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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150562, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852432

RESUMO

The aim of this review is to identify the worldwide trend of waterborne protozoan outbreaks and how it varies between geographic regions during the period from 2017 to 2020. Data about waterborne protozoan outbreaks were gathered and stratified by continent, country, water source, and protozoan species associated with the outbreak. The highest prevalence of waterborne protozoan outbreaks was reported in developed countries. Out of 251 outbreaks reported worldwide during the studied period, 141, 51 and 24 outbreaks were recorded in the USA, UK, and New Zealand, respectively. These outbreaks were mainly associated with Cryptosporidium (192 outbreaks) and Giardia (48 outbreaks). Cyclospora cayetanensis, Dientamoebafragilis and Toxoplasma gondii were associated with 7 outbreaks. One outbreak was associated with each of Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica, Microsporidia or Naegleria fowleri. This data suggests large discrepancies in the number of outbreaks reported between geographic regions, with most outbreaks recorded in developed countries. Differences in the prevalence of outbreaks between countries are likely attributed to the availability of diagnostic capabilities and surveillance programs to monitor water contamination with pathogenic protozoa. More attention and concerted efforts are required to improve water safety and to alleviate the impact of waterborne protozoan infections. Appropriate surveillance of water contamination with protozoa can enable public health officials to identify source of contamination and implement the necessary measures to limit transmission and prevent outbreaks.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Giardíase , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(4): e009621, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910017

RESUMO

Cattle are an important source of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium for humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium, identify the species and determine the risk factors relating to environment, animals and management among dairy calves in eight Brazilian states. A total of 408 fecal samples from calves aged 1-60 days were analyzed. An epidemiological questionnaire was completed. Sample screening was performed using Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the positive samples were subjected to nested PCR. Cryptosporidium species were identified by means of the PCR-RFLP technique, using SSPI, ASEI and MBOII enzymes. The Ziehl-Neelsen technique showed that 89.7% (35/39) of the farms and 52.9% (216/408) of the samples were positive. Through nested PCR, these protozoa were detected in 54.6% of the samples. The 56 samples subjected to PCR-RFLP presented Cryptosporidium parvum. There was higher prevalence of the parasite in animals aged 7 to 28 days (62.6%). Diarrhea, ages between seven and 28 days and a spring water source were factors associated with the risk of infection. The calf hutch-type management system was associated with reduced infection. These findings demonstrate the high level of Cryptosporidium spp. circulation in cattle herds and the predominance of the species C. parvum.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fazendas , Fezes , Prevalência
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 770612, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733797

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp., the causative agent of cryptosporidiosis, can infect a variety of hosts. So far, there has been limited information regarding Cryptosporidium spp. infection in yaks (Bos grunniens). Here, we performed the first systematic review and meta-analysis for Cryptosporidium spp. infection in yaks in China. To perform the meta-analysis, five databases (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP Chinese journal database, WanFang Data, PubMed, and ScienceDirect) were employed to search for studies related to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in yaks in China. The total number of samples was 8,212, and the pooled Cryptosporidium spp. prevalence in yaks was estimated to be 10.52% (1192/8012). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in yaks was 13.54% (1029/5277) and 4.49% (148/2132) in northwestern and southwestern China, respectively. In the sampling year subgroups, the prevalence before 2012 (19.79%; 650/2662) was significantly higher than that after 2012 (6.07%; 437/4476). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in cold seasons (20.55%; 188/794) was higher than that in warm seasons (4.83%; 41/1228). In the age subgroup, the yaks with age < 12 months had a higher prevalence (19.47%; 231/1761) than that in yaks with age ≥12 months (16.63%; 365/2268). Among 12 Cryptosporidium spp. species/genotypes, the C. bovis had the highest prevalence. Moreover, the effects of geography (latitude, longitude, precipitation, temperature, and altitude) and climate on Cryptosporidium spp. infection in yaks were evaluated. Through analyzing the risk factors correlated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp., we recommend that effective management measures should be formulated according to the differences of different geographical factors, in order to prevent cryptosporidiosis and reduce economic losses in yaks in China.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Prevalência
4.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(3): 323-333, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730310

