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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e033935, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to quantify societal preferences for, and assess trade-offs between characteristics of treatment programmes for impulsive-violent offenders. SETTING: The study was conducted in New South Wales, Australia's largest state. PARTICIPANTS: The study participants were income tax payers, aged over 18 and who were able to provide informed consent. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was used to assess the preferences for treatment programmes for impulsive violent offenders. The survey presented participants with six choice sets in which they chose between two unlabelled treatment scenarios and a 'no treatment' choice. A random parameters logistic (RPL) model and a latent class (LC) model were used to analyse the societal preferences for treatment and estimate willingness to pay values based on marginal rates of substitution. Respondents were asked to self-identify if they ever had experiences with violence and subgroup analysis was done. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 1021 highly engaged participants. The RPL model showed that society had a preference for more effective programmes, programmes that provided full as opposed to partial treatment of all co-occurring health conditions, compulsory over voluntary programmes, those with flexibility in appointments and programmes that are provided with continuity of care postprison. Respondents were willing to pay an additional annual tax contribution for all significant attributes, particularly compulsory programmes, continuity of treatment and effectiveness.The LC model identified two classes of respondents with some differences in preferences which could be largely identified by whether they had experiences with violence or not. CONCLUSION: The results are important for future programme design and implementation. Programmes for impulsive violent offenders that are designed to encompass societal preferences are likely to be supported by public and tax payers.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Idoso , Comportamento de Escolha , Humanos , New South Wales , Preferência do Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência
2.
Georgian Med News ; (313): 113-117, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103441

RESUMO

The aim of the article is scientific conceptualization of the problem of mental derangement as a mandatory medical criterion of limited sanity according to criminal legislation by experience of Ukraine and some foreign countries and development of new approaches to such status assessment. Empirical study base of the problem consists of judgments of conviction taken from Unified State Register of Court Rulings of Ukraine and carried out on persons who commit crimes in the state of limited sanity from March 1st, 2014, till August 1st, 2020. Results of some foreign researchers' studies of the problem in question have been used as well. A combination of general and special scientific methods (comparative method, system structural method, method of statistical analysis, method of legal phenomenon system analysis etc.) has been applied to reach the aim in view. In conclusion: medical criterion of limited sanity ("mental derangement") used by lawmaker does not allow defining clearly types of illnesses, represent all possible types of psychiatric pathology and also causes complications in law enforcement practice. It has been proved that increase of quantity of people having mental derangements and quantity of crimes committed by such people shows that non-application of compulsory measures of medical care, correlational programs leads to repeated crimes commitment. Taking into account absence of duration of compulsory measures of medical care application, it has been suggested to stipulate this by Ukrainian legislation and to develop classification of mental derangements and criteria of their division into severe and non-severe.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Crime , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Projetos de Pesquisa , Ucrânia
3.
Georgian Med News ; (313): 186-192, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103455

