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1.
Child Abuse Negl ; 129: 105678, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675724

RESUMO

This study examines the differential childhood adversities experienced by two samples of Australian adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system: male youth who had been adjudicated for sexual offences and their counterparts who had been adjudicated for nonsexual violence. The sample is comprised of clients referred to a service that explicitly prioritises cases identified to be high risk, high need, and living in rural or remote areas. Male youth who had committed a sexual offence were more likely than their counterparts to have experienced emotional and sexual abuse and neglect in their childhoods. Alternatively, the childhoods of the comparison group were marked by characteristics of more general household dysfunction. Potential explanations for these findings are provided. The onset of sexual offending is presented as a possible consequence of poor attachment and emotional dysregulation and the impact of vicarious violence, and a chaotic family life are considered in the development of subsequent nonsexual violence. The implications of these findings for both clinical practice and future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Criminosos , Delinquência Juvenil , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Masculino , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia
2.
J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 131(5): 517-523, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708945

RESUMO

Affective state recognition and in particular the identification of fear is known to be impaired in psychopathy. It is unclear, however, whether this reflects a deficit in basic perception ('fear blindness') or a deficit in later cognitive processing. To test for a perceptual deficit, 63 male incarcerated offenders, assessed with the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), detected fearful, neutral, and happy facial expressions rendered invisible through continuous flash suppression (CFS). Fearful faces were detected faster than neutral and happy faces. There was no reduction of the fear advantage in the 20 offenders diagnosed with psychopathy according to the PCL-R, and there was no correlation between the fear advantage and PCL-R scores. Deficits in the processing of fearful facial expressions in psychopathy may thus not reflect fear blindness, but impairments at later postperceptual processing stages. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criminosos , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Cegueira , Criminosos/psicologia , Expressão Facial , Medo , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7126, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504982

RESUMO

Dynamics of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are hypothesized to play a role in the emergence of interpersonal violence. In the present study, we examined continuous activities of the inhibitory parasympathetic pathway of the ANS through the root mean square of successive differences between normal heartbeats (RMSSD) in 22 male offenders who committed interpersonal violence and 24 matched controls from the general population across three successive phases: resting baseline, while performing an emotional Go/No-Go task, and post-task recovery. Results showed that across the three phases, the offender group presented lower RMSSD at baseline (pFDR = .003; Cohen's d = - 1.11), but similar levels during the task, attributed to a significant increase in their RMSSD level (pFDR = .027, Cohen's d = - 1.26). During recovery, while no distinction between the two groups was found, both groups showed signs of recovering toward baseline values. These findings suggest that violent incarcerated offenders can flexibly engage parasympathetic resources to meet environmental challenges. This underscores the necessity of considering parasympathetic dynamics and its respective mobilization/flexibility to better understand ANS profiles underlying interpersonal violence as well as its potential utility in designing more tailored interventions.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Prisioneiros , Agressão , Criminosos/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Prisioneiros/psicologia
4.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 89: 102357, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567817