RESUMO

Diarrhea caused by parasitic agents is common in neonatal calves and leads to significant economic losses in cattle farms worldwide. Cryptosporidium spp. is one of the most frequently detected parasitic agents causing diarrhea in neonatal calves. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. on a dairy farm which a has major diarrhea problem. Samples were collected from calves, cows, drinking bowls, and two different artesian water sources, as well as from the environment. All fecal samples were investigated using Kinyoun acid-fast stained slides and real-time PCR targeting the Cryptosporidium spp. COWP gene. In addition, species identification was performed by nested PCR targeting the Cryptosporidium spp. COWP gene and sequencing. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 11 calves (30.55%; 11/36) by real-time PCR and the cows were negative. Among real-time PCR positive samples, only five were also found positive by microscopy. Moreover, Cryptosporidium spp. was found in one of the two artesian water sources and five environmental samples by real-time PCR. Among these positive samples, eight were sequenced. According to the RFLP pattern, BLAST and, phylogenetic analyses, all sequenced samples were Cryptosporidium parvum. These findings show the importance of C. parvum as a cause of calf diarrhea on dairy farms.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , Água/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino
5.
Ann Saudi Med ; 41(5): 293-298, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp. is a protozoan parasite that infects many vertebrate animals, including humans. Since Cryptosporidium spp. can cause chronic life-threatening diarrhea and severe malabsorption in immunocompromised patients, we investigated the prevalence of this parasite among patients undergoing chemotherapy for malignant solid tumors. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in stool samples. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Tertiary care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Stool samples were collected from adult patients with malignant solid tumors receiving chemotherapy and diarrhea. Cryptosporidium spp. prevalence was determined using Ziehl-Neelsen staining, ELISA, and real-time PCR targeting of the COWP gene. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in patients undergoing chemotherapy for malignant solid tumors. SAMPLE SIZE: 94 RESULTS: The prevalence was 2.1% (2/94), 5.3% (5/94), and 5.3% (5/94) as detected by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. The prevalence reached 8.5% (8/94) using all results obtained from the three methods. Among eight positive stool samples, four were positive by at least two different methods (Ziehl-Neelsen staining-ELISA or ELISA-real-time PCR) whereas the remaining four were positive by either ELISA or real-time PCR. CONCLUSION: These findings show the risk of cryptosporidiosis in cancer patients and the necessity to use at least two diagnostic methods during the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis to reach more accurate and trustworthy results. LIMITATIONS: Further studies with a larger sample size are recommended. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Neoplasias , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247181, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495161

RESUMO

The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , China , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 713873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552884

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is an enteric apicomplexan parasite, which can infect multiple mammals including livestock and wildlife. Tibetan Antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) is one of the most famous wildlife species, that belongs to the first class protected wild animals in China. However, it has not been known whether Tibetan Antelope is infected with Cryptosporidium so far. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium species infection in Tibetan Antelope and the corresponding species by using molecular biological method. In the current study, a total of 627 fecal samples were randomly collected from Tibetan Antelope in the Tibet Autonomous Region (2019-2020), and were examined by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Among 627 samples, 19 (3.03%, 19/627) were examined as Cryptosporidium-positive, with 7 (2.33%, 7/300) in females and 12 (3.67%, 12/327) in males. The analysis of SSU rRNA gene sequence suggested that only two Cryptosporidium species, namely, C. xiaoi and C. ubiquitum, were identified in this study. This is the first evidence for an existence of Cryptosporidium in Tibetan Antelope. These findings extend the host range for Cryptosporidium spp. and also provide important data support for prevention and control of Cryptosporidium infection in Tibetan Antelope.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Tibet
8.
J Water Health ; 19(4): 545-562, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371493

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is an intracellular protozoan parasite, globally distributed and capable of infecting various vertebrate species, including humans as well as domestic and wild animals. Cryptosporidium is increasingly gaining attention as a human and an animal pathogen mainly due to its dominant involvement in worldwide waterborne outbreaks. The present paper reviews the current knowledge and understanding of Cryptosporidium spp. in terrestrial and water animals in Azerbaijan.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Azerbaijão/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Gado
9.
Parasitol Res ; 120(10): 3519-3527, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417865

