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1.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 221-227, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with histories of childhood trauma tend to score higher on recidivism risk/needs assessment tools, such as the Level of Service Inventory-Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R: SV). These may affect their chance of leaving custody, but risk scores may be inflated by reliance on additional items which reflect other fixed childhood events. AIMS: We hypothesised that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) would be related to immutable risk measures according to the LSI-R: SV, such as juvenile arrest history, rather than more mutable factors, such as criminal attitudes. METHODS: Two interviewer-administered questionnaires-one about ACEs and one about criminogenic risk and needs-were given to a cohort of women just after release from jail. Phi coefficients were used to test for associations between ? ACE scale scores and scores on the risk tool-the LSI-R: SV. RESULTS: ACE scale items were related to static risk item scores from the LSI-R: SV, but not to any of the dynamic risk items except psychological health. CONCLUSIONS: Risk reduction is an important task in the criminal justice system, for which systematic risk assessment is an integral part of decision making. Self-reported experience of psychological health apart, only fixed historical variables were related to estimated recidivism risk. There was no relationship between the mutable constructs of attitudes towards crime or employment status and estimated risk. This raises the question of whether the risk of recidivism is increased when there is a background of childhood trauma. Implications for using risk reduction tools to inform the need for trauma-informed correctional care are discussed. Longitudinal research assessing recidivism is needed to test this further.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Reincidência , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Crime/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Prisões , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101739, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645558

RESUMO

In Japan over the past few years, approximately 13,000 individuals were arrested for drug offenses each year. It is useful to know the trends in drug offenses, in order to devise the most effective countermeasures and addiction treatment programs. Herein, we have revealed the trends in drug offenses in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. This report was researched the number of individuals arrested for drug offenses in Tokyo during the 3-year study period 2016-2018. The drugs are classified into the six categories: stimulants, narcotics, psychoactive drugs, opium, cannabis, and designated substances. We also calculated the percentages of individuals arrested for various drug offenses based on these six categories. Approximately 86% of the arrests for drug offenses in Tokyo during the 3-year period were for stimulants or cannabis. A higher percentage of individuals were arrested for stimulants, but the percentage of individuals arrested for cannabis increased each year. Given the percentage of individuals arrested for designated substances or narcotics, preventive measures for drug offenses involving stimulants and cannabis should be promptly implemented. Further campaigns to prevent drug offenses and public lectures are also needed. Public education must be provided to prevent drug offenses involving designated substances and narcotics.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/tendências , Drogas Ilícitas , Cannabis , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Crime/prevenção & controle , Drogas Desenhadas , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/classificação , Entorpecentes , Ópio , Psicotrópicos , Tóquio/epidemiologia
3.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(3): 573-584, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443995

RESUMO

Serious threats to child safety are infrequent and unpredictable but can lead to serious injury and death. To stay safe, children must identify and avoid contact with a safety threat, escape from it, and report it to an adult so the adult can remove the threat. Research shows that active learning approaches are effective for teaching children to engage in these safety skills. Passive learning approaches are not effective. Active learning approaches require children to practice the skills in the presence of simulated threats with feedback to reinforce correct responses and promote generalization of skills to the natural environment.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Crime/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Segurança , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Criança , Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Ensino
5.
Am J Public Health ; 110(4): 554-559, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078352

RESUMO

Objectives. To estimate the impact of recurring community-led, weekend-long ceasefires on gun violence in the City of Baltimore, Maryland.Methods. The City of Baltimore releases detailed data on all crimes occurring in the city. We compiled daily counts of fatal and nonfatal shootings occurring between January 2012 and July 2019 and fit a Bayesian model to estimate the impact of the ceasefires on gun violence during designated weekends after accounting for yearly seasonality, day of the week, calendar days, and overall time trends. We also looked at the 3-day periods following each 3-day ceasefire weekend to test for a possible postponement effect.Results. There was an estimated 52% (95% credible interval [CI] = 33%, 67%) reduction in gun violence during ceasefire days and no evidence of a postponement effect on either the next 3 days or the next 3-day weekend following each ceasefire weekend (incidence rate ratio = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.72, 1.06).Conclusions. The Baltimore Ceasefire weekends may be an effective short-term intervention for reducing gun violence. Future research should aim to understand the key components and transferability of the intervention.


