Discriminant analysis was used to establish, for each crime, the discriminant capacity and the classification accuracy of a model composed of AD (socio-demographic and judicial measures) and a second model incorporating PM. The AD showed a superior discriminant capacity, whilst the contribution of both types of measures varied according to the crime. The PM generated some increase in the correct classification percentages for Murder, Rape and Drug Possession, but their contribution was zero for the crime of Robbery. Specific profiles of each crime were obtained from the strongest significant correlations between the value of each explanatory variable and the probability of belonging to the crime. The AD model is more robust when these four crimes are characterized. The contribution of AD and PM depends on the crime, and the inclusion of PM in actuarial models moderately optimizes the classification accuracy of Murder, Rape, and Drug Possession crimes.


Assuntos
Crime/classificação , Modelos Teóricos , Prisioneiros , Prisões , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Law Hum Behav ; 41(6): 579-587, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28816465

RESUMO

Two experiments tested (a) whether jurors make assumptions about the potential punishment that would follow from a guilty verdict, (b) whether those assumptions influence jurors' implicit threshold for reasonable doubt, and (c) whether informing jurors of the potential punishment additionally influences their implicit threshold. Experiment 1 manipulated the alleged crime (grand theft vs. manslaughter) holding all other factors constant, and found that mock jurors (n = 102, recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk) had different expectations about the relative punishments but that these expectations did not affect their implicit threshold for reasonable doubt. Experiment 2 manipulated the alleged crime as well as a judicial description of the potential punishment (e.g., term of incarceration of 2-6 vs. 7-20 years). Again, mock jurors (n = 297) were sensitive to the relative punishments, yet their implicit threshold did not differ on this basis. These findings call into question whether jurors should be informed of the potential punishment if the defendant is convicted, an argument advanced by several legal scholars. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Tomada de Decisões , Julgamento , Punição , Adulto , California , Crime/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0183110, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800604

RESUMO

Crime is a major threat to society's well-being but lacks a statistical characterization that could lead to uncovering some of its underlying mechanisms. Evidence of nonlinear scaling of urban indicators in cities, such as wages and serious crime, has motivated the understanding of cities as complex systems-a perspective that offers insights into resources limits and sustainability, but that usually neglects details of the indicators themselves. Notably, since the nineteenth century, criminal activities have been known to occur unevenly within a city; crime concentrates in such way that most of the offenses take place in few regions of the city. Though confirmed by different studies, this concentration lacks broad analyses on its characteristics, which hinders not only the comprehension of crime dynamics but also the proposal of sounding counter-measures. Here, we developed a framework to characterize crime concentration which divides cities into regions with the same population size. We used disaggregated criminal data from 25 locations in the U.S. and the U.K., spanning from 2 to 15 years of longitudinal data. Our results confirmed that crime concentrates regardless of city and revealed that the level of concentration does not scale with city size. We found that the distribution of crime in a city can be approximated by a power-law distribution with exponent α that depends on the type of crime. In particular, our results showed that thefts tend to concentrate more than robberies, and robberies more than burglaries. Though criminal activities present regularities of concentration, we found that criminal ranks have the tendency to change continuously over time-features that support the perspective of crime as a complex system and demand analyses and evolving urban policies covering the city as a whole.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia Criminal/tendências , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Crime/classificação , Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Criminologia/métodos , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Law Hum Behav ; 41(4): 385-397, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28459265

RESUMO

Restorative justice policies and programs aimed at facilitating victim-offender mediation (VOM) are part of many criminal justice systems around the world. Given its voluntary nature and potential for positive outcomes, the appropriateness and feasibility of VOM after serious offenses is subject to debate in the literature. In light of this discussion, this study first aimed to unravel the prevalence of serious offenses in cases registered for VOM and examined whether crime seriousness predicts whether mediated contact is reached between victims and offenders. Second, it tested the hypothesis that victims of increasingly serious, harmful crimes are more willing to participate when more time has elapsed since the offense-in contrast to victims of less serious, harmful crimes. We analyzed 199 cases registered for VOM in the Netherlands and coded the perceived wrongfulness, harmfulness, and average duration of incarceration of an offense as 3 distinct indicators of crime seriousness in these cases. The findings revealed that cases registered for VOM (a) are, in terms of the incarceration duration, on average more serious than all offenses in the population, and (b) resulted in mediated contact (or not) independently of the 3 seriousness indicators. In addition, empirical support was found for the hypothesis that victims' willingness to participate in VOM increased over time after more harmful offenses, whereas it decreased when offenses inflicted less harm. These findings suggest that when VOM programs operate irrespectively of the time elapsed after crime, mediated contact between parties may be as likely after minor and serious offenses. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Atitude , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Negociação/psicologia , Justiça Social , Crime/classificação , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Eur Psychiatry ; 42: 134-137, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28371726