RESUMO

The purpose of the article is, on the basis of a comparative legal study of the general and distinctive features of the norms of the criminal procedure legislation of Ukraine and Georgia regarding the possible participation of a doctor during the interrogation of a minor, to determine the expediency and necessity of the mandatory participation of a doctor during the interrogation of a child. Objective - on the basis of the analysis of the norms of the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine and the Criminal Procedure Code of Georgia, as well as taking into account the vulnerability and originality of the development of the psyche of a minor, the specifics of the implementation of pediatric methods in overcoming barriers to communication with a child, outline ways to improve the norms of criminal law in both countries in this domain. It has been established that the constitutional provision of the right to human health (in particular of a child) in Ukraine and Georgia is contained not only in the codes and medical legislation of both states, but also in a number of international legal acts that have been ratified by their parliaments. The analysis of the relevant norms revealed the imperfection of the definitions of concepts and terms, methods and methods of implementing the norms that should reflect the specified right. It has been established that the problem of realizing the child's right to full legal and medical protection during interrogation is the lack of a clear implementation in the criminal procedural norms of states of the mandatory (and not alternative - at the discretion of a government official) participation of a doctor (pediatrician, child psychiatrist) in the conduct of judicial investigative actions with a minor. It was also established that the Criminal Procedure Code of Ukraine, the Criminal Procedure Code of Georgia and methodological recommendations regarding the conduct of interrogations have common features, formulations and requirements for interrogating a minor, involving parents, teachers and doctors to objectively influence the psyche of a child in the selection of information on an incident. It was revealed that the requirements of international legal norms and psychological characteristics of the development and formation of a child's personality, the child's perception of the world around him and the events taking place in it dictate the need to amend the criminal procedural legislation of Ukraine and Georgia. These changes should be aimed at a clearer formulation of terms for the involvement and mandatory participation of a doctor in the conduct of judicial investigative actions with a minor, in particular his interrogation. Thus, these changes will act as a guarantor of the realization of the right to human (child) health; meet the basic international principles and requirements in the field of healthcare and law.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Direitos Humanos , Criança , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Ucrânia
4.
Wiad Lek ; 74(5): 1213-1218, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To clarify the importance of the need to involve medical professionals, as experts, in the conduction of the investigative actions during the pre-trial investigation of certain types of crimes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: This research is based on the general laws and categories of the Cognition theory and on the framework of materialistic dialectics; it uses a comprehensive approach to the study of the problems under consideration, applies systematic, statistical, historical, legal and comparative legal methods. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The need to use specialized medical knowledge depends not on a certain type of crime, but on the specific circumstances of the committed criminal offense. Based on theoretical and practical frameworks, the reasonable practical significance of using specialized medical knowledge during a pre-trial investigation expands and deepens the possibilities of procedural evidence, contributes to the rapid and complete crime disclosure, exposing the wrongdoers and making the right decisions in criminal proceedings.


Assuntos
Crime , Criminosos , Humanos
5.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 31(3): 198-210, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The construct of aggression is central to work with violent offenders, but it is a broad construct that can be assessed by many different methods and instruments. Its measurement may, however, have profound implications for treatment planning. We need more knowledge about how different methods for assessing aggression relate to each other. AIMS: Our aims were to investigate, first, the convergence and concordance of two methods of assessing aggression: self-report and clinical assessment and, second, to determine the degree to which aggression can be discriminated from neighbouring constructs, such as hostility, anger and criminal behaviour. METHODS: A nationally representative Swedish cohort of 269 18-25-year-old incarcerated violent offenders was recruited. Data were collected through structured self-reports of aggression, anger and hostility traits (Aggression Questionnaire-Revised Swedish Version) and clinical assessments of lifetime prevalence of aggressive and antisocial behaviours (Life History of Aggression). Criminal records were retrieved from the Swedish National Crime Register. RESULTS: Self-ratings and clinician-ratings of aggression were highly convergent and concordant, especially regarding physical aggression. Violent offence records were weakly, if at all, correlated, while self-reported hostility was weakly, or not at all, correlated with self-reported or with clinician-rated aggression. There was an inverse relationship between aggression and criminal records of sexual offences. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Even though a combination of self-reports and clinician-ratings may provide a better overview of an individual's aggressive behaviours, our results indicate that they yield such similar information that either alone would be sensitive enough. Our results do not, however, support using one of these methods as a proxy for the other since choice of measure and accepted concordance between them depend on the context within which the assessment is conducted. We reconfirmed that official records of violent offending are unlikely to be adequate measures of outcome after interventions to reduce aggressive behaviours.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Agressão , Humanos , Autorrelato , Suécia , Violência
6.
Georgian Med News ; (312): 172-180, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964848