Assuntos
Violência com Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Violência com Arma de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Baltimore , Crime/prevenção & controle , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Armas de Fogo , Homicídio/prevenção & controle , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , População Urbana
8.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 29(3): 363-371, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154516

RESUMO

Childhood disruptive behaviour has been linked to later antisocial and criminal behaviour. Emotion recognition and empathy impairments, thought to be caused by inattention to the eye region, are hypothesised to contribute to antisocial and criminal behaviour. This is the first study to simultaneously examine emotion recognition and empathy impairments, their relationship, and the mechanism behind these impairments, in children with disruptive behaviour. We hypothesised that children with disruptive behaviour would exhibit negative emotion recognition and cognitive and affective empathy impairments, but that these impairments would not be due to reduced attention to the eye region. We expected these emotion impairments to be driven by disruptive behaviour. We also expected a relationship between emotion recognition and cognitive empathy only. Ninety-two children with disruptive behaviour, who were participating in a police crime prevention programme and rated by their schoolteacher using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (DB; mean age 8.8 years, 80% male), took part. There was a comparison group of 58 typically developing children (TD; mean age 9.7 years, 78% male). All children completed emotion recognition and empathy tasks, both with concurrent eye tracking to assess social attention. Not only were DB children significantly impaired in negative emotion and neutral emotion recognition, and in cognitive and affective empathy compared to the TD children, but severity of disruptive behaviour also predicted intensity of emotion impairments. There were no differences in social attention to the eye region. Negative emotion recognition and empathy impairments are already present in an identifiable group of children displaying disruptive behaviour. These findings provide evidence to encourage the use of targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Crime/prevenção & controle , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 39(1): 21-28, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788898

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Street service care providers in Queensland, Australia are organisations tasked with assisting vulnerable individuals and aiding intoxicated patrons that are at risk of harm in night-time entertainment precincts (NEP). Members of these organisations patrol NEPs and provide services, such as first aid, to individuals in need. There has been no research conducted on their impact on crime, injuries and on the duties of Australian frontline service resources (e.g. police and ambulance services). This study evaluated the introduction of a single street service care in the Cairns NEP on police-recorded assaults, emergency department injury presentations and ambulance service utilisation during high-alcohol hours. DESIGN AND METHODS: Police-recorded assaults (common and serious), emergency department injury presentations and ambulance attendances for the Cairns suburbs were examined. Autoregressive integrated moving average time series analyses were used to determine the impact of street service care on monthly counts for each dataset. RESULTS: Serious assaults during high-alcohol hours significantly declined after the introduction of the support service in Cairns, with a one-month lagged impact (B = -1.66, 95% confidence interval -3.02, -0.30). No other significant impact on common assaults, emergency department injury presentations or ambulance attendances were found. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study provides preliminary evidence that street service care may help to decrease assaults within a single NEP. However, further research investigating the impact of street services in larger cities, and determining what other roles the service may be able to play in preventing alcohol-related harm, is needed.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Ambulâncias , Austrália , Cidades , Crime/prevenção & controle , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Polícia , Queensland , Violência/prevenção & controle
10.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 66: 101462, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706396

RESUMO

Modern legal systems typically link the insanity or diminished responsibility of an offender for a crime committed in the past to his future dangerousness. This nexus serves across legal systems as a justification for the indeterminate commitment of the offender with diminished or no criminal responsibility. Conceptually, however, insanity and risk are not related legal issues. Moreover, empirical research suggests that there is only a weak link between insanity, diminished responsibility and mental illness on the one hand and risk of recidivism on the other. Other risk factors seem to be more important. The inference of risk from insanity or diminished responsibility that lies at the heart of the indeterminate commitment of mentally disordered offenders is therefore problematic. This should lead to a reconsideration of the preconditions for indeterminate commitment of mentally disordered defendants.


