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1.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 183-195, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This article serves as our memorial for the outstanding contribution of Rolf Loeber to developmental criminology. His salient paper on the future of the study of the age-crime curve (2012) is the focal point. AIMS: Follow some research trails that Rolf Loeber proposed in his 2012 paper. METHODS: Recent data on official offending from the Montréal Two Samples Four Generations Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Studies (MTSFGCLS) are analysed. The data were gathered for two generations of juvenile court males; five birth cohorts born around 1960 and followed from age 8 to 61, and five birth cohorts born around 1980, males and females traced from age 12 to 45. The age-crime curves are presented for the total prevalence. Epidemiological data are displayed for career descriptors: number of years active in offending, frequency, variety, onset, offset and duration. RESULTS: The age-crime curves of the two generations display the habitual shape reported in the literature. The epidemiological data shows that the population sample has a much lower curve in comparison to the court sample; this sort of difference is also observed between females and males. CONCLUSION: The difference between the two generations in the age-crime curves are interpreted in light of three evolutions in Québec from 1960 to 2000: (a) a radical change in the delinquency law, social and criminal justice policies, and treatment for juvenile delinquents; (b) a reduction of the juvenile and adult crime rates; (c) a significant increase in the wellbeing of the population on education, health and welfare services.


Assuntos
Crime/tendências , Criminosos/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Direito Penal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
2.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101739, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645558

RESUMO

In Japan over the past few years, approximately 13,000 individuals were arrested for drug offenses each year. It is useful to know the trends in drug offenses, in order to devise the most effective countermeasures and addiction treatment programs. Herein, we have revealed the trends in drug offenses in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. This report was researched the number of individuals arrested for drug offenses in Tokyo during the 3-year study period 2016-2018. The drugs are classified into the six categories: stimulants, narcotics, psychoactive drugs, opium, cannabis, and designated substances. We also calculated the percentages of individuals arrested for various drug offenses based on these six categories. Approximately 86% of the arrests for drug offenses in Tokyo during the 3-year period were for stimulants or cannabis. A higher percentage of individuals were arrested for stimulants, but the percentage of individuals arrested for cannabis increased each year. Given the percentage of individuals arrested for designated substances or narcotics, preventive measures for drug offenses involving stimulants and cannabis should be promptly implemented. Further campaigns to prevent drug offenses and public lectures are also needed. Public education must be provided to prevent drug offenses involving designated substances and narcotics.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/tendências , Drogas Ilícitas , Cannabis , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Crime/prevenção & controle , Drogas Desenhadas , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/classificação , Entorpecentes , Ópio , Psicotrópicos , Tóquio/epidemiologia
3.
J Health Econ ; 68: 102230, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585379

RESUMO

A large literature points out that exposure to criminal victimization has far-reaching effects on public health. What remains surprisingly unexplored is that role that health shocks play in explaining aggregate fluctuations in offending. This research finds novel evidence that crime is sensitive to health shocks. We consider the responsiveness of crime to a pervasive and common health shock which we argue shifts costs and benefits for offenders and victims: seasonal allergies. Leveraging daily variation in city-specific pollen counts, we present evidence that violent crime declines in U.S. cities on days in which the local pollen count is unusually high and that these effects are driven by residential violence. While past literature suggests that property crimes have more instrumental motives, require planning, and hence are particularly sensitive to permanent changes in the cost and benefits of crime, we find that violence may be especially sensitive to health shocks.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Crime/tendências , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Econométricos , Pólen/efeitos adversos , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saúde Pública , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal , Estados Unidos
4.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 203: 92-97, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (AAS) has been associated with increased aggressiveness and violent behavior. We therefore investigated the proposed correlation between the use of AAS and criminality while controlling for important socio-economics covariates and for psychiatric comorbidity. METHODS: The primary endpoints were prison sentences, and time to first prison sentence. A retrospective matched cohort study design consisting of 545 males, who tested positive for AAS in Danish gyms during the period January 3, 2006 to January 31, 2017. They were matched with 5450 randomly chosen male controls. Data were cross-referenced with national register information on education, employment status, substance abuse and psychiatric comorbidity. In addition, 638 males sanctioned because they rejected to participate in the doping control and 6380 controls were used as a replication cohort. RESULTS: Already at baseline, 20.6% of the AAS users had a previous prison sentence whereas the rate was 3.7% in the control cohort (p < 0.0001). During the follow-up period the cumulative prevalence increased to 29.5% and 4.9%, respectively (unadjusted HR 9.15, 95% CI 6.33-13.20). The associations remained highly significant after controlling for socio-economic factors, drug abuse and psychiatric comorbidity. The results could be replicated in a similar cohort. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that AAS users have a 9-fold increased risk of being convicted of a crime compared to matched controls, randomly chosen from the general population. This association could not be explained by common socioeconomic factors or by psychiatric comorbidity.