RESUMO

The purpose of our study is to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the phenomenon of pedophilia in the context of child protection from sexual abuse, as well as to substantiate the need for treatment of persons with sexual perversions as a way to prevent sexual violence against children. Despite the normative consolidation of the inadmissibility of violence against children, including sexual violence, and the current system of preventive measures, today minors are the most victimized group of people. Of particular concern is not only the physical harm caused to a child as a result of sexual violence, but also the negative effects on mental health, which further contributes to the emergence of various psychosomatic illnesses, depressed psycho-emotional state, mental health disorders, suicidal behavior. Analysis of domestic and foreign studies cited in the article shows that the number of criminal attacks on the sexual inviolability of the child is steadily increasing. Most of the victims of such crimes are young children, and the perpetrator is often a close relative or someone known to the child. The use of the digital environment and modern methods of communication by pedophiles in order to harass and coerce children into sexual intercourse contributes to the increase in the number of such crimes. The methodology of the study is based on the dialectical method of knowledge, legal and organizational foundations of preventive activity concerning crimes against sexual freedom and sexual inviolability of the child, interrelation and interdependence of domestic and international experience. The results of the study show that, in order to reduce the number of infringements on the sexual inviolability of the child, a set of legal and medical measures aimed at preventing real and potential threats, primarily at identifying and treating persons with sexual perversions, in particular pedophilia, is necessary. This is especially necessary during and after serving a sentence for relevant crimes.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Vítimas de Crime , Criminosos , Pedofilia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 3): S352-S360, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010261

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic (SARS-CoV-2) has caused multiple consequences globally, and all can be re-searched and addressed multidisciplinary, ie from a health (medical), legal, economic and security aspect. In this paper, the author focuses on the legal, ie criminal law aspect of this pandemic. After more than a year of the COVID-19 pandemic in the world, based on the measures taken in almost all countries, it can be concluded that the health and legal aspects are primary and complementary. This claim is supported by the fact that the protection of human health must be regulated by adequate legislation, which is, above all, the Law on the Protection of the Population from Infectious Diseases. However, in such an emergency situation without criminal protection, it is difficult to achieve effective health care for the population.Therefore, this article analyzes the criminal and medical aspects of crimes against human health that are similar or almost identical in all countries in the region, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, Northern Macedonia and Kosovo.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Criminosos , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Croácia , Humanos , Kosovo , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sérvia , Eslovênia
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 226, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occurs with antisocial behaviour. Several studies have shown high rates of ADHD among prisoners. However, the prevalence of crime among individuals with ADHD is less known. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of lifetime criminal conviction (CC) in a clinical sample of adults with ADHD, and the associations with the severity of ADHD and emotional dysregulation (ED). METHODS: Patients were admitted to a private psychiatric outpatient clinic in Oslo between 2014 and 2018. Of the 656 patients diagnosed with ADHD, 629 (95.9%) agreed to participate in the study. CC was determined based on self-reporting of the lifetime history of criminal behaviour. ADHD was diagnosed according to the DSM-5 criteria, and ADHD severity was measured using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). ED was assessed by the eight-item version of Barkley's Current Behaviour Scale - Self-Report (CBS-SR). RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported CC in this clinical sample was 11.7% among women and 24.5% among men. CC was associated with hyperactive-impulsive severity (p < 0.001) and ED (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of self-reported lifetime criminal conviction was high for both genders. CC was associated with symptom severity of hyperactivity-impulsivity and emotional dysregulation. The findings suggest the need for greater research efforts on the avoidance of criminal activity in people with ADHD and targeted intervention for ADHD treatment and CC prevention.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Criminosos , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Prevalência
9.
Behav Sci Law ; 39(2): 190-204, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037268