RESUMO

Self-injurious behaviours and suicide attempts among incarcerated people are higher when compared with the general population. The current research is designed to examine the prevalence of self-injurious behaviours and suicide attempts among incarcerated males in Spain, and the factors associated with these behaviours. 201 men imprisoned in Spain completed anonymous self-report measures of demographic variables (e.g., age, marital status), the Triarchic Psychopathy Model (boldness, meanness, and disinhibition) and impulsive/premeditated aggression and aggressive behaviour (including physical, verbal, hostility, and anger). Official records were also consulted for information related to criminality (i.e., prior imprisonment and type of offence). Overall, 37.5% of residents reported having injured themselves at a time of anger or despair and 24.9% reported attempting suicide at any point in their lives. Lower scores in meanness, higher scores on impulsive aggression, serious illnesses and previous imprisonment were associated with an increased risk of self-injurious and/or suicide attempting behaviours. Being married acted as a protective factor of attempting suicide. Trait variables related to psychopathy (lower meanness) and aggression (higher impulsive aggression) were associated with increased frequency of suicide attempts in prisoners even after controlling for personal and criminal variables. The prevention of high rates of suicide in prisons needs the treatment of those cognitive variables in addition to more contextual personal and criminal variables.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Prisioneiros , Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões
5.
Res Dev Disabil ; 126: 104255, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with an intellectual disability (ID) and offending histories constitute a challenging clinical group. The present study examined commonalities and differences in demographic, diagnostic and offence characteristics in patients with and without intellectual disabilities who were either convicted for violent or sexual offences and who resided in mandated care in the Netherlands. METHOD: We compared 165 offenders with an ID to 249 offenders without an ID. We compared both groups by type of offence (i.e., sexual versus violent offence) using Mann-Whitney U-test or independent samples t-tests for continuous variables and Chi-square tests for categorical variables. RESULTS: In general, forensic patients with an ID were younger at admission (U=357, z = -12.668, p < .001), had more prior convictions for violent offences (χ2(1)= 6.175, p = .013) and more prevalent diagnoses of substance abuse disorders (χ2(1)= 9.266, p = .002) than those without an ID. Similar results were found for patients with IDs with sexual offence histories. CONCLUSION: A clear understanding of distinct characteristics of forensic patients with intellectual disabilities is crucial in understanding (sexual) violent behavior in this population as it mayassistclinicians in prioritizing interventionstrategies.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Deficiência Intelectual , Delitos Sexuais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Violência , Fatores Etários , Criminosos/psicologia , Demografia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 264, 2022 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the recidivism of mentally disordered offenders after discharge from forensic psychiatric services. This is problematic because such knowledge could (i) help professionals who encounter this group to better plan interventions to prevent recidivism, (ii) clarify the rates of recidivism post-discharge from forensic psychiatric care and (iii) further develop instruments for specific risk assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the new crimes of mentally disordered offenders who had been reconvicted after discharge from forensic psychiatric care. METHODS: Included in this study were all individuals (n = 1142) who had been discharged from forensic psychiatric care in Sweden during 2009-2018, were included in the Swedish National Forensic Psychiatric Register, and had been reconvicted in a criminal court within the follow-up period of 2009-2018 (n = 157, 14% of the population). The follow-up times of the discharged patients within the period varied from 4 to 3644 days, (m = 1697, Md = 1685). Retrospective registry data along with coded data from criminal court judgments (n = 210) were used to create a database. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and descriptive statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: 75% of included individuals were reconvicted for at least one violent crime, but only 9 individuals were reconvicted for a serious violent crime, which can be compared to the 44 individuals with serious violent index crimes. The most common crime was "Other violent". The most common sentence was probation. The offender's most common relationship to the victim was having no known relationship, followed by the victim being a person of authority. The most common circumstance of the crime leading to the reconviction was that it occurred without apparent provocation; other common circumstances were related to the exercise of public authority. The most common crime scene was a public place. CONCLUSIONS: Even though the reconvictions of this group included many violent crimes, there were very few serious violent crimes. The findings that the victims of the crimes of mentally disordered offenders are most commonly either unknown to the perpetrator or persons of authority, and that the crimes are often perpetrated without apparent provocation or reason, are important information for all professionals who encounter this group and should be taken into consideration to assess risk more accurately.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Assistência ao Convalescente , Crime/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Clin Ter ; 173(2): 99-103, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385030

RESUMO

Abstract: Serious mental illness is associated with a higher risk of violent interpersonal behavior. Characteristic traits denoting a psychopatho-logical picture such as schizophrenia, depression, a borderline, or narcissistic, antisocial, or paranoid personality disorder, are frequently observed in the personality of those who have committed one or more murders. For example, mass murderers are affected by a delusional syndrome with a persecution fixation, that develops in a subject with a paranoid, anacastic personality disorder. An abnormal mental frame-work develops as a consequence of continual experiences interpreted as traumatic. We present a complex case regarding a double murder whose vic-tims were shot by a 50-year-old neighbor, who underwent a psychiatric evaluation for the assessment of criminal responsibility. In the light of the historical reconstruction of his relation sensitive delusional mindset that triggered the final reaction, his life history, the "key event" and the "triggering environment" (constant conflictual and dysfunctional rela-tions with others) led to the violence. The correct understanding of the reported case demands investigation not only of the clinical, diagnostic and psychodiagnostic aspects, but also of the perpetrator-victim/s, their relational context and the situation where the crime evolves, in order to be able to reconstruct the event in a meaningful manner.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Esquizofrenia , Agressão , Criminosos/psicologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Violência/psicologia
8.
J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 131(2): 209-220, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35230862