RESUMO

Free-range chickens might mediate the spread of Cryptosporidium oocysts to humans and other animals. Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in domestic free-range poultry in China. Here, we characterized the prevalence and distribution of species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in domestic free-range chickens, ducks, and geese in Anhui Province, China. A total of 1910 fresh fecal samples from three poultry species were examined from 18 free-range poultry farms by nested PCR and analysis of the Cryptosporidium SSU rRNA gene. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium species was 2.9% (55/1910), with infection rates of 1.3% (11/829) in chickens, 7.3% (36/487) in ducks, and 1.4% (8/594) in geese. C. baileyi (0.6%), C. meleagridis (0.2%), C. galli (0.2%), and C. xiaoi-like genotype (0.2%) were identified in chickens, and only C. baileyi was identified in ducks and geese, with infection rates of 7.4% and 1.3%, respectively. C. baileyi was the most prevalent species. Sequencing of the GP60 gene revealed that the C. meleagridis isolates belonged to the IIIbA26G1R1b subtype. This is the first study to document C. galli and C. xiaoi-like genotype in domestic free-range chickens in China. These findings expand the range of avian hosts known for Cryptosporidium and highlight the need for additional studies to characterize the diversity of Cryptosporidium in avian species.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Humanos , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Prevalência
10.
Parasitol Res ; 120(9): 3035-3044, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34401942

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is one of the most important parasitic protozoa that can be transmitted through food and water contamination. With the increasing report of Cryptosporidium infections in wild birds, especially in herbivorous waterfowl, concerns have been raised for oocyst contamination of water and food supplies, which in turn can cause human and domestic animal infections in areas neighboring wild birds' habitats. This review discusses the epidemiology, species, and genotypes distribution of Cryptosporidium in wild birds around the world. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium in wild birds was calculated as 3.96% (1945/49129), with 6 Cryptosporidium species (C. andersoni, C. parvum, C. meleagridis, C. avium, C. baileyi, and C. galli) and 5 genotypes (Goose genotype I, Goose genotype II, Avian genotype I, Avian genotype III, and Avian genotype VI) reported. As wild birds mainly live in the wild, control method for the Cryptosporidium infection in wild birds is still lacking, which increases the probability of disease transmission from wild birds to humans. The main purpose of this review is to highlight the Cryptosporidium infection in wild birds and its transmission, associated risk factors, and their prevention, illustrating the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches toward screening and control of Cryptosporidium infections.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Saúde Única
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148243, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensification of land use threatens to increase the emergence and prevalence of zoonotic diseases, with an adverse impact on human wellbeing. Understanding how the interaction between agriculture, natural systems, climate and socioeconomic drivers influence zoonotic disease distribution is crucial to inform policy planning and management to limit the emergence of new infections. OBJECTIVES: Here we assess the relative contribution of environmental, climatic and socioeconomic factors influencing reported cryptosporidiosis across Australia from 2001 to 2018. METHODS: We apply a Bayesian spatio-temporal analysis using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA). RESULTS: We find that area-level risk of reported disease are associated with the proportions of the population under 5 and over 65 years of age, socioeconomic disadvantage, annual rainfall anomaly, and the proportion of natural habitat remaining. This combination of multiple factors influencing cryptosporidiosis highlights the benefits of a sophisticated spatio-temporal statistical approach. Two key findings from our model include: an estimated 4.6% increase in the risk of reported cryptosporidiosis associated with 22.8% higher percentage of postal area covered with original habitat; and an estimated 1.8% increase in disease risk associated with a 77.99 mm increase in annual rainfall anomaly at the postal area level. DISCUSSION: These results provide novel insights regarding the predictive effects of extreme rainfall and the proportion of remaining natural habitat, which add unique explanatory power to the model alongside the variance associated with other predictive variables and spatiotemporal variation in reported disease. This demonstrates the importance of including perspectives from land and water management experts for policy making and public health responses to manage environmentally mediated diseases, including cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Clima Extremo , Austrália/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 880, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ireland frequently reports the highest annual Crude Incidence Rates (CIRs) of cryptosporidiosis in the EU, with national CIRs up to ten times the EU average. Accordingly, the current study sought to examine the spatiotemporal trends associated with this potentially severe protozoan infection. METHODS: Overall, 4509 cases of infection from January 2008 to December 2017 were geo-referenced to a Census Small Area (SA), with an ensemble of geo-statistical approaches including seasonal decomposition, Local Moran's I, and space-time scanning used to elucidate spatiotemporal patterns of infection. RESULTS: One or more confirmed cases were notified in 3413 of 18,641 Census SAs (18.3%), with highest case numbers occurring in the 0-5-year range (n = 2672, 59.3%). Sporadic cases were more likely male (OR 1.4) and rural (OR 2.4), with outbreak-related cases more likely female (OR 1.4) and urban (OR 1.5). Altogether, 55 space-time clusters (≥ 10 confirmed cases) of sporadic infection were detected, with three "high recurrence" regions identified; no large urban conurbations were present within recurrent clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Spatiotemporal analysis represents an important indicator of infection patterns, enabling targeted epidemiological intervention and surveillance. Presented results may also be used to further understand the sources, pathways, receptors, and thus mechanisms of cryptosporidiosis in Ireland.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , População Rural
13.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(3)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies on gastroenteritis have focused on viral and bacterial infections, while gastroenteritis where intestinal protozoan parasites may have played a role has not been well studied. This study was therefore, designed to assess the frequency and several potential risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection among children suffering from acute gastroenteritis and presented to a tertiary hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Effectiveness of modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) for Cryptosporidium detection were evaluated as well. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed during the period from July 2018 to December 2018, where 100 human diarrheic stool samples were collected from children aged 3 months up to 12 years old presented to Ain Shams University Pediatrics Hospital, Cairo, Egypt with acute gastroenteritis. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the participants. Initial parasite screening was done using the MZN staining method, and microscopically examined for Cryptosporidium infection, while genotyping was based on molecular diagnostic assays using nPCR and sequencing for selected samples. RESULTS: The overall frequency of Cryptosporidium infection was 5% using light microscopy, while 19% of samples were positive by nPCR. Cryptosporidium hominis was the only detected genotype. Clinical picture among cases were not significant in comparison to patients with other causes of gastroenteritis. CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium infection is more common below 5 years of age; however, clinical data are not enough for suspicion of infection. Nucleic acid-based methods are more sensitive and specific despite the high cost in developing countries. However, real estimation of Cryptosporidium disease burden is of an outmost importance to achieve prevention and detection of the Cryptosporidium species genetic diversity. Lay summaryCryptosporidium is a protozoan, which causes gastroenteritis in humans. It is most common below 5 years of age; however, diarrhea and vomiting characteristics are not different from other causes of gastroenteritis. General diagnostic methods are inadequate for detection of these infections. Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and sequencing are accurate methods for pathogen detection and species verification. Our study included 100 Egyptian children with acute gastroenteritis. The overall frequency of Cryptosporidium infection was 5% using light microscopy, while 19% of samples were positive by nPCR. The clinical picture of the children presenting with this disease was not significantly different from those presenting with gastroenteritis due to other causes. This emphasizes the importance of proper diagnosis to know the true burden of the disease.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Gastroenterite , Criança , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia , Egito/epidemiologia , Fezes , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
14.
Parasitol Res ; 120(8): 2887-2895, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331137