Assuntos
Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental , Crime/prevenção & controle , Defesa por Insanidade , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Criminosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Criminosos/psicologia , Comportamento Perigoso , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Medição de Risco
12.
Vet Rec ; 185(4): 98-99, 2019 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346100

RESUMO

Georgina Mills reports on recent work to tackle global wildlife crime.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/prevenção & controle , Transportes , Animais
13.
S Afr Med J ; 109(6): 382-386, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266555

RESUMO

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have highlighted interpersonal violence and violence against women and girls as impediments to development globally. South Africa is adversely affected by violence and injury. The annual Victims of Crime Survey (VoCS) provides a potentially useful source of complementary data to bolster vital registration and police crime statistics, but it may not provide data that are sufficiently accurate and reliable to inform prevention efforts. We conducted a critical assessment of the VoCS's methodological robustness and strength as a data source for high-level analyses, adopting a public health and SDGs monitoring perspective that was based on expert opinion and comparison with other data sources. We concluded that either the survey methods should be improved to provide findings that are better aligned with the SDGs agenda and are robust enough to inform high-quality research and prevention, or the funds used to conduct the VoCS should be redirected to other more suitable instruments.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Violência/prevenção & controle , Crime/prevenção & controle , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime , Violência de Gênero/prevenção & controle , Violência de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/prevenção & controle , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 66: 155-161, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306915

RESUMO

The simultaneous localisation and globalisation of 'terrorist threats' and cross-border criminality have led to increased expansion of surveillance activities and greater cross-border police and judicial cooperation, placing a greater priority on these activities within the political agenda of the EU. In this scenario, the expansion of technological systems for surveillance and monitoring, and the large-scale exchange of citizens' personal data play a pivotal role in the "fight against crime". This paper explores the multiplicity of data protection regimes in different EU Member States within the framework of the Prüm system. While EU regulations establish minimum standards for personal data flows at the transnational level, local and domestic practices are extremely heterogeneous. Based on analysis of 37 interviews conducted with professionals involved in the automated exchange of forensic genetic profiles, this paper provides empirical data that highlights the tensions between the local and the global within DNA data exchanges across the EU. These tensions relate to differentiated sociotechnical imaginaries regarding the protection of personal data flowing between Member-States. In sum, this paper analyses the potential threats to human rights created by the exchange of personal data with regards to issues of privacy and data protection.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Cooperação Internacional , Privacidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/prevenção & controle , Impressões Digitais de DNA/legislação & jurisprudência , Dermatoglifia , União Europeia , Humanos , Terrorismo/prevenção & controle
15.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 63(14): 2466-2482, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185761

RESUMO

Although risk in the criminal justice field has been subject to intensive international debate, it has not incorporated China and its growing field of community corrections. This article assesses the current initiative of developing actuarial assessment tools in China and contrasts this with its use in the correctional context. There is certainly a rift in the understanding of risk, particularly, between the risk factors in Western risk assessment tools, the political construction of risk, and the local practitioners' embrace of correctional work. However, this article suggests that under the current mode of risk governance in China, actuarial assessment tools promoted in the correctional field simply add another layer of social control. The article highlights the importance of political and social rationalities and environments behind the construction of risk.


