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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 264, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the recidivism of mentally disordered offenders after discharge from forensic psychiatric services. This is problematic because such knowledge could (i) help professionals who encounter this group to better plan interventions to prevent recidivism, (ii) clarify the rates of recidivism post-discharge from forensic psychiatric care and (iii) further develop instruments for specific risk assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the new crimes of mentally disordered offenders who had been reconvicted after discharge from forensic psychiatric care. METHODS: Included in this study were all individuals (n = 1142) who had been discharged from forensic psychiatric care in Sweden during 2009-2018, were included in the Swedish National Forensic Psychiatric Register, and had been reconvicted in a criminal court within the follow-up period of 2009-2018 (n = 157, 14% of the population). The follow-up times of the discharged patients within the period varied from 4 to 3644 days, (m = 1697, Md = 1685). Retrospective registry data along with coded data from criminal court judgments (n = 210) were used to create a database. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and descriptive statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: 75% of included individuals were reconvicted for at least one violent crime, but only 9 individuals were reconvicted for a serious violent crime, which can be compared to the 44 individuals with serious violent index crimes. The most common crime was "Other violent". The most common sentence was probation. The offender's most common relationship to the victim was having no known relationship, followed by the victim being a person of authority. The most common circumstance of the crime leading to the reconviction was that it occurred without apparent provocation; other common circumstances were related to the exercise of public authority. The most common crime scene was a public place. CONCLUSIONS: Even though the reconvictions of this group included many violent crimes, there were very few serious violent crimes. The findings that the victims of the crimes of mentally disordered offenders are most commonly either unknown to the perpetrator or persons of authority, and that the crimes are often perpetrated without apparent provocation or reason, are important information for all professionals who encounter this group and should be taken into consideration to assess risk more accurately.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Assistência ao Convalescente , Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 77(2): 131-157, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277716

RESUMO

This article examines how early twentieth-century crime of passion trials constructed medical insanity and criminal responsibility by litigating varied interpretations of masculine decision making. Specifically, it looks at how defense lawyers used and applied psychiatric knowledge to their clients' benefit and how psychiatrists, in turn, (re)asserted control over that knowledge by condemning its misuse. The way that these medico-legal narratives played out in the courtroom during crime of passion trials, and in the public discourses that surrounded them, ultimately brought a smoldering competition between distinct understandings of modern masculinity into sharp focus.


Assuntos
Defesa por Insanidade , Psiquiatria , Brasil , Crime/história , Crime/psicologia , Psiquiatria Legal/história , Humanos , Defesa por Insanidade/história , Masculino
3.
Issues Ment Health Nurs ; 43(3): 265-271, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666591

RESUMO

The prevalence of Gambling Disorder among Koreans suggests that it is relatively higher than other countries. This study explored gambling-related crimes and related mental health care needs of those with Gambling Disorder on a case-by-case basis. Participants (n = 6) included men attending Gamblers Anonymous in South Korea with gambling debts and histories of illegal acts. Thematic analysis of qualitative interviews identified themes: (1) Meaning of Gambling Disorder in life, (2) Initiation of illegal acts stemming from Gambling Disorder, and (3) Life after addiction, efforts for recovery, and mental health care needs. Gambling Disorder destroyed lives and created criminal victims thereby threatening familial and community health.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogo de Azar , Crime/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Am J Health Promot ; 36(1): 38-45, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128383

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hispanic/Latino adults on the Texas-Mexico border have high rates of chronic disease. Neighborhoods can influence health, though there is a limited research on neighborhood environment and health in Hispanics/Latinos. The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of neighborhood environment with health variables in Hispanic/Latino adults, including physical activity [PA], depression, anxiety, and lab-assessed conditions (type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and chronic inflammation). METHODS: Participants were randomly-selected from a Hispanic/Latino cohort on the Texas-Mexico border. Neighborhood environment, self-reported PA, anxiety, and depression were assessed through questionnaires. Laboratory values determined Type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and C-reactive protein (CRP). We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses to assess the associations of neighborhood environment and health variables, controlling for covariates. RESULTS: Participants (n = 495) were mostly females, without insurance. After controlling for covariates, crime (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 1.59 (95%CI 1.06-2.38), no streetlights (AOR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.06-2.57), and traffic (AOR = 1.74, 95%CI 1.16-2.62) were all significantly associated with anxiety. Only traffic was significantly associated with depression (AOR = 1.61, 95%CI1.05-2.47). A lack of nearby shops (AOR = 0.57, 95%CI 0.38-0.84) and no one out doing PA (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.34-0.83) were both significantly associated with lower odds of meeting PA guidelines. A lack of nearby shops was associated with a 26% increase in the CRP value (ß = 0.26, 95%CI 0.04-0.47). DISCUSSION: Several neighborhood environment variables were significantly associated with mental health, PA and CRP, though estimates were small. The neighborhood environment is a meaningful contextual variable to consider for health-related interventions in Hispanic/Latino adults, though more study is needed regarding the magnitude of the estimates. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01168765.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Crime/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Características de Residência
5.
Am J Community Psychol ; 69(1-2): 46-58, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333789