RESUMO

Few data are available on the genetic identity of enteric protists Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in humans in Thailand. In this study, 254 stool samples were collected from primary school children from Ratchaburi Province at the Thai-Myanmar border and examined for Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and Cyclospora cayetanensis using PCR techniques. The genotype identity of the pathogens was determined by DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products. Cryptosporidium felis was found in 1 stool sample, G. duodenalis in 19 stool samples, and E. bieneusi in 4 stool samples. For G. duodenalis, sub-assemblage AII was the dominant genotype, but one infection with assemblage F was found. The E. bieneusi genotypes found included known genotypes D and J, and one novel genotype (HPTM1). Cyclospora cayetanensis was not detected in any samples. Results of the preliminary study indicate that children at the Thai-Myanmar border from Ratchaburi Province, Thailand are infected with diverse zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Enterocytozoon , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Microsporidiose , Criança , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fezes , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Mianmar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tailândia
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009643, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory cryptosporidiosis has been documented in children with diarrhea. We sought to describe the dynamics of respiratory involvement in children hospitalized with gastrointestinal (GI) diarrheal disease. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational longitudinal study of Malawian children 2-24 months hospitalized with diarrhea. Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs, induced sputum and stool specimens were collected. Participants that were positive by Cryptosporidium PCR in any of the three compartments were followed up with fortnightly visits up to 8 weeks post-enrollment. RESULTS: Of the 162 children recruited, participants had mild-moderate malnutrition (mean HAZ -1.6 (SD 2.1)), 37 (21%) were PCR-positive for Cryptosporidium at enrollment (37 stool, 11 sputum, and 4 NP) and 27 completed the majority of follow-up visits (73%). Cryptosporidium was detected in all compartments over the 4 post-enrollment visits, most commonly in stool (100% at enrollment with mean cycle thresholds (Ct) of 28.8±4.3 to 44% at 8 weeks with Ct 29.9±4.1), followed by sputum (31% at enrollment with mean Ct 31.1±4.4 to 20% at 8 weeks with Ct 35.7±2.6), then NP (11% with mean Ct 33.5±1.0 to 8% with Ct 36.6±0.7). Participants with Cryptosporidium detection in both the respiratory and GI tract over the study period reported respiratory and GI symptoms in 81% and 62% of study visits, respectively, compared to 68% and 27%, respectively, for those with only GI detection, and had longer GI shedding (17.5±6.6 v. 15.9±2.9 days). CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium was detected in both respiratory and GI tracts throughout the 8 weeks post-enrollment. The development of therapeutics for Cryptosporidium in children should target the respiratory as well as GI tract.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/patologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105096, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273476

