Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.293
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239280, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956423

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suicide rates in India are among the highest in the world, equating to over 200,000 suicide deaths annually. Crime reports of suicide incidents routinely feature in the Indian mass media, with minimal coverage of suicide as a broader public health issue. To supplement our recently published content analysis study, we undertook qualitative interviews to examine media professionals' perspectives and experiences in relation to media reporting of suicide-related news in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2017-18, semi-structured qualitative interviews with twenty-eight print media and television media professionals with experience reporting on suicide-related news were undertaken across north (New Delhi and Chandigarh) and south (Chennai) India. A semi-structured interview guide was designed to initiate discussions around; 1) perspectives on why suicide incidents are regularly reported on by mass media in India, 2) a description of experiences and processes of covering suicide incidents on the crime beat; and 3) perspectives on the emergence of health reporter coverage of suicide. Interviews were digitally audio-recorded and transcribed. A deductive and inductive thematic analytic approach was used, supported by the use of NVivo. RESULTS: Suicides were typically seen as being highly newsworthy and of interest to the audience, particularly the suicides of high-status people and those who somewhat matched the middle-class profile of the core audience. Socio-cultural factors played a major role in determining the newsworthiness of a particular incident. The capacity to link a suicide incident to compelling social narratives, potentially detrimental social/policy issues, and placing the suicide as a form of protest/martyrdom increased newsworthiness. Reporters on the crime beat worked in close partnership with police to produce routine and simplified incident report-style coverage of suicide incidents, with the process influenced by: informal police contacts supporting the crime beat, the speed of breaking news, extremely tight word limits and a deeply fraught engagement with bereaved family members. It was articulated that a public health and/or mental health framing of suicide was an emerging perspective, which sought to focus more on broader trends and suicide prevention programs rather than individual incidents. Important challenges were identified around the complexity of adopting a mental health framing of suicide, given the perceived pervasive influence of socioeconomic and cultural issues (rather than individual psychopathology) on suicide in India. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings delve into the complexity of reporting on suicide in India and can be used to support constructive partnerships between media professionals and suicide prevention experts in India. Policymakers need to acknowledge the socio-cultural context of suicide reporting in India when adapting international guidelines for the Indian media.


Assuntos
Homicídio , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Suicídio , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polícia/psicologia , Vigilância da População , Distribuição por Sexo , Violência/psicologia
2.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 221-227, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with histories of childhood trauma tend to score higher on recidivism risk/needs assessment tools, such as the Level of Service Inventory-Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R: SV). These may affect their chance of leaving custody, but risk scores may be inflated by reliance on additional items which reflect other fixed childhood events. AIMS: We hypothesised that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) would be related to immutable risk measures according to the LSI-R: SV, such as juvenile arrest history, rather than more mutable factors, such as criminal attitudes. METHODS: Two interviewer-administered questionnaires-one about ACEs and one about criminogenic risk and needs-were given to a cohort of women just after release from jail. Phi coefficients were used to test for associations between ? ACE scale scores and scores on the risk tool-the LSI-R: SV. RESULTS: ACE scale items were related to static risk item scores from the LSI-R: SV, but not to any of the dynamic risk items except psychological health. CONCLUSIONS: Risk reduction is an important task in the criminal justice system, for which systematic risk assessment is an integral part of decision making. Self-reported experience of psychological health apart, only fixed historical variables were related to estimated recidivism risk. There was no relationship between the mutable constructs of attitudes towards crime or employment status and estimated risk. This raises the question of whether the risk of recidivism is increased when there is a background of childhood trauma. Implications for using risk reduction tools to inform the need for trauma-informed correctional care are discussed. Longitudinal research assessing recidivism is needed to test this further.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Reincidência , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Crime/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Prisões , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19072-19079, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719127