RESUMO

Unmaintained vacant land in urban areas is associated with a number of negative outcomes for residents of urban areas, including mental and physical health, safety, and quality of life. Community programs which promote land parcel maintenance in urban neighborhoods have been found to reverse some of the effects that unmaintained land has on nearby residents. We explored how land parcel maintenance is associated with mental health outcomes using data collected in Flint, MI in 2017-2018. Trained observers assessed the maintenance of approximately 7200 land parcels and surveyed 691 residents (57% Female, 53% Black, M age = 51). We aggregated resident and parcel rating data to 463 street segments and compared three structural equation models (SEM) to estimate the mediating effects of fear of crime on the association of parcel qualities on mental distress for residents. We found that fear of crime mediated the association between parcel maintenance values and mental distress indicating that poor maintenance predicted more fear of crime which was associated with mental distress. Our findings add to our understanding about the mechanism by which vacant lot improvements may operate to enhance psychological well-being of residents who live on streets with vacant and unkept lots.


Assuntos
Crime , Qualidade de Vida , Crime/psicologia , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Características de Residência
6.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 183-192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604987

RESUMO

This narrative review examines current academic literature on the mental health of Filipino seafarers working internationally, including the mental health effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Framed within a rights-based approach, it aims to identify and analyse emerging themes on Filipino seafarers' mental health literature to understand what these studies potentially mean for the improvement of seafarers' education on mental health. Based on a broad selection criteria, 28 eligible papers demonstrate collectively three key findings: firstly, there is paucity in published research on seafarers' mental health; secondly, the majority of published studies are associated with a recent piracy crisis, where a significant number of mariners were attacked, taken as hostages, or killed; thirdly, three key areas emerged under which research on Filipino seafarers' mental health can be organized: the medical repatriation of seafarers, system of care for the mental health of seafarers including the diagnostic standards used, and seafarers' experiences and conceptions of mental health including the mental health effects of COVID-19. Though the bulk of the current understanding of the mental health problems is associated with piracy, several risk factors for which the quality of quantitative and qualitative evidence are patchy. The few sources of primary data to date lack focus on mental health needs which makes it difficult to grasp the extent of the problem. Developing policies and programmes for the promotion of mental health through mental health education among seafarers is important for a couple of reasons. Seafaring remains a dangerous and socially isolating occupation where work-related accidents are likely and will be potentially traumatic to mariners. Research on occupational stressors is increasingly providing evidence of their contributions to poor mental health outcomes among seafarers. Thus, mental health education of seafarers in the context of their work is important for proactive training and development.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental/educação , Medicina Naval/métodos , Crime/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional , Filipinas/etnologia , Navios
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 305: 114235, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688181

RESUMO

Forensic psychiatric patients constitute a heterogeneous patient group, with common comorbidity within the externalizing spectrum. Increased knowledge on early antecedents in the pathway to severe mental illness and criminality is needed. In this study, we investigated early onset externalizing behaviors in three groups of forensic psychiatric patients 1) patients without contact with child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP), 2) patients with CAP contact, and 3) patients with both CAP contact and institutional placement. Participants (N = 98) were consecutively recruited from a cohort of forensic psychiatric patients in Sweden between 2016 and 2020. Data were collected through file information and semi-structured interviews and analyzed with a Bayesian approach. A history of CAP together with an institutional placement during childhood or adolescence was associated with more externalizing disorders, a higher number of convictions over the lifetime, a lower age at first conviction, and a lower age at first self-reported crime. Our findings provide further insight into the importance of early-onset adverse behaviors in the development of later externalizing behaviors, and may be of particular use for practitioners within social services and CAP services.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente , Psiquiatria Infantil , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental , Psiquiatria Legal , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Crime/psicologia , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental
8.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(10): 1367-1376, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446935