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis is an important zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium. This disease causes a global public health problem. The cat is considered to be one of the potential hosts for transmitting Cryptosporidium to humans. In this study, a global meta-analysis for Cryptosporidium infection in cats was performed. The articles related to Cryptosporidium infection in cats were systematically searched in databases China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang data, VIP Chinese Journal Database, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. Finally, 92 articles published from 1988 to 2021, which met the criteria of systematic review and meta-analysis, were collected. During the selected period, the overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium among cats was identified to be 6.0%. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium detected by microscopy, coproantigens, and molecular biology methods were 4.2%, 8.2%, and 5.0%, respectively. Among 9 species/genotypes (C. felis, C. parvum, C. muris, Cryptosporidium rat genotype IV, C. baileyi, C. ryanae, C. hominis, Cryptosporidium sp. rat genotype III and most closely related to Cryptosporidium sp. rat genotype III), the prevalence of C. parvum (4.2%) was significantly higher than that of other species/genotypes. Among five continents, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in Africa (30.5%) was significantly higher than in other continents. We also analyzed the effects of different geographical factors (longitude, latitude, altitude, mean temperature, precipitation, and humidity) on Cryptosporidium infection among cats. The results showed that cryptosporidiosis was common in cats all over the world. This systematic review and meta-analysis has systematically introduced the global epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in cats and correlated risk factors. Health authorities, doctors, veterinarians and cat owners' awareness of the prevalence, risk factors and complications of Cryptosporidium are important for the development of effective prevention strategies for cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(3): 822-827, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255738