RESUMO

People may be sympathetic to violent extremism when it serves their own interests. Such support may manifest itself via biased recognition of hate crimes. Psychological surveys were conducted in the wakes of mass shootings in the United States, New Zealand, and the Netherlands (total n = 2,332), to test whether factors that typically predict endorsement of violent extremism also predict biased hate crime perceptions. Path analyses indicated a consistent pattern of motivated judgment: hate crime perceptions were directly biased by prejudicial attitudes and indirectly biased by an aggrieved sense of disempowerment and White/Christian nationalism. After the shooting at a synagogue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, disempowerment-fueled anti-Semitism predicted lower perceptions that the gunman was motivated by hatred and prejudice (study 1). After the shootings that occurred at two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand, disempowerment-fueled Islamoprejudice similarly predicted lower hate crime perceptions (study 2a). Conversely, after the tram shooting in Utrecht, Netherlands (which was perpetrated by a Turkish-born immigrant), disempowerment-fueled Islamoprejudice predicted higher hate crime perceptions (study 2b). Finally, after the Walmart shooting in El Paso, Texas, hate crime perceptions were specifically biased by an ethnonationalist view of Hispanic immigrants as a symbolic (rather than realistic) threat to America; that is, disempowered individuals deemphasized likely hate crimes due to symbolic concerns about cultural supremacy rather than material concerns about jobs or crime (study 3). Altogether, biased hate crime perceptions can be purposive and reveal supremacist sympathies.


Assuntos
Crime/psicologia , Emoções , Percepção Social , Atitude , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Ódio , Humanos , Preconceito/psicologia , Relações Raciais , Violência/psicologia
4.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 210-220, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488935

RESUMO

Few longitudinal studies are capable of identifying criminal career profiles using both self-report and official court data beyond the 30s. The current study aims to identify criminal career profiles across three developmental periods using self-report data, validate these profiles with official court records and determine early childhood predictors. Data came from the Seattle Social Development Project (n = 808). Latent Class Analysis was used to examine criminal careers from self-reported data during adolescence (aged 14-18), early adulthood (aged 21-27) and middle adulthood (aged 30-39). Official court records were used to validate the classes. Childhood risk and promotive factors measured at ages 11-12 were used to predict classes. Findings revealed four career classes: non-offending (35.6%), adolescence-limited (33.2%), adult desister (18.3%) and life-course/persistent (12.9%). Official court records are consistent with the description of the classes. Early life school and family environments as well as having antisocial beliefs and friends differentiate membership across the classes. The results of this study, with a gender-balanced and racially diverse sample, bolster the current criminal career knowledge by examining multiple developmental periods into the 30s using both self-report and official court data.


Assuntos
Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criança , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Autorrelato , Comportamento Social , Adulto Jovem
5.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 159-171, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573036

RESUMO

It has been argued that the predictors of all criminal career features are the same, and that childhood risk factors do not predict life-course-persistent offenders. Little is known about childhood predictors of the duration of criminal careers. The aim is to investigate childhood (aged 8-10 years) risk factors for criminal career duration, in comparison with childhood risk factors for other criminal career features. The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development is a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males from age 8, with conviction records up to age 61. Life-course-persistent (LCP) offenders were defined as those with a criminal career lasting at least 20 years. The strongest predictors of LCP offenders were harsh discipline, poor parental supervision, a convicted father and parental conflict. Childhood risk factors for LCP offenders and criminal career duration were different from childhood risk factors for the prevalence of offending (convicted versus unconvicted males). These results should be taken into account in developmental and life-course criminology theories, risk assessment instruments and risk-focused interventions.


Assuntos
Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Reincidência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Londres/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco
6.
Law Hum Behav ; 44(3): 194-208, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378911

RESUMO

Objective: Feedback from lineup administrators about identification accuracy significantly impacts witness confidence. In the current studies, we investigated the effect of post-identification feedback given 1-week after an initial, pristine lineup. We tested 2 kinds of feedback: typical feedback (i.e., about identification accuracy) and misinformation feedback. Misinformation feedback came in the form of suggestive questioning that falsely suggested the participant was either more or less confident in their initial identification than they actually reported. Hypotheses: We hypothesized both confirming misinformation and typical feedback would significantly inflate witness confidence relative to no feedback controls while disconfirming misinformation and typical feedback would deflate witness confidence relative to controls. Method: Across 2 studies, participants (N = 907), recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk, watched a mock crime video, made an identification, and reported their confidence under unbiased lineup conditions. One week later, they received either confirming or disconfirming misinformation or typical feedback. They then provided a retrospective confidence judgment. Results: Misinformation feedback caused significant confidence change. Participants given false feedback that they were more confident in their initial identification than they reported later recalled greater initial confidence. Even when pristine identification conditions were used, typical confirming feedback caused participants to later remember greater confidence than they initially reported at the time of the lineup. Even in the absence of any feedback, control participants showed significant confidence inflation over time. Conclusion: These results highlight the need for lineup administrators to both ask for and document verbatim witness confidence at the time of the initial identification. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comunicação , Reconhecimento Facial , Retroalimentação , Rememoração Mental , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Autoimagem , Adulto , Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Ann Epidemiol ; 46: 41-48.e1, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451196