RESUMO

Behaviors and disorders related to self-regulation, such as substance use, antisocial behavior and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, are collectively referred to as externalizing and have shared genetic liability. We applied a multivariate approach that leverages genetic correlations among externalizing traits for genome-wide association analyses. By pooling data from ~1.5 million people, our approach is statistically more powerful than single-trait analyses and identifies more than 500 genetic loci. The loci were enriched for genes expressed in the brain and related to nervous system development. A polygenic score constructed from our results predicts a range of behavioral and medical outcomes that were not part of genome-wide analyses, including traits that until now lacked well-performing polygenic scores, such as opioid use disorder, suicide, HIV infections, criminal convictions and unemployment. Our findings are consistent with the idea that persistent difficulties in self-regulation can be conceptualized as a neurodevelopmental trait with complex and far-reaching social and health correlates.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Autocontrole , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/genética , Sintomas Comportamentais/psicologia , Biologia Computacional , Crime/psicologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Herança Multifatorial , Análise Multivariada , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suicídio , Desemprego
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2117067, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287632

RESUMO

Importance: The root causes of violent crime in Black urban neighborhoods are structural, including residential racial segregation and concentrated poverty. Previous work suggests that simple and scalable place-based environmental interventions can overcome the legacies of neighborhood disinvestment and have implications for health broadly and crime specifically. Objective: To assess whether structural repairs to the homes of low-income owners are associated with a reduction in nearby crime. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study using difference-in-differences analysis included data from the City of Philadelphia Basic Systems Repair Program (BSRP) from January 1, 2006, through April 30, 2013. The unit of analysis was block faces (single street segments between 2 consecutive intersecting streets) with or without homes that received the BSRP intervention. The blocks of homes that received BSRP services were compared with the blocks of eligible homes that were still on the waiting list. Data were analyzed from December 1, 2019, to February 28, 2021. Exposures: The BSRP intervention includes a grant of up to $20 000 provided to low-income owners for structural repairs to electrical, plumbing, heating, and roofing damage. Eligible homeowners must meet income guidelines, which are set by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development and vary yearly. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was police-reported crime across 7 major categories of violent and nonviolent crimes (homicide, assault, burglary, theft, robbery, disorderly conduct, and public drunkenness). Results: A total of 13 632 houses on 6732 block faces received the BSRP intervention. Owners of these homes had a mean (range) age of 56.5 (18-98) years, were predominantly Black (10 952 [78.6%]) or Latino (1658 [11.9%]) individuals, and had a mean monthly income of $993. These census tracts compared with those without BSRP intervention had a substantially larger Black population (49.5% vs 12.2%; |D| = 0.406) and higher unemployment rate (17.3% vs 9.3%; |D| = 0.357). The main regression analysis demonstrated that the addition to a block face of a property that received a BSRP intervention was associated with a 21.9% decrease in the expected count of total crime (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.76-0.80; P < .001), 19.0% decrease in assault (IRR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.79-0.84; P < .001), 22.6% decrease in robbery (IRR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.75-0.80; P < .001), and 21.9% decrease in homicide (IRR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.71-0.86; P < .001). When restricting the analysis to blocks with properties that had ever received a BSRP intervention, a total crime reduction of 25.4% was observed for each additional property (IRR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.73-0.77; P < .001). A significant dose-dependent decrease in total crime was found such that the magnitude of association increased with higher numbers of homes participating in the BSRP on a block. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that the BSRP intervention was associated with a modest but significant reduction in crime. These findings suggest that intentional and targeted financial investment in structural, scalable, and sustainable place-based interventions in neighborhoods that are still experiencing the lasting consequences of structural racism and segregation is a vital step toward achieving health equity.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Reforma Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/prevenção & controle , Crime/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , /estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Philadelphia , Pobreza/psicologia , Segregação Social/psicologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(5): 1805-1817, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156091