Assuntos
Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Agressão/psicologia , Anabolizantes/efeitos adversos , Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Crime/psicologia , Adulto , Agressão/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Crime/tendências , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Congêneres da Testosterona/efeitos adversos
5.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 80(3): 371-379, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increased alcohol availability influences drinking behavior; however, little is known about the effect of availability changes on subsequent generations. This study examined whether exposure to increased alcohol availability while pregnant is associated with criminal behavior in subsequent generations. METHOD: A register-linked study was conducted using data from a natural experiment setting, including 363,207 children born between 1965 and 1971. During 1967/68, strong beer became temporarily available in grocery stores instead of state-owned monopoly stores only, for individuals less than 21 years of age, in two regions of Sweden. Children born in regions exposed to the policy change were compared with children born elsewhere in Sweden (excluding a border area), children born before 1967, and children conceived after 1968. Information on criminal outcomes was obtained from the National Register of Criminal Convictions. Follow-up was from age 15 to 42 years. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Compared with the unexposed cohorts, children conceived by young mothers before the policy change but exposed to the change in utero did not appear to be at an increased risk of being convicted of a violent crime, theft, or drunk driving later in life. Similar patterns of results were found among children conceived by older mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Using data from a natural experiment setting, no consistent evidence was found that being exposed to increased alcohol availability while pregnant increased the risk of having a child who would be convicted of a crime later in life.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Crime/tendências , Comportamento Criminoso , Mães , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Adulto , Cerveja/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Addiction ; 114(12): 2150-2159, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the United States, the availability of prescription opioids has decreased in recent years. Whether there have been corresponding changes in the likelihood of people with prescription opioid use disorder (POUD) to engage in illegal behaviors related to drug use remains unknown. We examined changes in prevalence of illegal behaviors between people with and without POUD over time, and how transactions for obtaining opioids have changed among people with POUD over time. DESIGN: Temporal trend analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. SETTING: United States household dwelling population from all 50 states and District of Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: Adult subsamples from the 2002-14 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (n = 5393 people with POUD; n = 486 768 people without POUD). MEASUREMENTS: Outcome variables were selected illegal behaviors and sources of opioids used non-medically. POUD was defined using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, criteria. Time was treated as a continuous variable. The variable of interest for each illegal behavior analysis was the interaction between POUD diagnosis and time. Covariates included age, sex and race/ethnicity. FINDINGS: During the 13-year period examined, the adjusted interaction odds ratio (AIOR) describing the change in association between POUD and selling illicit drugs increased by a factor of 2.41 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.56-3.71, P < 0.001]. Similar trends were noted for stealing (AIOR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.31-3.44, P = 0.002) and for life-time history of arrest (AIOR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.06-2.19, P = 0.021). People with POUD became less likely to receive opioids for free from friends and family [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.25-0.71, P = 0.001] and more likely to buy them from friends and family (AOR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.76-6.13, P < 0.001) from 2005 to 2014. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, against a backdrop of a decreasing prescription opioid supply, rates of some crimes potentially related to drug use increased among people with prescription opioid use disorder compared with those without prescription opioid use disorder from 2002 to 2014.


Assuntos
Crime/tendências , Comportamento Criminoso , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/provisão & distribução , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Soc Sci Med ; 228: 272-292, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885673

RESUMO

The criminological "broken windows" theory (BWT) has inspired public health researchers to test the impact of neighborhood disorder on an array of resident health behaviors and outcomes. This paper identifies and meta-analyzes the evidence for three mechanisms (pathways) by which neighborhood disorder is argued to impact health, accounting for methodological inconsistencies across studies. A search identified 198 studies (152 with sufficient data for meta-analysis) testing any of the three pathways or downstream, general health outcomes. The meta-analysis found that perceived disorder was consistently associated with mental health outcomes, as well as substance abuse, and measures of overall health. This supported the psychosocial model of disadvantage, in which stressful contexts impact mental health and related sequelae. There was no consistent evidence for disorder's impact on physical health or risky behavior. Further examination revealed that support for BWT-related hypotheses has been overstated owing to data censoring and the failure to consistently include critical covariates, like socioeconomic status and collective efficacy. Even where there is evidence that BWT impacts outcomes, it is driven by studies that measured disorder as the perceptions of the focal individual, potentially conflating pessimism about the neighborhood with mental health.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Características de Residência/classificação , Crime/tendências , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
10.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(6): 2268-2280, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734178