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate incarceration patterns among young adults in New York City jails from mid-2011 through 2017, with an aim that identification of frequently incarcerated young "hot spotters" may inform early interventions. METHODS: We examined electronic health records for 3114 individuals with no known prior jail admission and admitted within 4.5 years after turning age 18 years. We used group-based trajectory analysis to identify hot spotters and compared their characteristics with those of other trajectory groups. We repeated the analysis for three older adult groups for additional comparison. RESULTS: Five percent of the young individuals became hot spotters (mean = 7.7 incarcerations). They were more likely to be homeless (27.1% vs. 7.2%-16.4% in other trajectory groups), have substance use disorders (95.2% vs. 73.2%-89.8%), and mental health needs (65.7% vs. 28.5%-53.3%), and be incarcerated for theft-related charges (52.7% vs. 32.0%-49.6%) and misdemeanors (34.8 vs. 25.5%-29.4%). They differed in charge profile and homelessness compared with older hot spotters. CONCLUSIONS: Some young adults are at risk of frequent incarceration. Tailored health- and behavior-related interventions may preclude cyclical incarceration and address barriers to well-being and stability.


Assuntos
Crime/psicologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Saúde Mental , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto Jovem
8.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 196-209, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: As our previous study indicated, almost half of juvenile delinquents continued offending in adulthood, while the rest ceased to do so. We compared these groups with each other and with non-offenders in the life-course use of alcohol, identity development and life situation. METHODS: Based on the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, four groups were formed at age 42 for men and women: persistent, adolescence-limited and adult-onset offenders and non-offenders. Longitudinal data (N = 369; 53% males) have been collected at ages 8, 14, 20, 27, 36, 42 and 50. RESULTS: Persistent offending, but not adolescence-limited offending, was associated with the accumulation of problems in adulthood and an elevated risk of death before age 54. For males, persistent offending was associated with heavy drinking from adolescence to middle age, diffuse identity, high divorce rates and poverty. For females, persistent offending was associated with heavy drinking in adulthood and a higher rate of being outside the workforce in middle age. In males, adolescence-limited offending was associated with more controlled drinking in adulthood, and in females, with early divorce from the partner and advanced identity. CONCLUSIONS: Detecting the risks of the accumulation of problems and potential for positive transitions of juvenile delinquents until middle age will be important for prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Criança , Crime/psicologia , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Determinação da Personalidade , Recidiva , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 207: 107774, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motivational Interviewing plus Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MI/CBT) has been used to reduce adolescent substance use, but has rarely been applied in youth correctional settings. This trial compared MI/CBT against Relaxation Training plus Substance-Education/12-Steps (RT/SET) to reduce substance use and crime among incarcerated youth. METHODS: Participants (N = 199) were incarcerated juveniles (64.8 % non-White, 10.1 % girls, mean age of 17.1 years). Two individual sessions of MI (or RT) were followed by 10 group sessions of CBT (or SET). Youth were randomized to condition with follow-ups at 3- and 6-months after release. Major outcomes included alcohol, marijuana and crimes involving aggression. RESULTS: A marginal treatment by time interaction was found for percent heavy drinking days, with follow-up tests indicating less alcohol use in RT/SET than MI/CBT at 6 months, and increased use within MI/CBT from 3 to 6 months. A significant treatment by time interaction was found for alcohol-related predatory aggression, with follow-up tests indicating fewer youth engaged in this behavior from 3 to 6 months within RT/SET, and weak evidence favoring MI/CBT over RT/SET at 3 months. General predatory aggression decreased from 3 to 6-months for both treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Although weak evidence was found favoring MI/CBT with respect to alcohol-related predatory aggression, results generally support RT/SET in reducing percent heavy drinking days.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Prisioneiros , Terapia de Relaxamento/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/terapia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/terapia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Terapia de Relaxamento/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 55(6): 685-696, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974810