RESUMO

Fifteen cases of Fetal Abduction by Maternal Evisceration (FAMAE) reported to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children during 1987-2011 outline the findings from a review of the forensic psychiatric considerations and legal course of each of the cases. Most offenders confessed to law enforcement within a short time of being placed under arrest in statements reflecting a continued effort to manage impressions and minimize culpability. Psychiatric assessment is invariably central to the legal disposition of FAMAE cases, as the defendant's goal is to diminish the perception of culpability/criminal responsibility and mitigate sentencing. Of those sentenced in the United States, nine defendants received life without parole, two received the death penalty (one executed), and one received a minimum of 30 years. Two abductors committed suicide and were not sentenced. Proffered diagnoses at trial included psychogenic amnesia, pseudocyesis, dissociative disorder, and delusional disorder; however, these rarely stood up to court scrutiny. Psychiatric experts showed the greatest variance in diagnosis over what to call the feigned pregnancy. In addition to delusional disorder and dissociative disorder, pseudocyesis, factitious disorder/pregnancy, pseudopregnancy, schizophrenia, and PTSD were among the various diagnoses proposed. A differential diagnosis for many FAMAE offenders may also include borderline personality disorder. Future research accounting for those women claiming false pregnancy who do not become homicidal will clarify whether FAMAE is the extreme endpoint of a fertility identity disorder.


Assuntos
Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/psicologia , Feto , Gestantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Psiquiatria Legal , Psicologia Forense , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(2)2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988924

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) versus oral antipsychotics (OAPs) in Black/African American patients with schizophrenia and a history of criminal justice system involvement. METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of a 15-month prospective, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter US study conducted from May 2010 to December 2013 that examined a subpopulation of Black/African American patients with schizophrenia (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria). The primary objective was to compare time to first treatment failure in patients treated with PP1M versus OAPs. Secondary objectives were to compare time to first institutionalization (psychiatric hospitalization or arrest/incarceration) and mean number of treatment failure events and institutionalizations over 15 months in PP1M-treated and OAP-treated patients. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 275 Black/African American patients (PP1M, n = 145; OAPs, n = 130). Median time to first treatment failure was not reached for PP1M-treated patients and was 270 days for OAP-treated patients; hazard ratio (HR) was 1.39 (95% CI, 0.97-1.99; P = .075). Median time to first institutionalization was not reached for PP1M-treated patients and was 304 days for OAP-treated patients; HR was 1.49 (95% CI, 1.01-2.19; P = .043). Mean numbers of treatment failure events and institutionalizations were lower with PP1M than OAPs. The safety profile of PP1M was consistent with that of previous PP1M studies. CONCLUSIONS: In a Black/African American subpopulation of patients with schizophrenia and prior criminal justice system involvement, PP1M reduced the number of treatment failures, thereby reducing the number of psychiatric hospitalizations and/or arrests/incarcerations compared with daily OAPs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01157351.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Crime/psicologia , Palmitato de Paliperidona/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Palmitato de Paliperidona/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 176: 108841, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933500

RESUMO

AIMS: The evidence on the pathways through which the built environment may influence type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk is limited. This study explored whether behavioural, physical and mental health factors mediate the associations between perceived built environment and T2D. METHODS: Longitudinal data on 36,224 participants aged ≥45 years (The Sax Institute's 45 and Up Study) was analysed. Causal mediation analysis that uses the counterfactual approach to decompose the total effect into direct and indirect effects was performed. RESULTS: The results showed that physical activity, recreational walking, and BMI mediated around 6%, 11%, and 30%, respectively, of the association between perceived lack of access to local amenities and T2D incidence. Physical activity (4.8% for day-time crime), recreational walking (2.3% for day-time crime), psychological distress (5.2% for day-time, 3.7% for night-time crime), and BMI (29.6% for day-time crime, 17.4% for night-time crime) also partially mediated the effect of perceived crime. Mediated effects appeared larger at wave 3 than the same wave 2 mediators. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that physical activity, psychological distress, and BMI mediate the pathways between the built environment and T2D. Policies aimed to bring amenities closer to homes, prevent crime, and address mental health may help reduce T2D risk.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Percepção , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Ambiente Construído/psicologia , Crime/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Análise de Mediação , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Angústia Psicológica , Características de Residência , Caminhada/fisiologia
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(16)2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846257

RESUMO

Research on incarceration has focused on prisons, but jail detention is far more common than imprisonment. Jails are local institutions that detain people before trial or incarcerate them for short sentences for low-level offenses. Research from the 1970s and 1980s viewed jails as "managing the rabble," a small and deeply disadvantaged segment of urban populations that struggled with problems of addiction, mental illness, and homelessness. The 1990s and 2000s marked a period of mass criminalization in which new styles of policing and court processing produced large numbers of criminal cases for minor crimes, concentrated in low-income communities of color. In a period of widespread criminal justice contact for minor offenses, how common is jail incarceration for minority men, particularly in poor neighborhoods? We estimate cumulative risks of jail incarceration with an administrative data file that records all jail admissions and discharges in New York City from 2008 to 2017. Although New York has a low jail incarceration rate, we find that 26.8% of Black men and 16.2% of Latino men, in contrast to only 3% of White men, in New York have been jailed by age 38 y. We also find evidence of high rates of repeated incarceration among Black men and high incarceration risks in high-poverty neighborhoods. Despite the jail's great reach in New York, we also find that the incarcerated population declined in the study period, producing a large reduction in the prevalence of jail incarceration for Black and Latino men.