RESUMO

The objective was to delineate the prevalence of criminal behavior and school discipline in juvenile justice-involved youth (JJY) with autism. A sample of 143 JJY with autism was matched to comparison groups of JJY without a special education classification, JJY with learning disabilities, and JJY with other special educational needs (N = 572). Results showed that JJY with autism committed significantly fewer property crimes. With regard to school discipline, JJY with autism were least likely to receive policy violations, out-of-school suspensions, and in-school suspensions. Finally, regardless of special education classification, JJY who had a history of fighting in school were more likely to recidivate. Our results suggest that JJY with autism are not more likely to commit crimes compared to JJY without SEN.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Educação Especial , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Crime/psicologia , Crime/tendências , Educação Especial/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/diagnóstico , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/epidemiologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências
11.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 63(8): 1446-1464, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724677

RESUMO

A foot patrol program was implemented in Lower Lonsdale, British Columbia, in the summer of 2010 and continues today. As a part of assessing the foot patrol's effect on crime in the neighbourhood, the spatial similarity was examined by comparing the crime pattern before the foot patrol initiative (2007-2009) with the crime pattern during the foot patrol program (2010-2012). Considering these baseline and treatment data sets and a spatial point pattern test, the spatial similarity between two data sets is analyzed. In general, the continued presence of foot patrol appears to have created a concentration of crime in specific areas, rather than a diffusion effect. The areas that continued to experience increased crime during foot patrol presence were often in the catchment area, suggesting displacement does occur, or along the border between the catchment and primary patrol area.


Assuntos
Crime/tendências , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Polícia , Características de Residência , Análise Espacial , Humanos
12.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 195: 74-81, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African Americans are disproportionately burdened by substance use consequences and criminal justice system involvement, yet their interrelationship over the life course is not well understood. This study aimed to assess how substance use, crime, and justice system involvement may influence one another from adolescence to midlife. METHODS: Data come from a community cohort of urban African Americans first assessed in childhood and followed up into midlife (n = 1242, 606 males, 636 females). We draw on interview data and local, state, and federal criminal records. Participants were assessed at ages 6, 16, 32, and 42, with additional record retrieval at age 52. Utilizing structural equation modeling, we estimate pathways between substance use, criminal behavior, and arrests over time by gender. RESULTS: For males, significant paths were found between childhood behavioral problems and adolescent substance use, delinquency, and police interactions. For females, a significant path was found between childhood behavioral problems and only adolescent delinquency. We observed continuity between substance use and between arrest constructs from adolescence through midlife for men only. Direct paths were found between substance use and later arrests for both males and females. Paths were also observed between arrests and later substance use for both genders. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of reciprocal relationships highlight the critical need to break the cycle of substance use and crime and point to specific times in the life course when intervention is necessary. Findings introduce the potential role of the criminal justice system as a key intervention agent in redirecting substance use careers.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/tendências , Direito Penal/tendências , Longevidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , População Urbana/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 79(6): 816-825, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the impact of the legalization of Sunday alcohol sales on several different types of criminal activity in the United States. METHOD: The 2000-2010 data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) for seven states (n = 1,746,249) and difference-in-differences type models are used to estimate the effect of the legalization of Sunday alcohol sales on different types of criminal activity. RESULTS: States that legalized Sunday sales of alcohol experienced up to a 16% to 23% increase in the total number of violent and property crimes committed on Sundays (p < .01). However, the aggregate impact of this policy change on crimes committed on all days of the week is not significant because of either positive or statistically insignificant spillover effects of the repeal of Sunday alcohol sales bans on crimes committed on Mondays through Saturdays. These results are robust under alternative model specifications. CONCLUSIONS: We find evidence that the negative effects of legalizing Sunday alcohol sales on criminal activity are day specific, and the overall crime trends are not affected by this policy change. These findings are particularly important given the ongoing public policy debates about the relevancy of the restrictions on Sunday sales of alcohol at off-premise locations.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Comércio/tendências , Crime/economia , Crime/tendências , Humanos , Estados Unidos
14.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 79(6): 826-834, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effects of outlet and small area level malt liquor policies on crime in 10 U.S. cities and hypothesized that more restrictive malt liquor policies would be associated with greater reductions in crime. METHOD: We used a pooled time-series study design (i.e., panel regression) with comparison areas to test our hypothesis. Quarterly crime rates in targeted areas were compared 3 years before and after policy adoption. Four crime outcomes were analyzed: Selected Part II crimes, assaults, vandalism/property damage, and disorderly conduct. Both the presence and absence of a malt liquor policy (yes, no) and degree of restrictiveness of the malt liquor policy were assessed using a newly created measure of malt liquor policy restrictiveness developed by the investigators. Results were analyzed using a series of linear mixed models. RESULTS: Adoption of malt liquor policies was not associated with Part II selected crimes. For individual crimes (e.g., assaults, vandalism, disorderly conduct), we found mixed results as more restrictive malt liquor policies were significantly associated with decreases as well as increases in crime. In general, the evaluated policies were considered to be not highly restrictive. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that malt liquor policies at the outlet or small area level alone may not be sufficient to reduce crime associated with malt liquor use. Policies that are more restrictive or cover larger areas than assessed in the current study may be required to have an independent effect on crime outcomes.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Cidades/economia , Cidades/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/economia , Comércio/tendências , Crime/economia , Crime/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , População Urbana/tendências , Adulto Jovem
15.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 53(5): 578-585, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846496

