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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241381, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104748

RESUMO

In the United States, the public has a constitutional right to access criminal trial proceedings. In practice, it can be difficult or impossible for the public to exercise this right. We present JUSTFAIR: Judicial System Transparency through Federal Archive Inferred Records, a database of criminal sentencing decisions made in federal district courts. We have compiled this data set from public sources including the United States Sentencing Commission, the Federal Judicial Center, the Public Access to Court Electronic Records system, and Wikipedia. With nearly 600,000 records from the years 2001-2018, JUSTFAIR is the first large scale, free, public database that links information about defendants and their demographic characteristics with information about their federal crimes, their sentences, and, crucially, the identity of the sentencing judge.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Bases de Dados Factuais , Registros , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Função Jurisdicional
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10166, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576862

RESUMO

The most comprehensive data on poaching of African elephants comes from the Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE) program, which reports numbers of illegally killed carcasses encountered by rangers. Recent studies utilizing MIKE data have reported that poaching of African elephants peaked in 2011 and has been decreasing through 2018. Closer examination of these studies, however, raises questions about the conclusion that poaching is decreasing throughout the continent. To provide more accurate information on trends in elephant poaching, we analyzed MIKE data using state-space models. State-space models account for missing data and the error inherent when sampling carcasses. Using the state-space model, for 2011-2018, we found no significant temporal trends in rates of illegal killing for Southern, Central and Western Africa. Only in Eastern Africa have poaching rates decreased substantially since 2011. For Africa as a whole, poaching did decline for 2011-2018, but the decline was entirely due to Eastern African sites. Our results suggest that poaching for ivory has not diminished across most of Africa since 2011. Continued vigilance and anti-poaching efforts will be necessary to combat poaching and to conserve African elephants.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Crime/prevenção & controle , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Elefantes , Simulação de Ambiente Espacial , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores de Tempo
4.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 32(1): 51-53, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicolegal data is very important for administrators, health officials, philanthropists, social workers, law enforcement agencies. Because it is used for planning and implementation of strategies in order to reduce further incidents. This study is conducted with the aim to determine different types of medicolegal cases and patterns of weapons used. METHODS: A total of 246 cases were studied from 1st September 2017 to 31st January 2018. All information was collected on a pro forma. Statistical analysis was done by MS Excel. RESULTS: Out of 246 cases, 219 were male and 27 were female with age ranging from 3 to 72 years. Among total, 162(65.85%) patients were injured due to blunt weapon, 17 (6.91%) cases of firearms, 23 (9.34%) in road traffic accidents, 15 (6.09%) sharp-edged weapons, 7 (2.84%) cases were of sexual violence, 11 (4.47%) were of poisoning. CONCLUSIONS: Injuries of blunt weapons followed by sharp edge and accidental cases occurred more frequently.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Crime , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155170

RESUMO

This paper provides empirical evidence that individuals substantially revise their stated wealth redistribution preferences after fiscal scandals. The 2016 Panama Papers scandal revealed top-income tax evasion behaviour simultaneously worldwide. The empirical investigation exploits this event as a quasi-natural experiment. I rely on two original datasets, a UK household longitudinal dataset and a survey conducted in 22 European countries. I use a difference-in-differences strategy and find that pro-redistribution statements increased between 2% and 3.3% after the scandal. Responses are heterogeneous and larger for right-wing individuals and low-income individuals. This change in wealth redistribution preferences is likely to have been translated into a slight change in votes. The results suggest an increase in stated voting intentions for the left and a decrease for the right. Complementary estimations reveal that more media coverage and more individuals involved by country increase the magnitude of the response.


Assuntos
Crime/economia , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Política , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Impostos/economia , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Europa (Continente) , Características da Família , Humanos , Panamá , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência
6.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 68-78, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212284