RESUMO

Violence risk assessment tools are increasingly used within criminal justice and forensic psychiatry, however there is little relevant, reliable and unbiased data regarding their predictive accuracy. We argue that such data are needed to (i) prevent excessive reliance on risk assessment scores, (ii) allow matching of different risk assessment tools to different contexts of application, (iii) protect against problematic forms of discrimination and stigmatisation, and (iv) ensure that contentious demographic variables are not prematurely removed from risk assessment tools.


Assuntos
Crime/classificação , Psiquiatria Legal/organização & administração , Transtornos Mentais/classificação , Crime/prevenção & controle , Direito Penal , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Violência/classificação , Violência/prevenção & controle
11.
Prev Med ; 85: 74-77, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26820115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adolescents do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Crime is believed to be a barrier to physical activity among youth, but findings are inconsistent. This study compares the spatial distribution of crime incidences and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents in Massachusetts between 2011 and 2012, and examines the correlation between crime and MVPA. METHODS: Eighty adolescents provided objective physical activity (accelerometer) and location (Global Positioning Systems) data. Crime report data were obtained from the city police department. Data were mapped using geographic information systems, and crime and MVPA densities were calculated using kernel density estimations. Spearman's correlation tested for associations between crime and MVPA. RESULTS: Overall, 1694 reported crimes and 16,702min of MVPA were included in analyses. A strong positive correlation was present between crime and adolescent MVPA (ρ=0.72, p<0.0001). Crime remained positively associated with MVPA in locations falling within the lowest quartile (ρ=0.43, p<0.0001) and highest quartile (ρ=0.32, p<0.0001) of crime density. CONCLUSIONS: This study found a strong positive association between crime and adolescent MVPA, despite research suggesting the opposite relationship. This counterintuitive finding may be explained by the logic of a common destination: neighborhood spaces which are desirable destinations and promote physical activity may likewise attract crime.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento Ambiental , Exercício Físico , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Acelerometria/métodos , Adolescente , Boston/epidemiologia , Criança , Crime/classificação , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Características de Residência/classificação , Análise Espacial , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; 17(2): 160-71, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25824659

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the state of evidence on relationships among urban green space, violence, and crime in the United States. METHODS AND RESULTS: Major bibliographic databases were searched for studies meeting inclusion criteria. Additional studies were culled from study references and authors' personal collections. Comparison among studies was limited by variations in study design and measurement and results were mixed. However, more evidence supports the positive impact of green space on violence and crime, indicating great potential for green space to shape health-promoting environments. CONCLUSION: Numerous factors influence the relationships among green space, crime, and violence. Additional research and standardization among research studies are needed to better understand these relationships.


Assuntos
Crime , Planejamento Ambiental , Parques Recreativos , Violência , Crime/classificação , Criminologia , Humanos , Segurança , Estados Unidos , População Urbana , Violência/classificação
13.
J Occup Environ Med ; 57(8): 836-44, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26247636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify occupational health needs arising after disasters. METHODS: Using semistructured interviews with expert informants, we jointly analyzed the needs arising in eight disaster cases that threatened the lives or health of workers in Japan. RESULTS: Various types of health issues occurred in a wide range of employees. In total, we identified 100 needs in six phases after disasters and classified them across nine categories of worker characteristics. The proportion of health needs on the list that were applicable in each case varied from 13% to 49%. More needs arose when the companies were responsible for the disaster and when employee lives were lost. We also assessed the list as fairly comprehensive. CONCLUSIONS: The list developed in this study is expected to be effective for anticipating occupational health needs after disasters.