RESUMO

Background and aims: Given ongoing community concern about high rates of alcohol-related crimes (ARCs) experienced by disadvantaged populations, a more specific and nuanced understanding of factors associated with ARCs would help inform the development of more sophisticated programs and policies aimed at reducing ARCs. This study estimates rates of ARCs across all communities in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, using routinely collected police data; investigates whether there are differences between communities; and identifies individual and community characteristics that are significantly associated with higher rates of ARCs. Short summary: This study analysed routinely collected police data in New South Wales, Australia, to identify individual and community characteristics associated with alcohol-related crimes. Young people, Aboriginal Australians, socio-economically disadvantaged communities, remote and regional communities and communities with higher per capita rate of on-venue liquor licenses are at risk of alcohol-related crimes. Methods: Age standardized rates of ARCs were calculated. A multi-level Poisson regression analysis was conducted to investigate the individual and community factors that were statistically significantly associated with higher rates of ARC, separately for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. Results: Rates of ARCs were statistically significantly higher for Aboriginal Australians, young people (aged 13-37 years) and on weekends. ARCs varied significantly across communities, and were significantly higher in remote or regional communities, in communities with a higher per capita rate of on-venue licences, and for socio-economically disadvantaged communities for non-Aboriginal Australians, but not for Aboriginal females. Conclusion: This analysis shows that the impact of national-level and jurisdictional-level legislation and policies is uneven across communities and defined populations, leaving young people, socio-economically disadvantaged communities and Aboriginal Australians at increased risk of ARCs. To more equitably reduce the exposure of all Australians to ARC, mechanisms that effectively engage vulnerable communities and defined populations, need to be developed in consultation with them, implemented and evaluated.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Crime/tendências , Coleta de Dados/tendências , Polícia/tendências , Populações Vulneráveis/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Pública/tendências , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Addict Behav ; 84: 7-12, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587173

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women have lower rates of drunken driving than men, but their share of arrests has been climbing since 1985. These trends may stem from changes in women's lives that lead to more drinking and driving, or to greater reductions in male drinking and driving. Alternatively, changes in policy and enforcement that focus on less intoxicated offenders may inadvertently target female-typical offending patterns. This paper tracked male and female drunken driving rates and the DUI sex ratio in the United States from 1985 to 2015 across three data sources. METHODS: The sex ratio and prevalence estimates were derived from official arrest statistics from Uniform Crime Reports, self-reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and traffic fatality data from the National Highway and Transportation Safety Administration. Rates were assessed for four age groups (18-20, 21-34, 35-49, and 50-64), and drunken driving trends tested using Augmented Dickey-Fuller time-series methods. RESULTS: Decreases in DUI rates stagnated over the first decade of 2000, but have again begun to decline, according to self-reports and traffic fatality data, for all sex-by-age groups. Still, the gender gap in DUI arrests continues to narrow. From 1990 to the early 2000s, changes in social control that made female DUI more visible narrowed the gender gap in arrests. In more recent years, narrowing of the gap is due primarily to male rates declining more steeply than female rates. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that we need more research to understand why female declines have not kept pace with male declines and perhaps more targeted prevention efforts aimed at women.