RESUMO

Intentional homicide, a declining phenomenon in Italy, represents one of the most extreme forms of violence. A specific subgroup of homicidal assailants is represented by those affected by mental disorders, where the relationship between psychopathology and characteristics of the homicidal attack is not yet fully understood. We analyzed the case files of 187 homicides or attempted homicides, in which the defendant had undergone a forensic psychiatric evaluation within the previous 10 years from a single forensic psychiatric center. We described and analyzed the perpetrator, victim and criminological characteristics of the study cases. A diagnosis of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, a victim who was the perpetrator's biological child and absence of a personality disorder diagnosis were associated with an increased probability of having been adjudicated as lacking or having substantially diminished criminal responsibility due to a mental disorder. Homicidal assailants with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder showed some differences in criminological characteristics compared with murderers without a schizophrenic spectrum disorder, including a higher incidence of parricide, interruption of pharmacotherapy before the crime and disorganized post-crime behavior.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Esquizofrenia , Criança , Psiquiatria Legal , Homicídio , Humanos , Itália , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
10.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 31(3): 211-219, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that people with a history of offending have worse health compared to non-offenders, but it is less clear whether all types of offenders are at similar health risks. In a New Zealand birth cohort study, Moffitt evidenced three main offending trajectories-life-course-persistent (LCP), adolescence-limited (AL) and late-onset (LO) offending, subsequently confirmed in other substantial longitudinal studies. AIMS: Our aim was to explore the relationship between these offending trajectories and both self-reported (SR) and general practitioner (GP) (primary care) recorded health indicators. METHODS: Self-reported medical data at age 48 were obtained for 394 men followed since age 8 years in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. In addition, medical records were obtained from GPs for 264 of them. Health indicators from both sources were compared between each of the three established trajectories of offenders across the life course-LCP, AL, LO and the non-offenders. RESULTS: LCP offenders were found to have over twice the likelihood of disabling medical conditions according to both self-report and GP records. They were also more likely to have GP records indicating mental health problems and treatment for them. According to GP records alone, the LO offenders were also more likely to have mental health problems. The health of AL offenders appeared to be no different from that of the crime-free controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings add weight to the growing evidence that LCP offending and offending that only occurs relatively late in life are likely to be the indicators of generally unhealthy and disrupted lives. This suggests that if lifestyle is to change for the better, interventions are likely to be needed for health as well as antisocial behaviour.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Clínicos Gerais , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Autorrelato
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 105, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889271

RESUMO

Introduction: Child sexual abuse is a disturbing reality and a major public health problem. Indeed, it is a subject that has long been treated as taboo, with dramatic consequences on physical and mental health as well as on social wellbeing of the victims. The purpose of this study was to highlight the epidemiological and clinical features as well as the legal aspects of child sexual abuse. Methods: we conducted a retrospective descriptive study at the psychiatric outpatient service of the University Hospital of Monastir over a period of 12 years and 6 months. All children younger than 18 years diagnosed with suspected or confirmed sexual assault were included. Results: a total of 93 children, victims of sexual abuse were enrolled. The average age of patients was 10 years, with a standard deviation of 3.9 years. Sex-ratio M/F was 0.9. The most common sexual contact was touching (47,3% of cases). The majority of abusers were male (93,5%). In more than half of the cases (53,8%) they were relatives of the child and in 28% of cases intra-familial abuse was reported. Initial psychiatric assessment showed mental disorders in 70% of cases. Conclusion: sexual abuse is a very broad field of violence which varies widely in nature and intensity. Although, in some types of sexual abuse occasionally there is a lack of physical traces, the emotional and psychological impact is ubiquitous and characterized by numerous clinical manifestations.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Assistência Ambulatorial , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tunísia/epidemiologia
12.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 183(17)2021 04 26.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913426

RESUMO

Outcomes of reviews of the effect of interventions for sexual offenders vary and are inconclusive. The lack of consensus reflects the inherent ethic and methodological difficulties related to the evaluation of treatment effect for sexual offenders. In this overview, we examined seven reviews of treatment outcome studies for adult sexual offenders. Three of seven reviews reported a significant positive post-treatment effect on sexual re-offending risk. However, the evidence for successful treatment seems far from robust given the lack of controlled and methodological strong primary studies.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual
13.
Behav Sci Law ; 39(2): 230-244, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860958

RESUMO

The phenomenon of "senseless" or "motiveless" homicide refers to homicides that lack an objective external motivation. Despite the unique challenges these homicides pose to police, few empirical studies have been conducted on the topic and existing studies are limited to clinical studies using small samples. To overcome existing empirical shortcomings, the current study used a sample of 319 homicide cases where no motive was established during the investigation to describe the "who" (offender and victim characteristics), "what" (modus operandi, crime characteristics), "where" (encounter, crime, and body recovery associated locations), and "when" (time of the crime) of the entire criminal event. Findings provide insight into the entire crime-commission process and suggest a different dynamic to "senseless" homicide from what has been described in previous literature. Implications for police investigative practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Criminosos , Delitos Sexuais , Homicídio , Humanos , Motivação
14.
J Law Med ; 28(2): 503-520, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768755