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine cross-sectional associations between perceived neighborhood environment and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Hispanic/Latino women and men. METHODS: Data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (2008-2011) and its Sociocultural Ancillary Study (2009-2010) were used. Participants were Hispanic/Latino women (n = 1812) and men (n = 1034) aged 45-74 years. Survey-weighted linear regression models were used to examine associations between self-reported perceived neighborhood environment (i.e., neighborhood social cohesion and problems categorized as quintiles, and neighborhood safety from crime categorized as low, medium, or high) with cognitive function (i.e., global cognition, verbal learning, memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed scores) in women and men. Final model adjusted for age, Hispanic/Latino background, language, field site, household income, education, years lived in neighborhood, and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Women in the lowest quintile of perceived neighborhood problems (vs. highest quintile) had higher global cognition (ß 0.48, 95% CI 0.03, 0.94, p trend 0.229) and memory scores (0.60, 95% CI 0.11, 1.09, p trend: 0.060). Women in the highest quintile of perceived neighborhood social cohesion (vs. lowest quintile) had lower global cognition (ß - 0.56, 95% CI - 1.02, - 0.09, p trend 0.004), verbal learning (B - 1.01, 95% CI - 2.00, - 0.03, p trend 0.015), verbal fluency (B - 2.00, 95% CI - 3.83, - 0.16, p trend 0.006), and processing speed (B - 2.11, 95% CI - 3.87, - 0.36, p trend 0.009). There was no association between perceived neighborhood safety from crime and cognition among women, or between any perceived neighborhood environment measure and cognition among men. CONCLUSIONS: Middle-aged and older Hispanic/Latina women living in neighborhoods with the lowest perceived problems had higher global cognition and memory. Women living in neighborhoods with the highest perceived social cohesion had lower global cognition, verbal learning, verbal fluency, and processing speed.


Assuntos
Cognição , Depressão/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Características de Residência , Capital Social , Idoso , Crime/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Urban Health ; 97(2): 230-238, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993870

RESUMO

African Americans and socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals have higher rates of a variety of sleep disturbances, including short sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and fragmented sleep. Such sleep disturbances may contribute to pervasive and widening racial and socioeconomic (SES) disparities in health. A growing body of literature demonstrates that over and above individual-level SES, indicators of neighborhood disadvantage are associated with poor sleep. However, there has been scant investigation of the association between sleep and the most proximal environments, the home and residential block. This is the first study to examine the association between objective and self-reported measures of housing and block conditions and sleep. The sample included 634 adults (mean age = 58.7 years; 95% African American) from two low-income urban neighborhoods. Study participants reported whether they experienced problems with any of seven different housing problems (e.g., broken windows) and rated the overall condition of their home. Trained data collectors rated residential block quality. Seven days of wrist actigraphy were used to measure average sleep duration, efficiency, and wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO), and a sleep diary assessed sleep quality. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted for each sleep outcome with housing or block conditions as predictors in separate models. Participants reporting "fair" or "poor" housing conditions had an adjusted average sleep duration that was 15.4 min shorter than that of participants reporting "good" or "excellent" conditions. Those reporting any home distress had 15.9 min shorter sleep and .19 units lower mean sleep quality as compared with participants who did not report home distress. Poor objectively measured block quality was associated with 14.0 min shorter sleep duration, 1.95% lower sleep efficiency, and 10.7 additional minutes of WASO. Adverse housing and proximal neighborhood conditions are independently associated with poor sleep health. Findings highlight the importance of considering strategies that target upstream determinants of sleep health disparities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação Popular/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pennsylvania , Autorrelato , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Gambl Stud ; 36(1): 161-181, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363884

RESUMO

The growth of the online sports betting market has generated new risk areas and threats to sport integrity, such as match-fixing. In recent years, institutional concern to fight against the phenomenon has been intensified and a set of countermeasures has been adopted. One of the most widely implemented measures to protect integrity in sport is to ban athletes and sports players from betting on the competitions in which they are involved. In some countries, such as Portugal, this practice has become a crime under the new legislation. Despite the legal and sporting restrictions and the prevention programmes carried out for sport institutions to explain the gambling rules, there are many athletes who are putting bets on their own competitions and even in their own games. Through interviews with key informant actors and ethnographic fieldwork, this article describes betting patterns among sports actors in Portugal and explains the perceptions and incentives that lead them to bet in their own sports, competitions and games. The results show different conceptions of integrity between the normative discourse on legal and sport governance institutions and sports actors' opinion, essentially, the premise that suggest a direct link between betting on one's own games and manipulation of these games. In some cases, betting in one's own games helps to strengthen fair play values. However, the spreading of online betting, together with the perception of inefficient controls in the implementation of sporting and legal regulations, creates opportunity structures for fixing matches and taking financial profit though gambling activities.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Motivação , Portugal , Esportes
14.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 55(4): 517-525, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324961