RESUMO

Multiplex bead assays (MBAs) for serologic testing have become more prevalent in public health surveys, but few studies have assessed their test performance. As part of a trachoma study conducted in a rural part of Ethiopia in 2016, dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from a random sample of 393 children aged 0 to 9 years, with at least two separate 6-mm DBS collected on a filter card. Samples eluted from DBS were processed using an MBA on the Luminex platform for antibodies against 13 antigens of nine infectious organisms: Chlamydia trachomatis, Vibrio cholera, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Camplyobacter jejuni, Salmonella typhimurium Group B, Salmonella enteritidis Group D, and Giardia lamblia. Two separate DBS from each child were processed. The first DBS was run a single time, with the MBA set to read 100 beads per well. The second DBS was run twice, first at 100 beads per well and then at 50 beads per well. Results were expressed as the median fluorescence intensity minus background (MFI-BG), and classified as seropositive or seronegative according to external standards. Agreement between the three runs was high, with intraclass correlation coefficients of > 0.85 for the two Salmonella antibody responses and > 0.95 for the other 11 antibody responses. Agreement was also high for the dichotomous seropositivity indicators, with Cohen's kappa statistics exceeding 0.87 for each antibody assay. These results suggest that serologic testing on the Luminex platform had strong test performance characteristics for analyzing antibodies using DBS.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/imunologia , Campylobacter jejuni/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chlamydia trachomatis/imunologia , Cólera/diagnóstico , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/imunologia , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/imunologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/imunologia , Entamoeba histolytica/imunologia , Entamebíase/diagnóstico , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/imunologia , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Giardia lamblia/imunologia , Giardíase/diagnóstico , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella enteritidis/imunologia , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tracoma/diagnóstico , Tracoma/epidemiologia , Tracoma/imunologia , Vibrio cholerae/imunologia
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009543, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important zoonotic enteric pathogens of One Health concern for humans, animals, and the environment. For this study, we investigated parasite prevalence and risk factors among rural, peri-urban, and urban households and environments of Mongolia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study implemented a household risk factor survey at 250 home sites along with sample collection from humans, animals, flies, and drinking water. Multiplex real-time PCR analysis was conducted to look for Cryptosporidium spp. and/or Giardia duodenalis within household samples. RESULTS: Lab analysis found one or both zoonotic parasites at 20% of the participating households (51/250). Human samples had a parasite prevalence of 6.4% (27/419), domestic animals at 3.3% (19/570), pooled filth flies at 14.8% (17/115), and drinking water samples at 2% (5/250). Parasite presence at the household was significantly associated with a household's use of an improved drinking water source (OR 0.27; CI 0.12-0.61; p = < 0.01), having an indoor handwashing site (OR 0.41; CI 0.19-0.92; p = 0.03), domestic animal ownership (OR 2.40; CI 1.02-5.65; p = 0.05), and rural location (OR 0.50; CI 0.25-0.98; p = 0.04). Household use of an improved drinking water source remained significant in the multivariate model (OR 0.16; CI 0.04-0.68; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: In Mongolia, public and veterinary health are intertwined, particularly for rural herding households. Increased access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure could help prevent further transmission of zoonotic enteric parasites. Public health interventions, policy and messaging should utilize a One Health framework employing joint leadership from local human and animal health sectors.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Água Potável/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/veterinária , Habitação , Humanos , Higiene , Gado/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mongólia/epidemiologia , Saúde Única , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
19.
Parasitol Int ; 84: 102414, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182122

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites capable of causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. The purpose of this research was to determine the occurrence, genetic characteristics, and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in captive mammals at the Bangladesh National Zoo. A total of 200 fresh fecal samples from 32 mammalian species were collected and examined for Cryptosporidium spp. using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and G. duodenalis targeting the ß-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. The overall infection rates of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis among captive mammals in the zoo were 3.5% (7/200) and 5.5% (11/200), respectively. Five species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium (C. hominis, C. andersoni, C. muris, C. felis, and Cryptosporidium deer genotype) were identified. C. hominis was subtyped as IbA12G3 by sequence analysis of the glycoprotein 60 (gp60) gene. Multilocus genotyping of G. duodenalis revealed assemblages A, B, and D. Mixed infections of assemblages B and D and A and B were found in an Asiatic jackal and a Nilgiri langur, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence and genetic identity of the two parasites among zoo animals in Bangladesh. The results suggest that zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are maintained in and transmitted between captive mammals. Therefore, washing, cleaning, and disinfection measures should be implemented to reduce the spread of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis infections.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Mamíferos , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
20.
J Water Health ; 19(3): 534-544, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152304

RESUMO

Water quality deterioration in source waters poses increased health, environmental, and economic risks. Here, we genotyped Cryptosporidium spp. obtained from water samples of Laguna Lake, Philippines, and its tributaries for the purpose of source-tracking fecal contamination. A total of 104 surface water samples were collected over a 1-year period (March 2018 to April 2019). Detection of Cryptosporidium was carried out using genus-specific primers targeting a fragment of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The study revealed 8 (14%) tributary samples and 1 (2.77%) lake sample positive for contamination. The species were determined to be C. parvum (n = 4), C. muris (n = 2), C. hominis (n = 1), C. galli (n = 1), C. baileyi (n = 1), C. suis (n = 1), as well as rat genotype IV (n = 1). Two species were detected in duck (C. baileyi) and cattle (C. parvum) fecal samples. The data presented suggest that Cryptosporidium contamination is likely to come from sewage or human feces as well as various agricultural sources (i.e. cattle, swine, and poultry). This information reveals the importance of mitigating fecal pollution in the lake system and minimizing health risks due to exposure to zoonotic Cryptosporidium species.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Bovinos , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Lagos , Filipinas , Ratos , Suínos
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