RESUMO

Recent parliamentary inquiries into end-of-life choices identify the need to provide legal certainty for health practitioners working in end-of-life care. A concern identified is the lack of clarity surrounding the operation, status and application of the doctrine of double effect. This discussion clarifies these concerns. Although the doctrine is judicially recognised in several overseas jurisdictions, in Australia the doctrine of precedent means that it does not form part of the common law. In most jurisdictions, the fault element for murder includes recklessness, and application of the doctrine does not avoid criminal liability being established against orthodox criminal law principles. Although the prosecution of a medical practitioner who incidentally causes death in the proper course of medical treatment is a rare event, it remains a live issue. Legislative protection of medical practitioners, as has occurred in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia, is the means to achieve the certainty sought.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Austrália , Princípio do Duplo Efeito , Humanos , Responsabilidade Legal , Queensland , Austrália Ocidental
15.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656310

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Currently, people leaving prisons face concurrent risks from the COVID-19 pandemic and the overdose public health emergency. The closure or reduction of community services people rely on after release such as treatment centres and shelters has exacerbated the risks of poor health outcomes and harms. This paper aims to learn from peer health mentors (PHM) about changes to their work during overlapping health emergencies, as well as barriers and opportunities to support people leaving prison in this context. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The Unlocking the Gates (UTG) Peer Health Mentoring Program supports people leaving prison in British Columbia during the first three days after release. The authors conducted two focus groups with PHM over video conference in May 2020. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed, and themes were iteratively developed using narrative thematic analysis. FINDINGS: The findings highlighted the importance of peer health mentorship for people leaving prisons. PHM discussed increased opportunities for collaboration, ways the pandemic has changed how they are able to provide support, and how PHM are able to remain responsive and flexible to meet client needs. Additionally, PHM illuminated ways that COVID-19 has exacerbated existing barriers and identified specific actions needed to support client health, including increased housing and recovery beds, and tools for social and emotional well-being. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This study contributes to our understanding of peer health mentorship during the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of mentors. PHM expertise can support release planning, improved health and well-being of people leaving prison and facilitate policy-supported pandemic responses.


Assuntos
Integração Comunitária/psicologia , Criminosos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Mentores/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Colúmbia Britânica , COVID-19/psicologia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 122, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Escape and absconding, especially in forensic settings, can have serious consequences for patients, staff and institutions. Several characteristics of affected patients could be identified so far, albeit based on heterogeneous patient populations, a limited number of possible factors and basal statistical analyses. The aim of this study was to determine the most important characteristics among a large number of possible variables and to describe the best statistical model using machine learning in a homogeneous group of offender patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. METHODS: A database of 370 offender patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorder and 507 possible predictor variables was explored by machine learning. To counteract overfitting, the database was divided into training and validation set and a nested validation procedure was used on the training set. The best model was tested on the validation set and the most important variables were extracted. RESULTS: The final model resulted in a balanced accuracy of 71.1% (95% CI = [58.5, 83.1]) and an AUC of 0.75 (95% CI = [0.63, 0.87]). The variables identified as relevant and related to absconding/ escape listed from most important to least important were: more frequent forbidden intake of drugs during current hospitalization, more index offences, higher neuroleptic medication, more frequent rule breaking behavior during current hospitalization, higher PANSS Score at discharge, lower age at admission, more frequent dissocial behavior during current hospitalization, shorter time spent in current hospitalization and higher PANSS Score at admission. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time a detailed statistical model could be built for this topic. The results indicate the presence of a particularly problematic subgroup within the group of offenders with schizophrenic spectrum disorder who also tend to escape or abscond. Early identification and tailored treatment of these patients could be of clinical benefit.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Esquizofrenia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Medição de Risco
17.
Compr Psychiatry ; 107: 152238, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The link between schizophrenia and violent offending has long been the subject of research with significant impact on mental health policy, clinical practice and public perception of the dangerousness of people with psychiatric disorders. The present study attempts to identify factors that differentiate between violent and non-violent offenders based on a unique sample of 370 forensic offender patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder by employing machine learning algorithms and an extensive set of variables. METHODS: Using machine learning algorithms, 519 variables were explored in order to differentiate violent and non-violent offenders. To minimize the risk of overfitting, the dataset was split, employing variable filtering, machine learning model building and selection embedded in a nested resampling approach on one subset. The best model was then selected, and the most important variables applied on the second data subset. RESULTS: Ten factors regarding criminal and psychiatric history as well as clinical, developmental, and social factors were identified to be most influential in differentiating between violent and non-violent offenders and are discussed in light of prior research on this topic. With an AUC of 0.76, a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 62%, a correct classification into violent and non-violent offences could be determined in almost three quarters of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings expand current research on the factors influencing violent offending in patients with SSD, which is crucial for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies that could potentially reduce the prevalence of violence in this population. Limitations, clinical relevance and future directions are discussed.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Esquizofrenia , Agressão , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Violência
18.
Epilepsy Behav ; 118: 107912, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744796