RESUMO

This study examined whether pedophilia is best understood as a dimension or a discrete class (taxon). We considered pedophilia to include both physical sexual attraction to children as well as emotional attraction to children and childhood. Archival data from 901 adult males from a U.S. civil commitment treatment center for sexually dangerous persons were used. Three indicators were submitted to Meehl and Ruscio's taxometric analyses: (a) a screening scale for pedophilic interests based on criminal history, (b) a composite indicator of pedophilic physical attraction, and (c) a composite indicator of pedophilic emotional attraction. All analyses supported a taxon. Compared with nontaxon members, taxon members had more interpersonal deficits, more neurodevelopmental perturbations, more sex-crime specific problems, and fewer problems related to criminality overall. Although previous research showed mixed results (some dimensional, some taxonic), the current study moves the balance of evidence toward considering pedophilia as a distinct disorder. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Criminosos , Pedofilia , Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , Criança , Criminosos/psicologia , Emoções , Humanos , Masculino , Pedofilia/diagnóstico , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia
9.
J Child Sex Abus ; 31(3): 333-352, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35243955

RESUMO

Most child sexual abuse (CSA) remains unreported and undetected. Despite this, much of what we know about perpetrators of CSA is derived from samples of convicted CSA offenders. Significant knowledge gaps remain about those who have evaded detection. This study addresses this gap with an in-depth content analysis of the case files of ten convicted child sexual offenders (CSOs) with the longest detection lag, selected from a broader group (n = 349) of men incarcerated at the Massachusetts Treatment Center (MTC). Participants were examined on a range of offender characteristics including Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), cognitive distortions, antisocial traits, indicators of pedophilia and Machiavellian or narcissistic traits, offense facilitating factors, and grooming behavior. A tentative profile emerged with the following characteristics: direct experience of childhood abuse, various cognitive distortions, specialized rather than versatile criminal history, pedophilic traits, Machiavellian traits, and engaging in a range of offense-facilitating behaviors including grooming. We provide insight into offenders who evade detection for CSA and set the foundation for further research to inform prevention strategies for law enforcement agencies and child-serving organizations.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Criminosos , Pedofilia , Animais , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pedofilia/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(6)2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101977

RESUMO

Understanding who commits crime and why is a key topic in social science and important for the design of crime prevention policy. In theory, people who commit crime face different social and economic incentives for criminal activity than other people, or they evaluate the costs and benefits of crime differently because they have different preferences. Empirical evidence on the role of preferences is scarce. Theoretically, risk-tolerant, impatient, and self-interested people are more prone to commit crime than risk-averse, patient, and altruistic people. We test these predictions with a unique combination of data where we use incentivized experiments to elicit the preferences of young men and link these experimental data to their criminal records. In addition, our data allow us to control extensively for other characteristics such as cognitive skills, socioeconomic background, and self-control problems. We find that preferences are strongly associated with actual criminal behavior. Impatience and, in particular, risk tolerance are still strong predictors when we include the full battery of controls. Crime propensities are 8 to 10 percentage points higher for the most risk-tolerant individuals compared to the most risk averse. This effect is half the size of the effect of cognitive skills, which is known to be a very strong predictor of criminal behavior. Looking into different types of crime, we find that preferences significantly predict property offenses, while self-control problems significantly predict violent, drug, and sexual offenses.


Assuntos
Comportamento Criminoso , Criminosos/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Psychol Assess ; 34(6): 528-545, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35175077