RESUMO

Throughout the world, women involved in criminal justice systems often present with substantial needs and vulnerabilities. Diverting vulnerable people away from prison is government policy in England and Wales, but full psychiatric and social assessments are expensive and hard to access. A screening and quick response initiative - alternatives to custodial remand for women (ACRW) - was implemented across three areas of London (West, South and East) to supplement existing court liaison and diversion services, to assess the feasibility of a supplementary custodial remand service as part of a women's specialist service pathway in the criminal justice system in England. Three mental health trusts and two voluntary sector providers offered this service enhancement - a screening and service link provision in three London boroughs between 2012 and 2014. We conducted a service evaluation using routinely collected service use record data. The service made 809 contacts, of whom 104 had contact on multiple occasions. Many were identified as at risk of self-harm (46%) or had histories of hospital admission for mental disorder (36%), but few were referred either to the liaison and diversion service or specialist mental health services. The largest group of referrals was to women's community services outside the health service (e.g. counselling, domestic violence or sexual abuse services). 180 women had dependent children and 22 were pregnant, increasing the urgency to find non-custodial alternatives. As well as confirming high levels of need amongst women entering the criminal justice system, this evaluation confirms the feasibility of working across sectors in this field, providing an extra layer of service that can complement existing liaison and diversion service provision. The service was responsive and most women using it were kept out of custody. Research is now required to understand the appropriateness of the referrals, the extent to which women follow them through and the impact on their mental health and desistance from offending.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Direito Penal , Criminosos/psicologia , Psiquiatria Legal/organização & administração , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Inglaterra , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Competência Mental , Saúde Mental , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Prisões , Medição de Risco , País de Gales , Adulto Jovem
7.
Behav Sci Law ; 38(3): 287-297, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215980

RESUMO

In this article, we focus on two highly problematic issues in the manner in which the First Step Act of 2018 is being implemented by the Bureau of Prisons: an uncritical separation of "dynamic risks" and "criminogenic needs"; and a spurious reliance on "evidence-based" interventions to reduce recidivism risk. We argue that if the Act is to live up to its promise of being a game-changing development in efforts to reduce crime while simultaneously shrinking mass incarceration, "needs assessment" must be subject to vastly increased empirical attention, variable and causal risk factors must be identified and validly assessed, and interventions to reduce risk must be rigorously evaluated both for their fidelity of implementation and impact on recidivism. Rather than further proliferating programs that ostensibly reduce risk, we believe that serious consideration should be given to the Bureau of Prisons offering one signature, well-established cognitive-behavioral program that can simultaneously address multiple risk factors for moderate and high-risk prisoners.


Assuntos
Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Prisioneiros , Prisões , Reincidência/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
Sci Justice ; 60(2): 108-119, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111283

RESUMO

Forensic criminology examines the use of forensic science in society. Justice can be hampered, for example, if the communication of forensic scientific findings is unclear or misleading, even if unintentionally. Although various recommendations guide the communication of forensic science, it is unclear whether they are reflected in practice. This study explored the communication of forensic biology in 10 cases of major crimes against the person heard in the Tasmanian Supreme Court, where the standard practice is to issue brief summary reports in the first instance. The content of expert reports and corresponding testimony was analysed to determine its adherence to recommendations outlined in standards, practice notes, and research. While reports were found to be very brief, testimony elaborated on all major elements. Mostly elicited by the prosecution, some elements were volunteered by expert witnesses, or raised by defence. Overall, expert evidence in courts-but not reports (due to the use of brief summary reports)-largely adhered to recommendations. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence and effectiveness of alternative approaches to communication that were identified in certain cases.


Assuntos
Prova Pericial/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Comunicação , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Ciências Forenses , Humanos , Tasmânia
11.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(5): 506-516, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094508

RESUMO

Laws against wrongdoing may originate in justice intuitions that are part of universal human nature, according to the adaptationist theory of the origins of criminal law. This theory proposes that laws can be traced to neurocognitive mechanisms and ancestral selection pressures. According to this theory, laypeople can intuitively recreate the laws of familiar and unfamiliar cultures, even when they lack the relevant explicit knowledge. Here, to evaluate this prediction, we conduct experiments with Chinese and Sumerian laws that are millennia old; stimuli that preserve in fossil-like form the legal thinking of ancient lawmakers. We show that laypeople's justice intuitions closely match the logic and content of those archaic laws. We also show covariation across different types of justice intuitions: interpersonal devaluation of offenders, judgements of moral wrongness, mock-legislated punishments and perpetrator shame-suggesting that multiple justice intuitions may be regulated by a common social-evaluative psychology. Although alternative explanations of these findings are possible, we argue that they are consistent with the assumption that the origin of criminal law is a cognitively sophisticated human nature.