Assuntos
Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trabalho/classificação , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Comportamento Cooperativo , Crime/classificação , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Desastres/classificação , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/classificação , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Japão , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Riv Psichiatr ; 50(3): 103-9, 2015.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26156815

RESUMO

In Italy an ongoing process of deinstitutionalization unprecedented in the world is been enacted. The Judicial Psychiatric Hospitals, that were never reformed in the past 80 years, are now on the edge of their closure. This process is being implemented through a layering of rules that had no purpose other than the rapid closure of these structures. The Mental Health Departments have now the responsibility of a multiplicity of new and highly specialized tasks, and an extension of their power to control. There is no previous organization for these tasks in the Mental Health System. Some of the recently enacted laws, such as the Law 81 of 2014, are intented to solve some problems, althought issues of deinstitutionalization are getting worse. In our opinion several management aspects of this population of severe psychiatric patients are unfit with the present organization of the Mental Health Services. There is need for legislative action coordinated and based on a long-term perspective.


Assuntos
Criminosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Desinstitucionalização/legislação & jurisprudência , Fechamento de Instituições de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Crime/classificação , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/psicologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinstitucionalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Defesa por Insanidade , Itália , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Pública , Segurança
15.
Int J Prison Health ; 11(2): 108-18, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26062662

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of offence type, prior imprisonment and various socio-demographic characteristics on mortality at 28 and 365 days following prison release. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Using whole-population linked, routinely collected administrative state-based imprisonment and mortality data, the authors conducted a retrospective study of 12,677 offenders released from Western Australian prisons in the period 1994-2003. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between mortality at 28 and 365 days post-release and offence type, prior imprisonment, and a range of socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, social disadvantage and Indigenous status). FINDINGS: Overall, 135 (1.1 per cent) died during the 365 days follow-up period, of these, 17.8 per cent (n=24) died within the first 28 days (four weeks) of their index release. Ex-prisoners who had committed drug-related offences had significantly higher risk of 28-day post-release mortality (HR=28.4; 95 per cent CI: 1.3-615.3, p=0.033), than those who had committed violent (non-sexual) offences. A significant association was also found between the number of previous incarcerations and post-release mortality at 28 days post-release, with three prior prison terms carrying the highest mortality risk (HR=73.8; 95 per cent CI: 1.8-3,092.5, p=0.024). No association between mortality and either offence type or prior imprisonment was seen at 365 days post-release. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Post-release mortality at 28 days was significantly associated with offence type (with drug-related offences carrying the greatest risk) and with prior imprisonment, but associations did not persist to 365 days after release. Targeting of short-term transitional programmes to reduce preventable deaths after return to the community could be tailored to these high-risk ex-prisoners.


Assuntos
Crime/classificação , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychol Med ; 45(11): 2253-62, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25936380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to clarify the etiological contribution of genetic and environmental factors to total criminal behavior (CB) measured as criminal convictions in men and women, and to violent (VCB), white-collar (WCCB) and property criminal behavior (PCB) in men only. METHOD: In 21 603 twin pairs from the Swedish Twin Registry, we obtained information on all criminal convictions from 1973 to 2011 from the Swedish Crime Register. Twin modeling was performed using the OpenMx package. RESULTS: For all criminal convictions, heritability was estimated at around 45% in both sexes, with the shared environment accounting for 18% of the variance in liability in females and 27% in males. The correlation of these risk factors across sexes was estimated at +0.63. In men, the magnitudes of genetic and environmental influence were similar in the three criminal conviction subtypes. However, for violent and white-collar convictions, nearly half and one-third of the genetic effects were respectively unique to that criminal subtype. About half of the familial environmental effects were unique to property convictions. CONCLUSIONS: The familial aggregation of officially recorded CB is substantial and results from both genetic and familial environmental factors. These factors are moderately correlated across the sexes suggesting that some genetic and environmental influences on criminal convictions are unique to men and to women. Violent criminal behavior and property crime are substantially influenced respectively by genetic and shared environmental risk factors unique to that criminal subtype.