Assuntos
Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Prisões Locais/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Estabelecimentos Correcionais/tendências , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Modelos Teóricos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 75(2): 120-127, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined to what extent perceived neighbourhood crime moderates, associations between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and perceived local amenities, recreational facilities, footpaths and public transit, and potential mediation of environmental characteristics-T2DM association by physical activity, social contact, sleep and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: The 45 and Up Study data of 36, 224 individuals collected from 2010 to 2015 were analysed in 2019 using multilevel logistic regression to examine the association between T2DM and clustering of unfavourable built environment, and any difference in the association with increasing unfavourable environment and area disadvantage. We performed causal mediation analyses stratified by crime to examine whether crime moderated the strength of identified local amenities-T2DM pathways. RESULTS: The results showed that irrespective of crime, perceived lack of local amenities was associated with increased odds of developing T2DM, and BMI mediated 40% and 30.3% of this association among those who reported unsafe and safe daytime crime, respectively. The proportion mediated by BMI among those who reported unsafe and safe night-time crime was 27.3% and 35.1%, respectively. Walking mediated 5.7% of the local amenities-T2DM association among those who reported safe daytime crime. The odds of T2DM increased with rising unfavourable environment and area disadvantage. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the availability of neighbourhood amenities may lower T2DM risk by increasing walking and reducing BMI regardless of area crime. Policies to enhance access to local amenities and prevent crime, especially in disadvantaged areas, may support healthy behaviour and physical health that can potentially reduce T2DM risk.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Crime , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Características de Residência , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Mediação , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Med Sci Law ; 61(1): 44-54, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807017

RESUMO

Being wrongfully accused of criminal offences can lead to serious negative consequences to those wrongfully accused and their families. However, there is little research on the psychological and psychosocial impacts of wrongful accusations. We conducted a systematic literature review to collate the existing literature, searching four electronic literature databases and reference lists of relevant articles. Data were extracted from 20 relevant papers, and thematic analysis was conducted on the data. Eight main themes were identified: loss of identity; stigma; psychological and physical health; relationships with others; attitudes towards the justice system; impact on finances and employment; traumatic experiences in custody; and adjustment difficulties. The psychological consequences of wrongful accusations appear to affect the lives of those accused seriously, even after exoneration or overturning of convictions. Strategies for improving public perception of wrongful convictions should be explored, and specific mental-health systems should be established to support those who are wrongfully accused.


Assuntos
Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Decepção , Jurisprudência , Atitude , Emprego/psicologia , Estresse Financeiro/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Saúde Mental , Autoimagem , Estigma Social
16.
J Gambl Stud ; 37(2): 427-444, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185650

RESUMO

Although the relationship between problem gambling and criminal behavior has been widely researched, concerns over the causal nature of this association remain. Some argue that problem gambling does not lead to crime; instead, the same background characteristics that predict problem gambling also predict criminal behavior. Yet, studies suggestive of a spurious association often rely on small, non-random, and cross-sectional samples; thus, the extent to which the findings are generalizable to the broader population is unknown. With this in mind, the present study uses data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and a series of propensity score weighting and matching techniques to examine the role of confounding bias in the relationship between problem gambling and criminal behavior in young adulthood. On the surface, results show a positive and significant relationship between problem gambling and a range of criminal behaviors. However, after statistically balancing differences in several background measures between problem gamblers and non-problem gamblers, such as low self-control, past substance use, and juvenile delinquency, we find no significant relationship between problem gambling and crime. These patterns are consistent across several propensity score weighting and matching algorithms. Our results therefore parallel those in support of the "generality of deviance" framework, whereby a similar set of covariates known to be associated with criminal behavior also predict problem gambling.