Assuntos
Direito Penal/história , Adulto , China , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Eutanásia/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Mesopotâmia , Estados Unidos
12.
Global Health ; 15(1): 80, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increase in problematic substance use is a major problem in Canada and elsewhere, placing a heavy burden on health and justice system resources given a spike in drug-related offences. Thus, achievement of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Target 3.5 to 'Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse' is important for Canada's overall realization of the SDGs, including SDG 3 (Good Health and Wellbeing). Since 2008, Vancouver's Downtown Community Court (DCC) has pioneered an innovative partnership among the justice, health and social service systems to address individuals' needs and circumstances leading to criminal behaviour. While researchers have examined the DCC's impact on reducing recidivism, with Canada's SDG health commitments in mind, we set out to examine the ways health and the social determinants of health (SDH) are engaged and framed externally with regard to DCC functioning, as well as internally by DCC actors. We employed a multi-pronged approach analyzing (1) publicly available DCC documents, (2) print media coverage, and (3) health-related discourse and references in DCC hearings. RESULTS: The documentary analysis showed that health and the SDH are framed by the DCC as instrumental for reducing drug-related offences and improving public safety. The observation data indicate that judges use health and SDH in providing context, understanding triggers for offences and offering rationale for sentencing and management plans that connect individuals to healthcare, social and cultural services. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes new insights on the effectiveness of the DCC as a means to integrate justice, health and social services for improved health and community safety. The development of such community court interventions, and their impact on health and the SDH, should be reported on by Canada and other countries as a key contribution to SDG 3 achievement, as well as the fulfillment of other targets under the SDG framework that contain the SDH. Consideration should be given by Canada as to how to capture and integrate the important data generated by the DCC and other problem-solving courts into SDG reporting metrics. Certainly, the DCC advances the SDGs' underlying Leave No One Behind principle in a high-income country context.


Assuntos
Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Canadá , Humanos
13.
Clin Ter ; 170(6): e435-e447, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696907

RESUMO

The Kanun is an important manifestation of Albanian consuetudinary law in force at a given historical moment. It is characterized by the absence of institutions or bodies set up to design and impose rules, norms or precepts that could maintain order and ensure that within the community, the associates can live and carry out their activities in observance of and compliance with the rules and precepts imposed by the State authorities. Active operation according to the Kanun rules is not only common among the populations settled in the mountains of Albania but also, and above all, in the context of Albanian criminality which, as is well known, has also spread to Italy, creating partnerships and cross-contaminations with Italian crime. The research was carried out mainly in Albania at the bodies and institutions responsible for dealing with and controlling crime in the nation, but also focuses on the issue of connections with, and influences on, Italian crime.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comportamental , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Criminosos , Albânia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 66: 101462, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706396

RESUMO

Modern legal systems typically link the insanity or diminished responsibility of an offender for a crime committed in the past to his future dangerousness. This nexus serves across legal systems as a justification for the indeterminate commitment of the offender with diminished or no criminal responsibility. Conceptually, however, insanity and risk are not related legal issues. Moreover, empirical research suggests that there is only a weak link between insanity, diminished responsibility and mental illness on the one hand and risk of recidivism on the other. Other risk factors seem to be more important. The inference of risk from insanity or diminished responsibility that lies at the heart of the indeterminate commitment of mentally disordered offenders is therefore problematic. This should lead to a reconsideration of the preconditions for indeterminate commitment of mentally disordered defendants.


Assuntos
Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental , Crime/prevenção & controle , Defesa por Insanidade , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Criminosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Criminosos/psicologia , Comportamento Perigoso , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Medição de Risco
15.
Salud Colect ; 15: e1965, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664339

RESUMO

This article analyzes medical-legal associations between madness and criminality in department of Antioquia (Colombia) during the three first decades of 20th century. The analysis was oriented by two overlapping axes: discourses and practices. The ideas of four doctors, generated between 1917 and 1925, were examined in order to identify the theoretical debates that delimited and defined mental illnesses in legal cases. The use of qualified knowledge and their place as experts were analyzed in a judicial case, initiated in 1921, in which theoretical confrontations surfaced among the doctors that debated the possible insanity of the defendant.