Assuntos
Análise Atuarial/normas , Crime/prevenção & controle , Direito Penal/métodos , Criminosos/classificação , Reincidência/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco/normas , Políticas de Controle Social , China , Humanos , Risco
16.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(9): 3807-3818, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175503

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of social stories in teaching abduction-prevention skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Three male participants with ASD, aged 4-12 years, participated in the study, which was conducted using a multiple-probe-across-participants design. Thirty-nine voluntary adults participated in the study as strangers who presented lures to the participants. The findings of the study showed that social stories were effective on promoting acquisition for all students with ASD. All the participants were able to learn the target skill and maintain their learning. Social validity data were also collected from participants and their parents. Social validity findings revealed that the opinions of the participants and their parents were positive overall.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/reabilitação , Crime/prevenção & controle , Habilidades Sociais , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino
17.
Am J Public Health ; 109(S3): S214-S220, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241997

RESUMO

Objectives. To examine the association of Fit2Lead, an afterschool park-based youth mental health promotion program, and neighborhood juvenile arrests (2015-2017) in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Methods. We tracked juvenile (ages 12-17 years) arrest rates over 2 years of program implementation across zip codes matched by (1) park and (2) baseline sociodemographics and youth arrests. Fit2Lead mental and physical health, meditation, resilience, and life skills activities were offered in 12 high-need areas for youths (n = 501) aged 12 to 17 years. We tested the association of Fit2Lead implementation (binary variable) and change in juvenile arrest rates by zip code, adjusting for area-level gender, age, race/ethnicity, single-parent households, and poverty. Results. Fit2Lead was offered in areas composed of 48% male youths, 60% Hispanics, 29% non-Hispanic Blacks, 33% single-parent households, and 33% of residents living in poverty. After covariate adjustment, zip codes with Fit2Lead implementation showed a significant mean reduction (P < .001) in youth arrests per 10 000 youths aged 12 to 17 years per year compared with zip codes without program implementation (b = -6.9; 95% confidence interval = -9.21, -4.65). Conclusions. Park-based programs may have the potential to promote mental health and resilience, and also to prevent violence among at-risk youths.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Crime/prevenção & controle , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Florida , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218532, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242211

RESUMO

Financial and legal entities (e.g. banks, casinos, notaries etc.) have to report money laundering suspicions. Countries' engagement in fighting money laundering is evaluated-among others-with statistics on how often these suspicions are reported. Lack of compliance can result in economically harmful blacklisting. Nevertheless, these blacklists repeatedly become empty-in what is known as the emptying blacklist paradox. We develop a principal-agent model with intermediate agents and show that non-harmonized statistics can lead to strategic reporting to avoid blacklisting, and explain the emptying blacklist paradox. We recommend the harmonization of the standards to report suspicion of money laundering.


Assuntos
Crime/economia , Administração Financeira , Conta Bancária/legislação & jurisprudência , Conta Bancária/normas , Conta Bancária/estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/prevenção & controle , Administração Financeira/legislação & jurisprudência , Administração Financeira/normas , Administração Financeira/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Modelos Econômicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Sistemas
19.
Law Hum Behav ; 43(3): 290-305, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120277

RESUMO

In modern societies, citizens cede the legitimate use of violence to law enforcement agents who act on their behalf. However, little is known about the extent to which lay evaluations of forceful actions align with or diverge from official use-of-force policies and heuristics that officers use to choose appropriate levels of responsive force. Moreover, it is impossible to accurately compare official policies and lay intuitions without first measuring the perceived severity of a set of representative actions. To map these psychometric scale values precisely, we presented participants (N = 411 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers, N = 395 undergraduates) with minimal vignettes describing officer and civilian actions that span the entire range of force options (from polite dialogue to lethal force), and asked them to rate physical magnitude and moral appropriateness. We used Bayesian methods to model the ratings as functions of simultaneously estimated scale values of the actions. Results indicated that the perceived severity of actions across all physical but nonlethal categories clustered tightly together, while actions at the extreme levels were relatively spread out. Moreover, less normative officer actions were perceived as especially morally severe. Broadly, our findings reveal divergence between lay perceptions of force severity and official law enforcement policies, and they imply that the groundwork for disagreement about the legitimacy of police and civilian actions may be partially rooted in the differential way that action severity is perceived by law enforcement relative to civilian observers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Coerção , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Polícia/ética , Políticas de Controle Social/ética , Adulto , Atitude , Crime/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Psicometria , Opinião Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
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