Assuntos
Crime/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 52(1): 114-128, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347413

RESUMO

Between 1976 and 1983, in Argentina, among the 30,000 individuals kidnapped and killed by armed forces, several pregnant women delivered their children in captivity, who were illegally adopted by families with close military ties. To date, 130 of these children have been identified (named Living Disappeared, LDs) and reunited with their biological families. The aim of this review was to analyze the peculiarity of their traumatic experiences the specific factors of trauma resolution. We conducted a comprehensive search of the articles that specifically deal with Argentinean LDs. Fifteen records met the inclusion criteria. Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and traumatic memories were reported by LDs, both after and before learning the truth; the processing of trauma was found to be facilitated by verbalizing traumatic experiences, listening to others' narratives, and recognizing the belonging to a political community. The pathogenic relevance of the early exposure to trauma, the climate of lies, secrets, and doubts which characterized the life with the illegally adoptive parents and the conflict between two identities have been found. The findings come out on the side of the influence of the context in trauma resolution.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Crime/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Adulto , Argentina , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
18.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 31(1): 13-30, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026131

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Prior research has not adequately examined the relationship between psychological state and offending. Limitations include over-reliance on criminal convictions as the dependent variable, failure to examine a comprehensive set of psychological states, the limited nature of measures and the frequent use of cross-sectional data that cannot ensure temporal ordering. AIMS: To explore the relationship between five self-reported psychological states-anxiety, depression, hostility, paranoia and psychoticism-and three types of offending-violent, non-violent and marijuana use-reported 6 months later in a sample of justice system involved young people. METHODS: Data were acquired from the publicly available Pathways to Desistance dataset, a longitudinal study of 1262 young people (86% male) involved in the criminal justice system. Measures of psychological state were self-reported using the Brief Symptom Inventory at project entry and self-report offending measures 6 months later. RESULTS: No psychological states were significantly associated with reports of marijuana use and depression was not related to offending. Anger and paranoia each predicted an increased variety of violent and non-violent offending, while anxiety and psychoticism each increased the variety of violent but not non-violent offending. Clinically significant states on one or more sub-scales were related to variety of both violent and non-violent offending. IMPLICATIONS: These results suggest that early screening of psychological state may help identify young people at risk for offending. Further research might be directed at clarifying the extent of actual disorder and the nature of interventions that would best help not only those with a diagnosable disorder, but also those with aspects of their psychological state which trouble them, but which may not actually amount to disorder.


Assuntos
Agressão , Ira , Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(3): 366-376, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378906

RESUMO

The principal objective of this study was to determine whether drugs and crime are systemically linked through the formation of delinquent peer associations. A panel of 1,760 adolescents (867 boys, 893 girls, ages 10-17) participated in a longitudinal study conducted over 4 waves, with a year between each wave. The results of a multiple serial causal mediation path analysis revealed that drug use at Wave 1 predicted a rise in delinquent peer associations at Wave 2, which, in turn, predicted an increase in proactive criminal thinking and personal victimization at Wave 3, both of which then proceeded to predict serious offending at Wave 4. Based on these results, it is concluded that drug use has the power to initiate and intensify involvement in a delinquent peer group, which then opens the door to learning deviant attitudes from and being victimized by members of this group, outcomes capable of motivating future offending behavior. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cognição , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Aprendizado Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
20.
Am J Community Psychol ; 67(1-2): 35-49, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150983

RESUMO

The increased proportion of juvenile court-involved girls has spurred interest to implement and evaluate services to reduce girls' system involvement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a family-based intervention by using a dominant sequential mixed methods evaluation approach. First, we examined quantitative data using a quasi-experimental design to determine whether the family-based intervention reduced recidivism among court-involved girls. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to construct statistically equivalent groups to compare one-year recidivism outcomes for girls who received the court-run family-based intervention (n = 181) to a group of girls on probation who did not receive the intervention (n = 803). Qualitative interviews (n = 39) were conducted to contextualize the quantitative findings and highlighted the circumstances that family-focused interventions for court-involved girls. Girls who received the program had slightly lower recidivism rates following the intervention. The qualitative findings contextualized the quasi-experimental results by providing an explanation as to the girls' family circumstances and insights into the mechanisms of the intervention. Results highlighted the importance of family-focused interventions for juvenile justice-involved girls. These findings have practical and policy implications for the use interventions-beyond the individual level-with adjudicated girls and offer suggestions for ways to improve their effectiveness using a community psychology lens. In addition, this paper includes a discussion of evaluating of juvenile court programming from a community psychology perspective including strengths, challenges, and considerations for future work in this area.


Assuntos
Crime , Delinquência Juvenil , Crime/prevenção & controle , Crime/psicologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia
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