Assuntos
Crime/história , Criminosos/história , Medicina Legal/história , Medicalização/história , Transtornos Mentais/história , Colômbia , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Criminosos/psicologia , História do Século XX , Humanos , Simulação de Doença/diagnóstico , Simulação de Doença/história , Simulação de Doença/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
17.
AIDS Behav ; 23(Suppl 3): 233-241, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313094

RESUMO

In the 1980s, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) criminalization laws became widespread across the United States. Today, such laws continue to be used to prosecute people living with HIV for a variety of behaviors though there is limited evidence that doing so curbs HIV transmission. HIV criminalization remains understudied, especially in the Deep South. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to trace the emergence, maintenance, and enforcement of HIV criminalization laws in South Carolina-a Southern state disproportionately burdened by HIV. Specifically, Nexis Uni and other criminology databases were used to identify HIV-related laws and criminal cases in South Carolina. Results indicate that the state's criminalization laws have remained nearly unchanged for over 30 years and continue to be used to prosecute individuals, a majority of whom are African-American. Findings support the need to reconsider HIV-related laws and devote more efforts to studying the impact of HIV criminalization on the Southern epidemic.


Assuntos
Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Direito Penal/história , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Direito Penal/legislação & jurisprudência , Criminosos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , História do Século XX , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual , South Carolina/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218161, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Restrictive practices on alcohol sales in entertainment districts have been introduced to reduce alcohol-related violence in youth. On 1st July 2016, the Queensland State Government (Australia) imposed a 2-hour reduction in trading hours for alcohol sales in venues within specific night-time entertainment districts (NEDS; from 5am to 3am), a reduction in maximum trading hours for venues outside NEDs (with a maximum 2am closing time), the banning of 'rapid intoxication drinks' (e.g. shots) after 12am, and no new approvals for trading hours beyond 10pm for the sale of takeaway alcohol. No independent study has evaluated general levels of intoxication, crowd numbers, fear of violence, and illicit substance use as people enter and exit NEDS, both before and after the introduction of restrictive legislation. Further, no study has assessed the impact using matched times of the year in a controlled study and also assessed actual assault rates as recorded by the police. METHOD: We conducted 3 studies-randomly breath-testing patrons for alcohol, as they entered and exited NEDs. Study 1 assessed patrons' (n = 807) breath approximated blood alcohol concentration (BrAC) and predictions of how the legislation would change their drinking habits before the legislation was enacted. Study 2 assessed crime statistics and patrons' BrAC levels and drug taking reports on an equivalent night, one year apart-before (n = 497) and after (n = 406) the new legislation. Study 3 was a test of the generalisation of Study 2 with two months of survey and BrAC data collected as people entered and exited the NEDs over two consecutive years before (n = 652 and n = 155) and one year after (n = 460) the new legislation. In Study 3 we also collected crime statistics and data on people leaving the entertainment district one year before (n = 502) and one year after (n = 514) the legislative change. FINDINGS: People predicted that the legislation would lead to them drinking more alcohol before they entered town or make little change to their drinking habits. Baseline data over the 2 years before the legislation (Study 3) demonstrated stable preloading rates and BrAC at entry to the NEDs. However, after the introduction of the legislation patrons entered the NEDs systematically later and increased their alcohol preloading. People were substantially more inebriated as they entered the NEDs after the legislative change, with approximately 50% fewer people not preloading after the new laws. Exit BrAC was less consistent but showed some evidence of an increase. Crime statistics and patrons' self-reported experiences of violence did not change. INTERPRETATION: Legislation that does not specifically adapt to the cultural shift of preloading and take local conditions into account will be unsuccessful in reducing alcohol consumption. Such legislation is unlikely to meaningfully change assault rates in youth.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Testes Respiratórios , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Queensland , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência
19.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218532, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242211

RESUMO

Financial and legal entities (e.g. banks, casinos, notaries etc.) have to report money laundering suspicions. Countries' engagement in fighting money laundering is evaluated-among others-with statistics on how often these suspicions are reported. Lack of compliance can result in economically harmful blacklisting. Nevertheless, these blacklists repeatedly become empty-in what is known as the emptying blacklist paradox. We develop a principal-agent model with intermediate agents and show that non-harmonized statistics can lead to strategic reporting to avoid blacklisting, and explain the emptying blacklist paradox. We recommend the harmonization of the standards to report suspicion of money laundering.


Assuntos
Crime/economia , Administração Financeira , Conta Bancária/legislação & jurisprudência , Conta Bancária/normas , Conta Bancária/estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/prevenção & controle , Administração Financeira/legislação & jurisprudência , Administração Financeira/normas , Administração Financeira/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Modelos Econômicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Sistemas
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