Assuntos
Crime/classificação , Comportamento Criminoso , Gêmeos/genética , Gêmeos/psicologia , Adulto , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
17.
J Inj Violence Res ; 7(1): 7-12, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24879076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing research in law and psychiatry point to schizophrenia as a risk factor for violence and offense behaviors. The present study aims to: 1) report on the prevalence and types of offensive or criminal acts in patients with schizophrenia; 2) identify attributes of schizophrenic offenders; and 3) examine factors associated with offensive or criminal behaviors within a sample of schizophrenic offenders. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 358 patients with schizophrenia who were admitted to a psychiatric ward in Iran between 2004 and 2008. Study data was collected using patients' medical, criminal records, as well as via personal interview with the family member. Study variables included criminality or offensive behavior, types of schizophrenia (paranoid vs. nonparanoid), experiencing hallucination, disease onset, and patients' demographics. RESULTS: Of the sample, 64.8% were male, 80.7% were 45 years old or younger, and 74.1% were either single or divorced. Slightly over 59 % were offenders with criminal status, of which, 9.8% were legal offenders and 48.6% were hidden offenders. The results of unadjusted logistic regression between these variables and criminality show, except for employment, marital status, and opium use, all other variables were statically associated with criminality. CONCLUSIONS: Methodological difficulties arising from this study, as well as, the role of mental health professionals, family, and legal system for prevention of violence in and by patients with schizophrenia are discussed.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Crime/classificação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Esquizofrenia/classificação , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Schizophr Res ; 161(2-3): 163-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25468182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous literature suggests that early psychosis (EP) patients with a history of offending behavior (HOB) have specific clinical needs. The aims of this study were to assess: (1) the prevalence of HOB in a representative sample of EP; (2) the premorbid and baseline characteristics of patients with HOB, and (3) the potential differences in short-term outcome of such patients when compared to patients without HOB. METHODS: The Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre (EPPIC) admitted 786 EP patients between 1998 and 2000. Data were collected from patients' files using a standardized questionnaire. Data of 647 patients could be analyzed. RESULTS: HOB patients (29% of the sample) were more likely to be male with lower level of premorbid functioning and education, have used illicit substances and have attempted suicide. They presented with a more complex clinical picture and had poorer 18-month outcome. Most importantly, they had a significantly longer duration of untreated psychosis. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the high prevalence and specific features of EP patients with HOB, our study confirms a need for additional research in this domain and for the development of specific treatment strategies. Most importantly, it suggests a need for the promotion of early detection strategies among the populations of young offenders, considering that some of them may be going through the early phases of a psychotic disorder and that reduction of treatment delay and provision of well adapted interventions may have a significant impact at numerous levels in such patients.


Assuntos
Crime/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adolescente , Adulto , Crime/classificação , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(26): 9419-24, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24979792

RESUMO

The jury trial is a critical point where the state and its citizens come together to define the limits of acceptable behavior. Here we present a large-scale quantitative analysis of trial transcripts from the Old Bailey that reveal a major transition in the nature of this defining moment. By coarse-graining the spoken word testimony into synonym sets and dividing the trials based on indictment, we demonstrate the emergence of semantically distinct violent and nonviolent trial genres. We show that although in the late 18th century the semantic content of trials for violent offenses is functionally indistinguishable from that for nonviolent ones, a long-term, secular trend drives the system toward increasingly clear distinctions between violent and nonviolent acts. We separate this process into the shifting patterns that drive it, determine the relative effects of bureaucratic change and broader cultural shifts, and identify the synonym sets most responsible for the eventual genre distinguishability. This work provides a new window onto the cultural and institutional changes that accompany the monopolization of violence by the state, described in qualitative historical analysis as the civilizing process.


Assuntos
Crime/história , Direito Penal/história , Evolução Cultural/história , Políticas de Controle Social/história , Violência/história , Crime/classificação , Direito Penal/métodos , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Londres , Violência/legislação & jurisprudência
20.
J Safety Res ; 48: 27-35, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24529088

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND METHODS: Jail sentences and actual jail times were compared for 2006 California driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs (DUI) offenders from select counties using matched data from Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV), court, and sheriff databases. Additionally, alternative sanctions to jail were investigated. RESULTS: Jail sentences reported by courts were consistently longer than actual jail time. Actual jail time percentages across participating counties ranged from 0 to 67% for 1st DUI offenders, 0 to 20% for 2nd offenders, and 0 to 66% for 3rd(+) offenders. Median percentages of jail sentences actually served across participating counties were 0%, 7%, and 22% for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd(+) DUI offenders, respectively. Alternative sentences were used more often for 1st DUI offenders and less so for 2nd and 3rd(+) offenders. CONCLUSIONS: Caution is warranted regarding conclusions about jail ineffectiveness as a DUI deterrent from previous studies given that most were based on jail sentence or statutory lengths, which appear to overestimate actual jail times.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Direito Penal/métodos , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , California/epidemiologia , Crime/classificação , Direito Penal/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Etanol/sangue , Humanos , Governo Local , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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