RESUMO

Criminal behavior by people with epilepsy (PWE) has often been discussed. However, there are limited studies on criminal victimization of PWE-in particular, how such victimizations occur. We identified criminal cases involving victims with epilepsy using databases containing criminal judgments and found 16 such cases between 1990 and 2019. Seven were homicide cases, including four filicide cases. In the four filicide cases, all the perpetrators had the intention of homicide-suicide; all the victims had intellectual disabilities or cerebral palsy; two of these victims had acted violently toward the family; and two mothers who perpetrated the crime against the victims had depression. It seemed that the comorbidities and problem behaviors of the victims were more strongly related to serious crimes by family caregivers than the epilepsy itself. To prevent victimization caused by family caregivers, reducing their stress levels is important. Defendants sometimes argued against objective evidence of a crime, claiming that epileptic seizure of PWE caused or was related to the death of victims. Legal and medical professionals involved in determining the manner of death need careful evaluation when sudden deaths of PWE occur.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Criminosos , Epilepsia , Homicídio , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Julgamento
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573031

RESUMO

International research evidence has firmly established a high prevalence of language disorder in young offender populations. Less is known about young offenders' perspectives on their own language abilities. The study recruited an opportunity sample of 10 young men in custody at a Scottish youth offending institution who had recent experience of segregation. This mixed-methods study investigated participants' views on their language and communication abilities to inform future support and intervention, and formal language assessment was also administered to investigate indicative prevalence of language disorder within the sample. It focused on their communication with professionals and peers in justice, education and welfare settings. Results of standardised language assessment indicated the presence of language disorder in 44% (n = 4) of the sample (n = 9). Thematic analysis of interview data led to formulation of three themes: Valuing Communication, Literacy and Learning; Exerting Control; and Seeking Support. The first theme is discussed with reference to Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Model. Participants offered reflective and rich views on their lived experience. They provided perspectives on features of successful interaction with peers and authority figures, importance of effective communication and the difficulties they encountered. This study argues for additional communication support for young people in the justice system.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Delinquência Juvenil , Transtornos da Linguagem , Adolescente , Humanos , Idioma , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino
20.
Behav Sci Law ; 39(1): 44-64, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569766

RESUMO

The risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model suggests several key practices for justice-involved populations under correctional supervision. Behavioral health treatment planning aligned with RNR principles for offender populations with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders (CODs) could be one method for integrating RNR into clinical care. To explore a unique approach to working with behavioral health and RNR principles, the authors implemented a mixed-methods feasibility study of the acceptability, usability, and utility of a newly developed RNR treatment planning support tool (RNR TST). The tool was implemented in a re-entry program serving adults with co-occurring mental health and opioid use disorders. Chart reviews of RNR TSTs (N = 55) and a focus group (N = 14 re-entry clinical staff) were conducted. Ninety-six percent of the RNR TSTs incorporated the use of a validated risk-need assessment and 70% of the RNR TSTs were semi-complete to complete. Focus group interviews highlighted behavioral health staff perspectives on the acceptability, usability, and utility of the RNR TST. This novel RNR TST has the potential to assist behavioral health providers in integrating RNR principles into treatment planning. Further development and testing are needed to determine its impact on client care and outcomes.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Psiquiatria , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
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