RESUMO

The present study features the development of new risk categories and recidivism estimates for the Violence Risk Scale (VRS), a violence risk assessment and treatment planning tool. We employed a combined North American multisite sample (k = 6, N = 1,338) of adult mostly male offenders, many with violent criminal histories, from correctional or forensic mental health settings that had complete VRS scores from archival or field ratings and outcome data from police records (N = 1,100). There were two key objectives: (a) to identify the rates of violent recidivism associated with VRS scores and (b) to generate updated evidence-based VRS violence risk categories with external validation. To achieve the first objective, logistic regression was applied using VRS pretreatment and change scores on treated samples with a minimum 5-year follow-up (k = 5, N = 472) to model 2-, 3-, and 5-year violent and general recidivism estimates, with the resulting logistic regression algorithms retained to generate a VRS recidivism rates calculator. To achieve the second objective, the Council of State Governments' guidelines were applied to generate five risk levels using the common language framework using percentiles, risk ratios (from Cox regression), and absolute violent and general recidivism estimates (from logistic regression). Construct validity of the five risk levels was examined through group comparisons on measures of risk, need, protection, and psychopathy obtained from the constituent samples. VRS applications to enhance risk communication, treatment planning, and violence prevention in light of the updated recidivism estimates and risk categories are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Criminosos , Reincidência , Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , Criminosos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Reincidência/prevenção & controle , Reincidência/psicologia , Medição de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Violência/prevenção & controle , Violência/psicologia
12.
Child Abuse Negl ; 125: 105455, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35078089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma and adverse experiences among perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been associated with more serious patterns of offending. OBJECTIVE: To examine 1) how traumatic and adverse experiences cluster together and co-occur among IPV perpetrators, and 2) whether different patterns of trauma exposure are associated with specific mental health problems. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The sample consisted of 405 convicted IPV perpetrators from Northern Ireland. METHODS: Data was collected between 2018 and 2019. Latent class analysis identified typologies of exposure to traumatic and adverse experiences. A series of binary logistic regression analyses explored associations between the identified classes and five categories of probable mental health problems. RESULTS: Three adversity classes were identified: a baseline class (59.2%), characterised by relatively low levels of exposure to most types of adversity; a 'childhood adversity' class (32.9%), with high levels of childhood adversity; and a 'community violence and disadvantage' class (7.9%), which had high probabilities of endorsing adversities related to economic hardship and community violence. Regression analyses showed that the childhood adversity class was significantly associated with increased likelihood of all categories of mental health problems, except for neurodevelopmental disorders (ORs = 1.77-3.25). The community violence and disadvantage class was significantly associated with probable mood and anxiety disorder (ORs 3.92 and 8.42, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Different patterns of exposure to adversities were associated with distinct mental health problems in the present sample. Early intervention to prevent poly-victimisation, the clustering of adversities in childhood and the resulting accumulation of risk may be a useful component of preventive responses for IPV in Northern Ireland.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Criminosos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Transtornos Mentais , Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/psicologia , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 81: 101775, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066422

RESUMO

Forensic mental health experts play a crucial role in criminal responsibility evaluations. However, the quality of these assessments has at time come under scrutiny and has been heavily criticized. A literature review revealed significant differences between countries concerning legal frameworks and procedures for conducting these assessments. The findings suggest that although some countries can be seen as a "role model", there still is room for improvement.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Benchmarking , Criminosos/psicologia , Prova Pericial , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Defesa por Insanidade , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
14.
Sex Abuse ; 34(3): 259-291, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105402

RESUMO

Collateral consequences faced by individuals convicted of a sexual offense have been widely referenced in the literature. There is yet to be a systematic examination of collateral consequences affecting individuals, however, due to measurement inconsistencies and the absence of a psychometrically validated instrument. The current study developed and validated a measure of collateral consequences faced by individuals convicted of a sexual offense. Specifically, this study investigated (a) the underlying factor structure of collateral consequences commonly endorsed by individuals convicted of a sexual offense through Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) procedures and (b) reliability and validity indicators of the aforementioned scale. Participants were 218 individuals convicted of and registered for a sexual offense in the state of Texas. Study measures included a pool of 66 collateral consequences items in addition to psychological self-report instruments addressing hopelessness, shame, social well-being, and discrimination. EFA results revealed a two-dimensional construct representing collateral consequences affecting areas of social and psychological well-being. The current measure demonstrated adequate reliability and validity. Limitations and future directions of findings are addressed.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Delitos Sexuais , Criminosos/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia
15.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 66(5): 625-644, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002653

RESUMO

Therapy alliance has been studied largely in voluntary psychotherapy but less is known about its predictive factors for positive alliance and treatment outcome in forensic populations. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between offenders' emotional states and therapy alliance. Moreover, we were interested in the predictive impact of emotional states early in treatment on alliance at 18 months into treatment. Self-ratings of emotional states and alliance by 103 male offenders, and therapist-ratings for therapy alliance were examined using hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Participants were primarily convicted for violent of sexual offenses, and were diagnosed with antisocial, borderline or narcissistic personality disorders. Healthy emotional states were predictive of mid-treatment agreement on therapy goals and therapist ratings on tasks within the therapy. Unhealthy emotional states were predictive of patient-rated agreement on tasks. Emotional states were not predictive for the reported therapist/patient bond or global alliance ratings. This study emphasizes the importance of healthy emotional states in treatment of offenders with personality disorders.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Delitos Sexuais , Aliança Terapêutica , Criminosos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Assessment ; 29(3): 535-555, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380164

RESUMO

Several investigators have assessed the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for invariance across offender ethnicities and in correctional and forensic-psychiatric contexts. Yet we do not know whether, or to what extent, item properties among male offenders vary throughout adulthood. With a combined sample of PCL-R data on offenders from Canada and the United States (N = 4,820), we measured item properties for offenders in age groups of Early (18-30 years old), Middle (31-49 years old), and Late (50+ years old) adulthood. Nine items showed differential item functioning across age group comparisons. Among the Early group, the PCL-R Interpersonal and Affective traits were most informative for measuring the latent trait of psychopathy. Among the Late group, the PCL-R Lifestyle and Antisocial items were most informative for the latent trait. These differences in item information illustrate how psychopathy manifests in male offenders throughout adulthood.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Lebres , Prisioneiros , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Canadá , Lista de Checagem , Criminosos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 272(2): 257-269, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780159

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and co-existing psychiatric/psychological impairments as well as adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are common among young offenders. Research on their associations is of major importance for early intervention and crime prevention. Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) warrants specific consideration in this regard. To gain sophisticated insights into the occurrence and associations of ADHD, IED, ACEs, and further psychiatric/psychological impairments in young (male and female) offenders, we used latent profile analysis (LPA) to empirically derive subtypes among 156 young offenders who were at an early stage of crime development based on their self-reported ADHD symptoms, and combined those with the presence of IED. We found four distinct ADHD subtypes that differed rather quantitatively than qualitatively (very low, low, moderate, and severe symptomatology). Additional IED, ACEs, and further internalizing and externalizing problems were found most frequently in the severe ADHD subtype. Furthermore, females were over-represented in the severe ADHD subtype. Finally, ACEs predicted high ADHD symptomatology with co-existing IED, but not without IED. Because ACEs were positively associated with the occurrence of ADHD/IED and ADHD is one important risk factor for on-going criminal behaviors, our findings highlight the need for early identification of ACEs and ADHD/IED in young offenders to identify those adolescents who are at increased risk for long-lasting criminal careers. Furthermore, they contribute to the debate about how to best conceptualize ADHD regarding further emotional and behavioral disturbances.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Criminosos , Adolescente , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
18.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 66(8): 914-930, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605305

RESUMO

Offender rehabilitation programs incorporating positive psychology interventions such as a strengths-based model can be effective. This study explores the perceived model of service provided by an offender rehabilitation service and the perceived impact that this service has on the lives of its clients. A qualitative methodology was employed in the context of an action research design, using semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis which is an independent and reliable approach to qualitative analysis. The findings suggest that participants perceive the organization to be operating a strengths-based approach and this is perceived as having the potential to have a range of positive effects for clients. Some contrasting views were also identified within the participant groups and these are discussed in this paper. The results of this study complement the existing research and have several implications for future research in this area.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Criminosos/psicologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
Sex Abuse ; 34(3): 341-371, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176346

RESUMO

The population of older individuals convicted of sexual offenses (OSOs) is rapidly increasing. However, we have little understanding of their characteristics (e.g., demographic, psychological, individual, offense, and risk) and needs. To identify any similarities or differences that are unique to older individuals convicted of sexual offending, it is important to compare such characteristics across the adult lifespan. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to specify and synthesize the current knowledge of characteristics across the adult lifespan of the population of individuals convicted of sexual offenses. Five databases were searched and 10,680 results were screened, resulting in 100 studies included in the final review. The findings were grouped into four emergent themes: age of onset and prevalence; offender and offense characteristics; age and the risk of reoffending; and treatment. Implications of the findings from this review are discussed in relation to future research and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , Criminosos/psicologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Prevalência , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia
20.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 66(6-7): 647-669, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054348

RESUMO

Although offense-supportive cognitions are related to the maintenance of contact sexual offending behavior, it is unknown whether this finding also applies to online sexual offending behavior. A few studies have examined the cognitions of men convicted for using child sexual exploitation material, but findings remain limited due to important methodological limitations. Furthermore, fewer studies have investigated the cognitions of men who use the internet to solicit sexual activities with children. The objective of this study was to examine the nature of the cognitions that support online sexual offending against children. The content of police interviews was analyzed using a thematic analysis to identify the cognitive themes present in the offense-related views expressed by 20 men who consumed child sexual exploitation material, 15 who sexually solicited children, and 18 who committed both types of online offenses. Results revealed eight cognitive themes that reflected four underlying themes related to interpersonal relationships, the sexualisation of children, perceptions of the self, and perceptions of the virtual environment. Findings indicate that while the cognitive themes of the three groups are similar, their specific content varies according to the types of offenses. Implications for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Criminosos , Delitos Sexuais , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Cognição , Criminosos/psicologia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual
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