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the impact of substance use and other risk factors on conviction rates in people with a psychotic illness (PI) and other mental disorders (OMD) compared to those with no mental illness (NMI). METHODS: This research is part of a longitudinal record-linked whole-population study of 467,945 children born in Western Australia (WA) between 1980 and 2001. This cohort was identified through linkages between the WA psychiatric case register, WA corrective services data and other state-wide registers. We assessed 184,147 individuals born during 1983-1991 to explore the impact of exposure to a variety of risk factors on conviction rates. RESULTS: People with PI and OMD had higher conviction rates than those with NMI, with unadjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 3.98 (95% CI 3.67-4.32) for PI and 3.18 (95% CI 3.03-3.34) for OMD. Adjusting for substance use reduced the rates by 60% in PI and 30% in OMD: IRRs 1.59 (95% CI 1.45-1.74) and 2.24 (2.12-2.37), respectively. Minimal change was seen when adjusting for other potential risk factors (including socio-demographics, victimisation and parental offending), with adjusted IRRs 1.58 (95% CI 1.43-1.74) for PI and 1.90 (95% CI 1.80-2.02) for OMD. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows people with a mental illness have higher rates of conviction than those with NMI. Substance use has a major impact on this rate. Results suggest the need for a greater investment in programs addressing the issue of comorbid substance use with a view to reduce the rate of convictions in this population.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(1): 103-112, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Underage binge drinking is a serious health concern that is likely influenced by the neighbourhood environment. However, longitudinal evidence has been limited and few studies have examined time-varying neighbourhood factors and demographic subgroup variation. METHODS: We investigated neighbourhood influences and binge drinking in a national cohort of US 10th grade students at four times (2010-2014; n = 2745). We estimated odds ratios (OR) for past 30-day binge drinking associated with neighbourhood disadvantage, personal and property crime (quartiles), and number of liquor, beer and wine stores within 5 km, and then evaluated whether neighbourhood associations differ by age, sex and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Neighbourhood disadvantage was associated with binge drinking before 18 [OR = 1.54; 95% confidence interval (1.14, 2.08)], but not after 18 years of age. Property crime in neighbourhoods was associated with a higher odds of binge drinking [OR = 1.54 (0.96, 2.45)], an association that was stronger in early adulthood [4th vs 1st quartile: OR = 1.77 (1.04, 3.03)] and among Whites [4th vs 1st quartile: OR = 2.46 (1.03, 5.90)]. Higher density of liquor stores predicted binge drinking among Blacks [1-10 stores vs none: OR = 4.31 (1.50, 12.36)] whereas higher density of beer/wine stores predicted binge drinking among Whites [one vs none for beer: OR = 2.21 (1.06, 4.60); for wine: OR = 2.04 (1.04, 4.03)]. CONCLUSIONS: Neighbourhood conditions, particularly those related to economic circumstances, crime and alcohol outlet density, were related to binge drinking among young adults, but associations varied across age and individual characteristics.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Comércio/economia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/etnologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Cerveja/economia , Cerveja/provisão & distribução , Bebedeira/diagnóstico , Bebedeira/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Crime/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Meio Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vinho/economia , Vinho/provisão & distribução , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Homosex ; 67(8): 1145-1163, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081482

RESUMO

Using data from 696 Israeli LGBQ individuals aged 13-30, this study explored the negative (mental distress) and positive changes (well-being and stress-related growth) following the deadliest anti-LGBQ hate crime in Israel to date (the Bar-Noar Massacre), while examining differences in these outcomes between those who did and did not know hate crime victims. Furthermore, the mediating role of emotional support in facilitating better mental health and stress-related growth was tested. Results suggested that compared to those who did not know any victims, those who personally knew the victims sought emotional support from more sources, had higher scores of mental distress, but also of well-being and stress-related growth. Emotional support indeed mediated the relationship between familiarity with hate crime victims and better mental health and higher levels of growth. Increasing access to emotional support may be particularly helpful in addressing the needs of LGBQ young adults following an anti-LGBQ hate crime.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Crime/psicologia , Ódio , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Pers Assess ; 102(2): 223-230, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239221