Assuntos
Crime/tendências , Dirigir sob a Influência/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo , Políticas de Controle Social/tendências , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Drug Policy ; 54: 1-8, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29306177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2009, Mexican Federal Government enacted "narcomenudeo" reforms decriminalizing possession of small amounts of drugs, delegating prosecution of retail drug sales to the state courts, and mandating treatment diversion for habitual drug users. There has been insufficient effort to formally assess the decriminalization policy's population-level impact, despite mounting interest in analagous reforms across the globe. METHODS: Using a dataset of municipal police incident reports, we examined patterns of drug possession, and violent and non-violent crime arrests between January 2009 and December 2014. A hierarchical panel data analysis with random effects was conducted to assess the impact of narcomenudeo's drug decriminalization provision. RESULTS: The reforms had no significant impact on the number of drug possession or violent crime arrests, after controlling for other variables (e.g. time trends, electoral cycles, and precinct-level socioeconomic factors). Time periods directly preceding local elections were observed to be statistically associated with elevated arrest volume. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of police statistics parallel prior findings that Mexico's reform decriminalizing small amounts of drugs does not appear to have significantly shifted drug law enforcement in Tijuana. More research is required to fully understand the policy transformation process for drug decriminalization and other structural interventions in Mexico and similar regional and international efforts. Observed relationship between policing and political cycles echo associations in other settings whereby law-and-order activities increase during mayoral electoral campaigns.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Drogas Ilícitas/legislação & jurisprudência , Aplicação da Lei , Legislação de Medicamentos , Crime/tendências , Humanos , México
18.
Am J Public Health ; 108(2): 265-269, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportions of illicit cigarette consumption in Brazil from 2012 to 2016, a period of sharp increases in cigarette taxes. METHODS: We used an approach based on legal sales provided by the Secretariat of Federal Revenues and self-reported consumption data from an annually conducted telephone survey (VIGITEL) to estimate the changes over time in illegal cigarette use in Brazil. For that purpose, we also used available information on the proportion of illegal cigarette consumption from a nationwide household survey conducted in 2013 to calculate a constant proportion of underreporting from VIGITEL in relation to total consumption and sales in Brazil. RESULTS: There was an increase in the estimated proportion of illicit cigarette use from 2012 to 2013 (from 28.6% to 32.3%), then a decrease from 2013 to 2014 (32.3% to 28.8%), and then a sustained trend of increase from 2014 to 2016 (28.8% to 42.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Novel and feasible approaches to estimate changes over time in the illegal market are important for helping the effective implementation of tobacco excise tax policy.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Fumar Cigarros/economia , Fumar Cigarros/tendências , Comércio/economia , Crime/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Impostos/economia
19.
Int J Drug Policy ; 53: 65-72, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287224

RESUMO

While cannabis has been widely used in the UK for over 50 years, it is only in recent decades that domestic cultivation has become established. Public concern, media reporting and policing policy has emphasised the role of profit motivated criminal organisations often working on a large scale and with coerced labour. However, increasingly, another population are growing for medical reasons, to help themselves and others treat or manage difficult, poorly understood, or incurable conditions. Our study sought to further understand the motives, techniques and interactions of cannabis cultivators through interviews with 48 growers and supplementary ethnographic work. As well as those motivated to grow for personal use, social and commercial supply purposes we identified a cohort growing to provide themselves and others with cannabis used for therapeutic purposes. This paper draws primarily on interviews with a sub-group of sixteen medically-motivated growers who were not only involved in treatment, but also embraced the label "activist". Rather than develop techniques of deception they were organising to effect a change in legislation. Rejecting the image of criminal perpetrators, they presented themselves as victims of unjust government policy, an indifferent medical establishment, and brutal and immoral criminal markets. Through cultivation, association, self-healing and apomedication, they have found voice and are shifting the debate over the status of growers and of cannabis itself. The ambiguity of their position as both producers and patients challenges the assumptions underlying legal distinctions between suppliers and users, with potentially profound implications for policy.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Crime/tendências , Legislação de Medicamentos/tendências , Atitude , Cannabis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Direito Penal , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Abuso de Maconha/economia , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Maconha Medicinal , Médicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
20.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 25(12): 2149-2155, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29086471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of crime on physical activity location accessibility, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and obesity among African American women. METHODS: An agent-based model was developed in 2016 to represent resource-limited Washington, DC, communities and their populations to simulate the impact of crime on LTPA and obesity among African American women under different circumstances. RESULTS: Data analysis conducted between 2016 and 2017 found that in the baseline scenario, African American women had a 25% probability of exercising. Reducing crime so more physical activity locations were accessible (increasing from 10% to 50%) decreased the annual rise in obesity prevalence by 2.69%. Increasing the probability of African American women to exercise to 37.5% further increased the impact of reducing crime on obesity (2.91% annual decrease in obesity prevalence). CONCLUSIONS: These simulations showed that crime may serve as a barrier to LTPA. Reducing crime and increasing propensity to exercise through multilevel interventions (i.e., economic development initiatives to increase time available for physical activity and subsidized health care) may promote greater than linear declines in obesity prevalence. Crime prevention strategies alone can help prevent obesity, but combining such efforts with other ways to encourage physical activity can yield even greater benefits.


Assuntos
Crime/tendências , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/psicologia , Prevalência , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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