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1.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 183-195, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This article serves as our memorial for the outstanding contribution of Rolf Loeber to developmental criminology. His salient paper on the future of the study of the age-crime curve (2012) is the focal point. AIMS: Follow some research trails that Rolf Loeber proposed in his 2012 paper. METHODS: Recent data on official offending from the Montréal Two Samples Four Generations Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Studies (MTSFGCLS) are analysed. The data were gathered for two generations of juvenile court males; five birth cohorts born around 1960 and followed from age 8 to 61, and five birth cohorts born around 1980, males and females traced from age 12 to 45. The age-crime curves are presented for the total prevalence. Epidemiological data are displayed for career descriptors: number of years active in offending, frequency, variety, onset, offset and duration. RESULTS: The age-crime curves of the two generations display the habitual shape reported in the literature. The epidemiological data shows that the population sample has a much lower curve in comparison to the court sample; this sort of difference is also observed between females and males. CONCLUSION: The difference between the two generations in the age-crime curves are interpreted in light of three evolutions in Québec from 1960 to 2000: (a) a radical change in the delinquency law, social and criminal justice policies, and treatment for juvenile delinquents; (b) a reduction of the juvenile and adult crime rates; (c) a significant increase in the wellbeing of the population on education, health and welfare services.


Assuntos
Crime/tendências , Criminosos/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Direito Penal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
2.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 400-407, oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195655

RESUMO

La literatura ha encontrado que las necesidades no-criminogénicas también son un factor de riesgo de delincuencia juvenil y, por tanto, han de ser objeto de intervención. Se diseñó un estudio de campo con el objetivo de conocer si el ajuste individual, social y psicológico (necesidades no-criminogénicas) difieren entre menores infractores, menores de protección y normalizados. Para ello se evaluó a 450 adolescentes (150 menores de reforma, 150 de protección y 150 normalizados) en el ajuste individual, social y psicológico. Los resultados mostraron un efecto significativo en el ajuste individual, social y psicológico para el factor población. Sucintamente, los menores de protección y reforma manifestaron un mayor desajuste individual en los niveles personal y familiar que los normalizados, y, adicionalmente, los de reforma a nivel social. Asimismo, los menores de protección e infractores exhibieron un mayor desajuste social consistente en más retraimiento social, ansiedad social/timidez y liderazgo que los normalizados, y los menores infractores un menor ajuste social en la consideración hacia los demás que los normalizados. En el ajuste psicológico, los menores de reforma y protección informaron de más sintomatología obsesivo-compulsiva, de sensibilidad interpersonal, depresiva, de hostilidad, de ansiedad-fóbica y psicótica que los normalizados, y los de protección más somática, ansiosa (generalizada) y paranoide que los normalizados. Se cuantificaron los déficits en estas dimensiones para estimar la magnitud de las necesidades. Se discuten las implicaciones teóricas de los resultados y para el diseño de programas de prevención de la delincuencia y de recaídas


Literature has found that non-criminogenic needs also are a juvenile delinquency risk factor and, consequently, should be target of intervention. With the aim of knowing if individual, social and psychological adjustment differ between juvenile offenders and foster care adolescents with normal adolescents was designed. A total of 450 adolescents (150 juvenile offenders, 150 foster care adolescents, and 150 normal adolescents) were evaluated in individual, social and psychological adjustment. The results showed a significant effect in the individual, social and psychological adjustment for the population factor. Succinctly, juvenile offenders and foster care adolescents displayed a higher individual maladjustment in the personal and family level than normal adolescents, and, additionally, juvenile offenders in the social level. Likewise, juvenile offenders and foster care adolescents exhibited a higher social maladjustment consisting in more social withdrawal, social anxiety/shyness, and leadership than normal adolescents; and juvenile offenders revealed less consideration for others than normal adolescents. In psychological adjustment, juvenile offenders and foster care adolescents reported more obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, hostile, phobic-anxiety, and psychotic symptomology than normal adolescent; and foster care adolescent more somatic, anxiety (generalized) and paranoid symptoms than normal adolescents. The deficits in these needs were quantified as to estimate the magnitude of the intervention. Theoretical and practical implications for intervention of the results are discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Ajustamento Social , Adaptação Psicológica , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Análise Multivariada , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Colômbia
3.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 418-426, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195657

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to test whether there are differences in the effectiveness of a Batterer Intervention Programme (BIP) for Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) perpetrators depending on the participants' countries of origin (i.e., Spanish or Latin American immigrants). The sample included 425 male offenders who participated in a court-mandated standard BIP in Spain. Official recidivism and risk of recidivism were considered the final outcomes. Intention to change, responsibility attribution, adherence to treatment and treatment compliance were taken as the proximal outcomes. No differences were found in risk of recidivism, intention to change, responsibility attribution to the legal system and to the victim between the Spanish and Latin American participants. Significant differences between both groups were found for the variable treatment compliance. The results suggest that, at least for the Latin American immigrants participating in BIPs in Spain, it is apparently not necessary to adjust BIPs to cultural differences as adopting motivational strategies to promote change suffices


El objetivo de este estudio es comprobar si existen diferencias en la efectividad de un programa de intervención para hombres condenados por violencia de género, en función del lugar de procedencia de los participantes (i.e., españoles e inmigrantes latinoamericanos). Se utilizó una muestra de 425 hombres penados por violencia de género que participaban en un programa estándar de intervención en España. Se consideraron como variables finales la reincidencia oficial y el riesgo de reincidencia y como variables proximales la intención de cambio, la asunción de responsabilidad, la adherencia al tratamiento y el compromiso con la intervención. No se encontraron diferencias entre participantes españoles y latinoamericanos en las variables riesgo de reincidencia, intención de cambio, asunción de responsabilidad al sistema legal y a la víctima. Únicamente se encontraron diferencias significativas entre estos dos grupos en la variable compromiso con la intervención. Los resultados sugieren que, al menos para los inmigrantes latinoamericanos que se encuentran participando en programas de intervención con hombres condenados por violencia de género en España, no parece necesario ajustar la intervención en función de las diferencias culturales, siendo suficiente el uso de estrategias motivacionales para promover el cambio


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Criminosos/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/etnologia , Terapia Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural , Estado Civil , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise de Variância , Inquéritos e Questionários , América Latina , Resultado do Tratamento , Espanha
4.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 427-435, oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195658

RESUMO

La evaluación de la eficacia del tratamiento de maltratadores en los Registros Oficiales o los Informes de las parejas no es válida, al tiempo que las intervenciones eficaces se dirigen a dotarlos de competencia cognitiva y conductual. Por ello diseñamos un estudio de campo para medir los efectos de la intervención en la competencia cognitiva. Un total de 100 condenados por violencia de género que completaron un programa penitenciario de tratamiento en la comunidad fueron evaluados pre- y post-tratamiento en la competencia cognitiva, esto es, auto-concepto, inteligencia emocional, atribución de responsabilidad, destrezas cognitivas para el afrontamiento de eventos estresantes en pareja, expresión y control de la ira, y creencias irracionales y pensamientos distorsionados. Los resultados mostraron un efecto significativo del tratamiento en la adquisición de las destrezas cognitivas. Sucintamente, el tratamiento potenció el auto-concepto general el 18.2% y las dimensiones internas del auto-concepto auto-satisfacción el 33.5% y comportamiento el 25.6%; y la claridad para discriminar las emociones el 31.8%. Además, el tratamiento incrementó la asunción interna de responsabilidad el 31.8%; el control de la ira el 19.1%; y el uso de estrategias adaptativas para el afrontamiento de eventos estresantes en pareja entre el 48.9% y el 61.3%. Finalmente, el tratamiento redujo el uso de estrategias desadaptativas entre el 25.6% y el 35.1%; y las creencias irracionales y pensamientos distorsionados relacionados con el uso de la violencia, rol de género y dependencia emocional, en el 78.2%, 48.2% y 63.6%, respectivamente. No obstante, no todos los maltratadores se beneficiaron del tratamiento


The evaluation of the efficacy of treatment of batterers in Official or Couple Records is not valid, whilst the efficient interventions are focused on the empowerment of cognitive and behavioural competence. A field study for measuring the effects of the treatment on the cognitive competence was designed. A total of 100 batterers who had completed a community penitentiary intervention programme, were assessed pre- and post-treatment in cognitive competence i.e., self-concept, emotional intelligence, attribution of responsivity, cognitive skills to cope intimate-partner-related stressful events, expression and control of anger, and irrational beliefs and distorted thoughts. The results showed a significant effect of the treatment in the acquisition of cognitive competence skills. Succinctly, treatment empowered the general self-concept in 18.2%, and the internal dimensions of self-concept self-satisfaction in 33.5% and behaviour in 25.6%; and clarity to discriminate among moods in 31.8%. Moreover, treatment increased the assumption of internal responsivity in 31.8%; anger control in 19.1%; and the use of adaptive strategies to cope intimate-partner-related stressful events between 48.9% and 61.3%. Finally, treatment involved a fall in the use of maladaptive strategies to cope intimate-partner-related stressful events between 25.6% and 35.1%; and in the irrational beliefs and distorted thoughts related with the use of violence, in 78.2%, 48.2% y 63.6%, for use of violence, gender roles and emotional dependence, respectively. Nonetheless, not all the batterers benefited from treatment


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Criminosos/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cognição , Análise Multivariada , Resultado do Tratamento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoimagem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239046, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941496

RESUMO

The increasing recidivism rate of sex offenders indicates potential problems in existing recidivism programs. The present study was conducted to determine whether the polygraph examination is a useful technique to obtain a sex offender's concealed past sexual history. We collected fifty-two sex offenders' data and analyzed it. Among the 52 participants, the court ordered 26 sex offenders to take the psychiatric evaluation and the polygraph test. The other half were prisoners at the hospital who were currently undergoing treatment. The participants in the polygraph group disclosed more deviant sexual behaviors and paraphilia interests/behaviors than the comparison group. Thus, the polygraph examination is a powerful tool that can encourage sex offenders to disclose hidden information to help create suitable psychological therapy programs for preventing recidivism in the future.


Assuntos
Detecção de Mentiras/psicologia , Reincidência/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Criminosos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Parafílicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Parafílicos/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Revelação da Verdade/ética
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911485

RESUMO

Physical, technological, and social networks are often at risk of intentional attack. Despite the wide-spanning importance of network vulnerability, very little is known about how criminal networks respond to attacks or whether intentional attacks affect criminal activity in the long-run. To assess criminal network responsiveness, we designed an empirically-grounded agent-based simulation using population-level network data on 16,847 illicit drug exchanges between 7,295 users of an active darknet drug market and statistical methods for simulation analysis. We consider three attack strategies: targeted attacks that delete structurally integral vertices, weak link attacks that delete large numbers of weakly connected vertices, and signal attacks that saturate the network with noisy signals. Results reveal that, while targeted attacks are effective when conducted at a large-scale, weak link and signal attacks deter more potential drug transactions and buyers when only a small portion of the network is attacked. We also find that intentional attacks affect network behavior. When networks are attacked, actors grow more cautious about forging ties, connecting less frequently and only to trustworthy alters. Operating in tandem, these two processes undermine long-term network robustness and increase network vulnerability to future attacks.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tráfico de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Drogas Ilícitas/provisão & distribução , Modelos Teóricos , Rede Social , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Intenção , Violência/psicologia
7.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 256-267, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896935

RESUMO

Liaison and Diversion (L&D) has twin objectives: improving mental health outcomes and reducing re-offending. Early diversion from police custody seems promising, but evidence of benefit is required to sustain such programmes. To test the hypothesis that contact with L&D services while in police custody would lead to improved mental health outcomes and a reduction in type and level of offending, we used a pre-post service use design. National Health Service (NHS) records in two counties were searched for evidence that patients had been involved with L&D services while in police custody during the period July 2009-December 2017. We defined January 2009-July 2014 as the pre-intervention period and any time after contact as the post-intervention period. Data from the Police National Computer were gathered for each period for these individuals, to assess their pre-post L&D contact offending histories. NHS Trust data were similarly gathered to assess their pre-post use of mental health legislation. 4,462 individuals were identified who had used L&D services in police custody. There were statistically significant reductions in the amount of offending following contact with the L&D service (whether one or two contacts), regardless of offence type. Statistically significant reductions were also observed in use of the four most commonly used legislative powers for detaining patients in hospital on mental disorder grounds, regardless of offending status (prolific/non-prolific). Our results indicate positive associations between the L&D interventions and change in offending and use of compulsory hospital detention. Whilst our research does not allow a direct causal relationship to be established in either area, the findings go beyond other impact assessments of L&D which have either been with small samples or relied only on qualitative data or expert opinion.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Aplicação da Lei , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Polícia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Psicóticos , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
8.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 268-280, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754973

RESUMO

The United Kingdom (UK) government has commissioned numerous interventions across all stages of the criminal justice pathway for managing offenders likely to have a personality disorder, with the intention to reduce reoffending, improve psychological wellbeing, and develop workforce capabilities. Psychologically Informed Practice (PIP) models underpin these. To evaluate a modified PIP model within the post-imprisonment community stage of the Offender Personality Disorder (OPD) pathway, specifically workforce development, within all London (UK) probation supervised hostels (approved premises), we used both non-equivalent control group and pre-post repeated measure designs to compare changes in staff and offender outcomes before and after introduction of a PIP model across all 12 London approved premises. Findings revealed statistically significant improvements in a number of workforce outcomes (measured using the Personality Disorder - Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills Questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Inventory) which were moderated by age and gender. Data did not support associated improvements in resident offender outcomes (progressive moves, rearrests/reoffences, or breaches leading to recalls). The modified PIP is an effective intervention model for improving some workforce outcomes among probation supervised hostel staff, particularly for women, but our findings suggest that intervention development may be required for significant improvements to be observed in resident offending outcomes. In addition, further research is necessary to determine the longer term effects of PIP on absenteeism, employee turnover, quality of resident-staff interactions, and overall culture change among staff working within the post-imprisonment community stage of the OPD pathway.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto , Direito Penal , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Reino Unido
9.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 228-239, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between facial affect recognition and criminal justice involvement has been extensively researched, yet there are virtually no data on the capacity for facial affect recognition in post-incar+cerated individuals, and the results of many studies are limited due to a narrow focus on psychopathy rather than offence category. AIMS: To test the first hypothesis that individuals reporting a history of a violent offence would show a deficit in facial affect recognition and the second hypothesis that the violent offender's deficit would be exclusive to recognition of negative expressions, not affecting positive or neutral expressions. METHOD: Post-incarcerated individuals (N = 298) were recruited online through Qualtrics and completed questionnaires assessing their criminal justice background and demographics. They completed measures of facial affect recognition, anxiety and depression, and components of aggression. RESULTS: A logistic regression, including sex, ethnicity, age and years of education and depression/anxiety scores, indicated that committing a violent offence was independently associated with lower facial affect recognition scores as well as male gender and a trait-based propensity towards physical aggression, but no other co-variable. These data provided no evidence that this deficit was specific to negative emotions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH/PRACTICE: Our study is one of the first to examine facial affect recognition in a post-incarcerated sample. It suggests that deficits in facial affect recognition, already well documented among violent prisoners, persist. While acknowledging that these may be relatively fixed characteristics, this study also suggests that, for these people, nothing happening during their imprisonment was touching this. Improving capacity in facial affect recognition should be considered as a target of intervention for violent offenders, developing or revising in-prison programmes as required.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção Social , Voluntários
10.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 221-227, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with histories of childhood trauma tend to score higher on recidivism risk/needs assessment tools, such as the Level of Service Inventory-Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R: SV). These may affect their chance of leaving custody, but risk scores may be inflated by reliance on additional items which reflect other fixed childhood events. AIMS: We hypothesised that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) would be related to immutable risk measures according to the LSI-R: SV, such as juvenile arrest history, rather than more mutable factors, such as criminal attitudes. METHODS: Two interviewer-administered questionnaires-one about ACEs and one about criminogenic risk and needs-were given to a cohort of women just after release from jail. Phi coefficients were used to test for associations between ? ACE scale scores and scores on the risk tool-the LSI-R: SV. RESULTS: ACE scale items were related to static risk item scores from the LSI-R: SV, but not to any of the dynamic risk items except psychological health. CONCLUSIONS: Risk reduction is an important task in the criminal justice system, for which systematic risk assessment is an integral part of decision making. Self-reported experience of psychological health apart, only fixed historical variables were related to estimated recidivism risk. There was no relationship between the mutable constructs of attitudes towards crime or employment status and estimated risk. This raises the question of whether the risk of recidivism is increased when there is a background of childhood trauma. Implications for using risk reduction tools to inform the need for trauma-informed correctional care are discussed. Longitudinal research assessing recidivism is needed to test this further.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Reincidência , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Crime/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Prisões , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236476, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756592

RESUMO

Compared to other types of social networks, criminal networks present particularly hard challenges, due to their strong resilience to disruption, which poses severe hurdles to Law-Enforcement Agencies (LEAs). Herein, we borrow methods and tools from Social Network Analysis (SNA) to (i) unveil the structure and organization of Sicilian Mafia gangs, based on two real-world datasets, and (ii) gain insights as to how to efficiently reduce the Largest Connected Component (LCC) of two networks derived from them. Mafia networks have peculiar features in terms of the links distribution and strength, which makes them very different from other social networks, and extremely robust to exogenous perturbations. Analysts also face difficulties in collecting reliable datasets that accurately describe the gangs' internal structure and their relationships with the external world, which is why earlier studies are largely qualitative, elusive and incomplete. An added value of our work is the generation of two real-world datasets, based on raw data extracted from juridical acts, relating to a Mafia organization that operated in Sicily during the first decade of 2000s. We created two different networks, capturing phone calls and physical meetings, respectively. Our analysis simulated different intervention procedures: (i) arresting one criminal at a time (sequential node removal); and (ii) police raids (node block removal). In both the sequential, and the node block removal intervention procedures, the Betweenness centrality was the most effective strategy in prioritizing the nodes to be removed. For instance, when targeting the top 5% nodes with the largest Betweenness centrality, our simulations suggest a reduction of up to 70% in the size of the LCC. We also identified that, due the peculiar type of interactions in criminal networks (namely, the distribution of the interactions' frequency), no significant differences exist between weighted and unweighted network analysis. Our work has significant practical applications for perturbing the operations of criminal and terrorist networks.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Rede Social , Humanos , Sicília
12.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 240-255, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715530

RESUMO

Most studies of prisoners, the nature of their offending and any related characteristics have been conducted in rich Western countries. In Nigeria, prison conditions differ in many important respects, key among them that prisoners share large communal spaces much of the time-up to 50 men sleeping in the same space as well as spending the day together. Our aim was to compare levels of impulsivity, aggression and suicide-related behaviours between prisoners in one prison in Nigeria who had committed a homicide and those who had not, allowing for socio-demographic factors. A case-control study design was employed with 102 homicide and an equal number of non-homicide offenders. Each participant was interviewed using the Abbreviated Barratt Impulsiveness Scale for impulsivity, the Modified Overt Aggression Scale for aggression, the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (Module C) for suicide-related behaviours, and a questionnaire for ascertaining socio-demographic characteristics. On bivariate analysis, motor impulsivity was higher among homicide offenders (p = .014) while non-planning was higher among non-homicide offenders (p = .006), but this relationship was affected by demographic variables. Physical aggression levels did not distinguish the two groups, but homicide offenders were less likely to record property-directed and auto-aggressive behaviours (p < .05). By contrast, on average, scores for suicide-related behaviours were lower among the homicide offenders (p = .001), with non-homicide offenders showing a mean score in the high-risk category (13.25; SD, 1.25). As motor impulsivity significantly differentiated the groups, this may be an important measure to add to any risk assessment battery when there are concerns about homicidal behaviours. In this sample, history of interpersonal aggression did not distinguish the groups. People with indications of self-harm or suicide-related behaviours may be at less risk of violence to others, but care should be taken in interpreting this finding as it is not entirely consistent with other findings.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Homicídio , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/psicologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664190

RESUMO

The increasing reported incidents of knife crime in cities and the release on parole of "rehabilitated" violent criminals are creating an unsafe urban environment. Such occurrences suggest that measures taken to address psychopathic-oriented behaviour may have been ineffective because the individual's degree of "moral deficit" is not fully accounted for in the application of specific therapies. This study developed a theoretical model of "moral deficit" that is aligned with the appropriateness of therapy, ranging from the extreme "classical approach" of total confinement justified by a belief in the incurability of psychopaths to the modern therapy that aims to reintegrate the psychopath with society using "moralizing therapy". Analysis of secondary data from extant literature was used to develop the theoretical model of "moral deficit". Secondary data analysis suggests that the extent of psychopathic "moral deficit" may be an important factor in the selection of appropriate therapeutic measures for psychopathy treatment and the rehabilitation of psychopaths as law-abiding members of society. We conclude that a specific type of psychopathic moral deficit may have an important bearing on the appropriateness of treatment. It is recommended that the treatment of psychopathy makes greater provision for the extent and type of psychopathic "moral deficit" in assessing the most appropriate applications for the treatment of psychopathy and promoting the safety of urban environments.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criminosos , Princípios Morais , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/reabilitação , Cidades , Criminosos/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Segurança , População Urbana
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235812, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697774

RESUMO

Experiencing adversities has been associated with the use of violence but this has not been explored with filicide offenders in South Africa. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 parents/stepparents/caregivers convicted of child homicide in South Africa, resulting in 49 in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed by means of grounded theory. Using an ecological framework, this study alludes to the widespread and cumulative nature of violence and trauma experiences within multiple domains of the participants' lives. The study highlighted the absence of support in the aftermath of experiencing trauma, possibly resulting in these parents lacking resources to mitigate the sequelae of adverse experiences. This study calls for trauma related, mental health components to be integrated into violence interventions and for these to address the impact of trauma at the individual, family, and societal levels, to prevent the transition from victim to offender.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Criminosos , Homicídio , Pais , Adulto , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Homicídio/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , África do Sul , Violência/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 172-182, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510787

RESUMO

Criminal career duration has not been well investigated. There are very few longitudinal data sets that last long enough and enough subjects to investigate criminal career duration, and especially the characteristics and risk profiles of especially life course persistent offenders. The aim of the study was to describe the predictability of criminal career duration based on both official records and self-reports of offending, and to put the results in the context of the Moffitt theory of "adolescent limited" and "life course persistent" offenders. The Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 1517) is a seminal longitudinal study based on a community sample of high-risk boys from the city of Pittsburgh. Data was used from the oldest sample of boys in the PYS (N = 506). The participants were first assessed on average at age 12, and data was used up until age 36 for self-reported offending, and age 40 for police charges. The analyses were conducted on moderate and serious violence and moderate and serious theft. Career duration was based on self-reports and official charges in combination. The results show the extent to which commonly accepted and well validated risk factors predict criminal career duration with a special focus on individuals showing high rate/persistent offending in adolescence. Results show more pathways of delinquent development than have previously been described by Moffitt, (Psychological Review, 1993, 100(4), 674-701). Results also show that there is limited predictability of delinquency and offending over time. In addition, results show that only a small number of risk factors distinguish high and low rate adolescent offenders who become continuous offenders. Examples are peer factors. Implications for policy making and intervention science are discussed.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Direito Penal , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 210-220, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488935

RESUMO

Few longitudinal studies are capable of identifying criminal career profiles using both self-report and official court data beyond the 30s. The current study aims to identify criminal career profiles across three developmental periods using self-report data, validate these profiles with official court records and determine early childhood predictors. Data came from the Seattle Social Development Project (n = 808). Latent Class Analysis was used to examine criminal careers from self-reported data during adolescence (aged 14-18), early adulthood (aged 21-27) and middle adulthood (aged 30-39). Official court records were used to validate the classes. Childhood risk and promotive factors measured at ages 11-12 were used to predict classes. Findings revealed four career classes: non-offending (35.6%), adolescence-limited (33.2%), adult desister (18.3%) and life-course/persistent (12.9%). Official court records are consistent with the description of the classes. Early life school and family environments as well as having antisocial beliefs and friends differentiate membership across the classes. The results of this study, with a gender-balanced and racially diverse sample, bolster the current criminal career knowledge by examining multiple developmental periods into the 30s using both self-report and official court data.


Assuntos
Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criança , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Autorrelato , Comportamento Social , Adulto Jovem
17.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 141-150, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483870

RESUMO

Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is a therapy model incorporating elements of Eastern philosophies and cognitive behavioural principles. Originally designed for people struggling with chronic suicidality and borderline personality disorder (BPD), it has been adapted to treat complex, multi-diagnostic presentations, such as those in forensic mental health settings. To date, there has been little evaluation when the primary diagnosis is of psychosis. To explore the effectiveness of DBT, with patients, with multiple comorbidities, including psychosis, in a forensic psychiatric inpatient setting. A descriptive outcome study with a cohort of offender-patients in one specialist forensic mental health unit. Before and after treatment change scores were compared on anger, aggression, hopefulness, coping abilities, emotional intelligence, insight and subjective symptom severity scales, as well as staff-rated risk, and length of stay. Nine men and five women residents in one Canadian secure hospital completed a standard DBT programme, and self-ratings, over about 1 year. Scale scores indicated significantly increased insight and acknowledgment of problems. Apparently increased anger and vengeance scores were clinically associated. Independent staff ratings indicated reductions in risk and most patients achieved early release. This study provides support for extension of the use of DBT to offender-patients with psychosis among the complex mix in their presentation. It suggests that a randomised controlled trial with cost-benefit analysis is warranted, as well as further work, to promote understanding of mechanisms of effectiveness.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Criminosos/psicologia , Terapia do Comportamento Dialético/métodos , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Violência/prevenção & controle , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Agressão , Ira , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Canadá , Inteligência Emocional , Emoções , Feminino , Esperança , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade , Transtornos Psicóticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 827-833, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With the addition of the "with limited prosocial emotions" specifier within the diagnosis of conduct disorder (DSM-5) and of conduct-dissocial disorder (ICD-11) to designate those with elevated callous-unemotional traits, the authors examined the role that callous-unemotional traits play in the risk for gun carrying and gun use during a crime in a sample at high risk for gun violence. METHODS: Male juvenile offenders (N=1,215) from three regions of the United States were assessed after their first arrest and then reassessed every 6 months for 36 months and again at 48 months. Callous-unemotional traits and peer gun carrying and ownership were measured via self-report after the first arrest (i.e., baseline). Gun carrying and use of a gun during a crime were self-reported at all follow-up points. RESULTS: Callous-unemotional traits at baseline increased the frequency of gun carrying and the likelihood of using a gun during a crime across the subsequent 4 years after accounting for other risk factors. Furthermore, callous-unemotional traits moderated the relationship between peer gun carrying and ownership and participant gun carrying, such that only participants low on callous-unemotional traits demonstrated increased gun carrying as a function of their peers' gun carrying and ownership. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the importance of considering callous-unemotional traits in gun violence research both because callous-unemotional traits increase gun carrying and use in adolescents and because the traits may moderate other key risk factors. Notably, the influence of peer gun carrying and ownership may have been underestimated in past research for the majority of adolescents by not considering the moderating influence of callous-unemotional traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Transtorno da Conduta , Emoções , Armas de Fogo , Violência com Arma de Fogo , Infuência dos Pares , Adolescente , Agressão , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/etiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Violência com Arma de Fogo/etnologia , Violência com Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Violência com Arma de Fogo/psicologia , Violência com Arma de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade , Inventário de Personalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
19.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 159-171, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573036

RESUMO

It has been argued that the predictors of all criminal career features are the same, and that childhood risk factors do not predict life-course-persistent offenders. Little is known about childhood predictors of the duration of criminal careers. The aim is to investigate childhood (aged 8-10 years) risk factors for criminal career duration, in comparison with childhood risk factors for other criminal career features. The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development is a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males from age 8, with conviction records up to age 61. Life-course-persistent (LCP) offenders were defined as those with a criminal career lasting at least 20 years. The strongest predictors of LCP offenders were harsh discipline, poor parental supervision, a convicted father and parental conflict. Childhood risk factors for LCP offenders and criminal career duration were different from childhood risk factors for the prevalence of offending (convicted versus unconvicted males). These results should be taken into account in developmental and life-course criminology theories, risk assessment instruments and risk-focused interventions.


Assuntos
Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Reincidência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Londres/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco
20.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 196-209, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: As our previous study indicated, almost half of juvenile delinquents continued offending in adulthood, while the rest ceased to do so. We compared these groups with each other and with non-offenders in the life-course use of alcohol, identity development and life situation. METHODS: Based on the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, four groups were formed at age 42 for men and women: persistent, adolescence-limited and adult-onset offenders and non-offenders. Longitudinal data (N = 369; 53% males) have been collected at ages 8, 14, 20, 27, 36, 42 and 50. RESULTS: Persistent offending, but not adolescence-limited offending, was associated with the accumulation of problems in adulthood and an elevated risk of death before age 54. For males, persistent offending was associated with heavy drinking from adolescence to middle age, diffuse identity, high divorce rates and poverty. For females, persistent offending was associated with heavy drinking in adulthood and a higher rate of being outside the workforce in middle age. In males, adolescence-limited offending was associated with more controlled drinking in adulthood, and in females, with early divorce from the partner and advanced identity. CONCLUSIONS: Detecting the risks of the accumulation of problems and potential for positive transitions of juvenile delinquents until middle age will be important for prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Criança , Crime/psicologia , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Determinação da Personalidade , Recidiva , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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