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to determine whether measures of proactive and reactive criminal thinking display divergent patterns of correlation with outside criteria. A sample of 3,039 male medium-security federal prisoners who completed the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) served as participants in this study. Despite being highly correlated (r = .75), the PICTS proactive and reactive scales displayed divergent patterns of correlation with the eight risk/outcome measures. As predicted, the proactive scale corresponded with lower criminal risk, older age of first conviction, and decreased odds of prior substance misuse and mental illness, whereas the reactive scale corresponded with higher criminal risk, earlier age of first conviction, greater odds of prior substance misuse and mental illness, and more evidence of subsequent arrest. Contrary to predictions, the proactive scale was associated with increased rather than decreased commission of disciplinary infractions in prison. When participants with elevated proactive scores were compared to participants with elevated reactive scores on the eight risk/outcome variables, the results revealed that the two profiles were moderately negatively correlated. Thus, although proactive criminal thinking is associated with below-average criminal risk and below-average future negative outcomes, reactive criminal thinking does just the opposite.


Assuntos
Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pensamento
18.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(5): 1509-1519, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30056502

RESUMO

Research suggests that autistic children can provide accurate and forensically useful eyewitness evidence. However, members of a jury also rely on non-verbal behaviours when judging the credibility of a witness, and this could determine the verdict of a case. We presented mock jurors with videos (from an experimental study) of one of two child witnesses on the autism spectrum being interviewed about a mock minor crime. Results demonstrated that providing jurors with generic information about autism and/or informing them of the child's diagnostic label differentially affected credibility ratings, but not for both children. Implications for how to present information about child witnesses with autism to a jury-highlighting the need for approaches tailored to individual children-are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Crime/psicologia , Direito Penal/métodos , Função Jurisdicional , Competência Mental/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Adulto Jovem
19.
Br J Sociol ; 71(1): 140-152, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840245

RESUMO

This paper joins the debate on the formation of territorial stigma by uncovering the existence of a form of "foundational stigma" that preceded place-based stigma of the era of advanced marginality. I show that not only were the traces of stigma present prior to the era of advanced marginality but that these early traces facilitate later forms of stigma by providing the necessary foundations upon which adhesive and detrimental stigma was operationalized. Following a critical discourse analysis approach, this paper examines coverage in the British press of Toxteth, Liverpool between 1900 and 1981 as a paradigmatic case study to show that this primitive stigma existed in three key ways: relating to inter-community strife, to crime, and to substandard housing conditions. These traces of stigma laid the foundations for later forms of stigma based on the presence of the poor, violent, deviant other that would be operationalized by dominant voices during the era of advanced marginality.


Assuntos
Marginalização Social , Estigma Social , Crime/psicologia , História do Século XX , Habitação , Humanos , Áreas de Pobreza , Características de Residência , Marginalização Social/história , Marginalização Social/psicologia , Reino Unido
20.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(2): 494-505, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802315

RESUMO

Extant research has typically examined neighborhood characteristics in isolation using variable-centered approaches; however, there is reason to believe that perceptions of the neighborhood environment influence each other, requiring the use of person-centered approaches to study these relationships. The present study sought to determine profiles of youth that differ in their perceptions of their neighborhoods and objective neighborhood characteristics, and whether these profiles are associated with youth coping. Participants were low-income, African American youth (N= 733; 51.0% female, M age = 18.76 years, SD = 1.71) from a metropolitan city who were originally recruited for the Youth Opportunity program in Baltimore, Maryland. A latent profile analysis was conducted which included self-reported neighborhood social cohesion, collective efficacy, disorder, violence, and disadvantage derived from census data. Coping behaviors, specifically positive cognitive restructuring, problem-focused coping, distraction strategies, and avoidant behaviors were assessed via self-reported questionnaires. Four neighborhood profiles were identified: highest disorder (20.0%); highest violence/highest disadvantage (5.2%); high violence (26.6%); and highest cohesion/lowest disorder (48.2%). Individuals in the highest violence/highest disadvantage profile reported higher positive cognitive restructuring and problem-focused coping than the other profiles. These findings warrant an investigation into the individual assets and contextual resources that may contribute to more positive coping behaviors among youth in more violent and disadvantaged neighborhoods, which has the potential to improve resilient outcomes among youth in similar at-risk settings.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Crime/psicologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Agressão , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Maryland , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA