Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.334
Filtrar
1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 9, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of enteric infections in Aboriginal children aged 0-2 years using conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques and to explore associations between the presence of pathogens and child growth. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of Aboriginal children (n = 62) residing in a remote community in Northern Australia, conducted from July 24th - October 30th 2017. Stool samples were analysed for organisms by microscopy (directly in the field and following fixation and storage in sodium-acetate formalin), and by qualitative PCR for viruses, bacteria and parasites and serology for Strongyloides-specific IgG. Child growth (height and weight) was measured and z scores calculated according to WHO growth standards. RESULTS: Nearly 60% of children had evidence for at least one enteric pathogen in their stool (37/62). The highest burden of infection was with adenovirus/sapovirus (22.9%), followed by astrovirus (9.8%) and Cryptosporidium hominis/parvum (8.2%). Non-pathogenic organisms were detected in 22.5% of children. Ten percent of children had diarrhea at the time of stool collection. Infection with two or more pathogens was negatively associated with height for age z scores (- 1.34, 95% CI - 2.61 to - 0.07), as was carriage of the non-pathogen Blastocystis hominis (- 2.05, 95% CI - 3.55 to - 0.54). CONCLUSIONS: Infants and toddlers living in this remote Northern Australian Aboriginal community had a high burden of enteric pathogens and non-pathogens. The association between carriage of pathogens/non-pathogens with impaired child growth in the critical first 1000 days of life has implications for healthy child growth and development and warrants further investigation. These findings have relevance for many other First Nations Communities that face many of the same challenges with regard to poverty, infections, and malnutrition.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Mamastrovirus/genética , Sapovirus/genética , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/parasitologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Prevalência , Sapovirus/isolamento & purificação
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 7, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the etiology of childhood diarrhea in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) especially after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines. This study aimed to identify gastrointestinal pathogens in children with diarrhea (cases) and the carriage rate of these pathogens in asymptomatic children (controls). METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 203 cases and 73 controls who presented to two major hospitals in Al Ain city, UAE. Samples were analyzed with Allplex™ Gastrointestinal Full Panel Assay for common entero-pathogens. The association between diarrhea and the isolated pathogens was calculated in a multivariate logistic regression model. The adjusted attributable fractions (aAFs) were calculated for all pathogens significantly associated with cases. RESULTS: At least one pathogen was identified in 87 samples (42.8%) from cases and 17 (23.3%) from controls (P < 0.001). Rotavirus, norovirus GII and adenovirus were significantly more prevalent in cases. Their aAFs with 95% ci are 0.95 (0.64, 1.00) for rotavirus, 0.86 (0.38, 0.97) for norovirus GII and 0.84 (0.29, 0.96) for adenovirus. None of the 13 bacteria tested for were more commonly found in the cases than in controls. Cryptosporidium spp. were more significantly detected in cases than in controls. Co-infections occurred in 27.9% of the children. Viruses and parasites were significantly more likely to occur together only in the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex PCR revealed high positivity rates in both cases and controls which demand a cautious interpretation. Rotavirus remains the main childhood diarrhea pathogen in UAE. Effective strategies are needed to better control rotavirus and other causative pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 741, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholera remains a major global health challenge. Uvira, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), has had endemic cholera since the 1970's and has been implicated as a possible point of origin for national outbreaks. A previous study among this population, reported a case confirmation rate of 40% by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) among patients at the Uvira Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC). This study considers the prevalence and diversity of 15 enteric pathogens in suspected cholera cases seeking treatment at the Uvira CTC. METHODS: We used the Luminex xTAG® multiplex PCR to test for 15 enteric pathogens, including toxigenic strains of V. cholerae in rectal swabs preserved on Whatman FTA Elute cards. Results were interpreted on MAGPIX® and analyzed on the xTAG® Data Analysis Software. Prevalence of enteric pathogens were calculated and pathogen diversity was modelled with a Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 269 enrolled CTC patients, PCR detected the presence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in 38% (103/269) of the patients, which were considered to be cholera cases. These strains were detected as the sole pathogen in 36% (37/103) of these cases. Almost half (45%) of all study participants carried multiple enteric pathogens (two or more). Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (36%) and Cryptosporidium (28%) were the other most common pathogens identified amongst all participants. No pathogen was detected in 16.4% of study participants. Mean number of pathogens was highest amongst boys and girls aged 1-15 years and lowest in women aged 16-81 years. Ninety-three percent of toxigenic V. cholerae strains detected by PCR were found in patients having tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by RDT. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports previous results from DRC and other cholera endemic areas in sub-Sahara Africa with less than half of CTC admissions positive for cholera by PCR. More research is required to determine the causes of severe acute diarrhea in these low-resource, endemic areas to optimize treatment measures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is part of the impact evaluation study entitled: "Impact Evaluation of Urban Water Supply Improvements on Cholera and Other Diarrheal Diseases in Uvira, Democratic Republic of Congo" registered on 10 October 2016 at clinicaltrials.gov Identification number: NCT02928341 .


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cólera/microbiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Diarreia/microbiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Prevalência , Microbiologia da Água , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008647, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877398

RESUMO

The transmission of trachoma, caused by repeat infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, and many enteropathogens are linked to water quantity. We hypothesized that children living further from a water source would have higher exposure to C. trachomatis and enteric pathogens as determined by antibody responses. We used a multiplex bead assay to measure IgG antibody responses to C. trachomatis, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Vibrio cholerae in eluted dried blood spots collected from 2267 children ages 0-9 years in 40 communities in rural Ethiopia in 2016. Linear distance from the child's house to the nearest water source was calculated. We derived seroprevalence cutoffs using external negative control populations, if available, or by fitting finite mixture models. We used targeted maximum likelihood estimation to estimate differences in seroprevalence according to distance to the nearest water source. Seroprevalence among 1-9-year-olds was 43% for C. trachomatis, 28% for S. enterica, 70% for E. histolytica, 54% for G. intestinalis, 96% for C. jejuni, 76% for ETEC and 94% for C. parvum. Seroprevalence increased with age for all pathogens. Median distance to the nearest water source was 473 meters (IQR 268, 719). Children living furthest from a water source had a 12% (95% CI: 2.6, 21.6) higher seroprevalence of S. enterica and a 12.7% (95% CI: 2.9, 22.6) higher seroprevalence of G. intestinalis compared to children living nearest. Seroprevalence for C. trachomatis and enteropathogens was high, with marked increases for most enteropathogens in the first two years of life. Children living further from a water source had higher seroprevalence of S. enterica and G. intestinalis indicating that improving access to water in the Ethiopia's Amhara region may reduce exposure to these enteropathogens in young children.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/imunologia , Criptosporidiose/sangue , Cryptosporidium/imunologia , Entamebíase/sangue , Giardíase/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Chlamydia/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Entamoeba histolytica/genética , Entamoeba histolytica/imunologia , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Água Doce/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/imunologia , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
5.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 21: 100435, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862896

RESUMO

Faecal specimens from 36 scouring neonatal calves from two dairy farms located in the Al Ain region of the UAE were screened with pathogen-specific antigen ELISA for Cryptosporidium parvum, Escherichia coli K99, rotavirus, and coronavirus. Additionally, faecal smears were stained with modified-acid-fast for Cryptosporidium oocysts, and the VITEK 2 system plus Gram's stain used to identify bacteria isolated from the faecal samples. Farm management practices were also evaluated during a farm visit. Of the 36 calves, 29, 13, 5, and 6 were positive for C. parvum, E. coli K99, bovine coronavirus, and rotavirus antigens respectively, while 27 were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. In various combinations, mixed infections were detected in 20/36 calves. This is the first report of C. parvum, E. coli K99, Salmonella spp., rotavirus, and coronavirus in ≤14-days-old scouring neonatal dairy calves from the UAE. Molecular characterization of these pathogens and nationwide epidemiological calf scour studies are recommended.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium parvum , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/parasitologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino , Indústria de Laticínios , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e014920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935772

RESUMO

Dogs play a potential role as reservoirs for zoonotic parasites, being especially problematic uncontrolled dog populations such as stray and farm dogs with access to populated areas. In order to investigate the prevalence of canine intestinal parasites in at-risk dog populations, we tested a total of 233 faecal samples shed by stray and dairy farm dogs from northern Spain. Telemann method was used to detect the presence of eggs and (oo)cysts of common dog intestinal parasites and Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR. One hundred and forty eight out of 233 samples (63.5%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, being Ancylostomidae (35.6%; 83/233) and Trichuris (35.2%; 82/233) the parasites most frequently identified. Cryptosporidium DNA was not detected in any of the faecal samples analysed. The overall prevalence was significantly higher in stray dogs than in farm dogs (72.5% vs 58.8%). Specifically, stray dogs had a significantly higher prevalence of Ancylostomatidae, Toxocara, Toxascaris and Taenidae. These dog populations are an important source of environmental contamination with intestinal parasite forms, which could be of significance to animal and human health.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Fazendas , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 672020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812530

RESUMO

Although the microscopic examination of stool samples remains the reference method of choice for the diagnosis of intestinal protistan infections, this method is time-consuming and requires experienced and well-trained operators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of agreement between the BD MAX TM Enteric Parasite Panel (EPP) and microscopy for the detection of Giardia intestinalis (Lambl, 1859), Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica Schaudinn, 1903 in stool samples. The study included faecal samples of 362 patients who were admitted to our hospital due to gastrointestinal complaints. In the microscopic examination, which was made with the native-lugol method on the stool samples that were taken from the patients, cysts, trophozoites and eggs of the parasite were examined. The diagnosis of G. intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum Tyzzer, 1912 and Cryptosporidium hominis Morgan-Ryan, Fall, Ward, Hijjawi, Sulaiman, Fayer, Thompson, Olson, Lal et Xiao, 2002, and E. histolytica was made in the faecal samples using the EPP assay. In the microscopic examination, Cryptosporidium spp. positive stool samples were stained with kinyoun's acid-fast. In the microscopic examination, parasites were detected in 41 (11%) of the 362 stool samples. In contrast, EPP assay identified parasites in 23 (6.3%) of the samples. In the microscopic examination, E. histolytica and Entamoeba dispar Brumpt, 1925 were detected in 22 (6.1%) of the samples, G. intestinalis was seen in 15 (4.1%), and C. parvum or C. hominis were detected in three (0.8%); these values were five (1.4%), 16 (4.4%) and two (0.5%) positive with the EPP assay. Although C. parvum or C. hominis were detected as positive in the microscopic examination of three samples, only two of the samples were positive in both EPP assay and kinyoun's acid-fast method. The EPP assay is a relatively simple test that can distinguish E. histolytica and E. dispar, but it cannot replace microscopy in the diagnosis of amoebiasis. Diagnosis for G. intestinalis and C. parvum/C. hominis with the BD MAXTM enteric parasite panel was equivalent to that with microscopy. We believe that E. histolytica must be diagnosed with nucleic acid amplification tests that have a high sensitivity and specificity like EPP assay in certain patient groups.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba histolytica/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Turquia/epidemiologia
8.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107967, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858044

RESUMO

Reported incidence rates of cryptosporidiosis in Ireland are consistently among the highest in Europe. Despite the national prevalence of this enteric parasite and the compulsory nature of incidence surveillance and reporting, in-depth analyses seeking to genotype clinical isolates of Cryptosporidium on an intra-species level are rarely undertaken in Ireland. This molecular epidemiology study of 163 clinical Cryptosporidium isolates was conducted in Southern Ireland, from 2015 to 2018, in order to ascertain population subtype heterogeneity. Analysis was conducted via real-time PCR amplification and gp60 gene sequencing, which successfully determined the subtype designation of 149 of the 163 (91.4%) tested isolates. Overall, 12 C. parvum and five C. hominis subtypes were identified, with the incidence of the regionally predominant C. parvum species found to primarily occur during springtime months, while C. hominis incidence was largely confined to late summer and autumnal months. Additionally, one C. parvum and four C. hominis subtypes were newly reported by this study, having not been previously identified in clinical or livestock infection in Ireland. Overall, these data give insight into the diversification of the Cryptosporidium population and emergent subtypes, while also allowing comparisons to be made with clinical epidemiological profiles reported previously in Ireland and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium parvum/classificação , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenterite/parasitologia , Glicoproteínas/química , Glicoproteínas/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Prevalência , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Alinhamento de Sequência
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008520, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776938

RESUMO

Diarrhea is a leading cause of antibiotic consumption among children in low- and middle-income countries. While vaccines may prevent diarrhea infections for which children often receive antibiotics, the contribution of individual enteropathogens to antibiotic use is minimally understood. We used data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) to estimate pathogen-specific incidence of antibiotic-treated diarrhea among children under five years old residing in six countries of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia before rotavirus vaccine implementation. GEMS was an age-stratified, individually-matched case-control study. Stool specimens were obtained from children presenting to sentinel health clinics with newly-onset, acute diarrhea (including moderate-to-severe and less-severe diarrhea) as well as matched community controls without diarrhea. We used data from conventional and quantitative molecular diagnostic assays applied to stool specimens to estimate the proportion of antibiotic-treated diarrhea cases attributable to each pathogen. Antibiotics were administered or prescribed to 9,606 of 12,109 moderate-to-severe cases and 1,844 of 3,174 less-severe cases. Across all sites, incidence rates of clinically-attended, antibiotic-treated diarrhea were 12.2 (95% confidence interval: 9.0-17.8), 10.2 (7.4-13.9) and 1.9 (1.3-3.0) episodes per 100 child-years at risk at ages 6 weeks to 11 months, 12-23 months, and 24-59 months, respectively. Based on the recommendation for antibiotic treatment to be reserved for cases with dysentery, we estimated a ratio of 12.6 (8.6-20.8) inappropriately-treated diarrhea cases for each appropriately-treated case. Rotavirus, adenovirus serotypes 40/41, Shigella, sapovirus, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium were the leading antibiotic-treated diarrhea etiologies. Rotavirus caused 29.2% (24.5-35.2%) of antibiotic-treated cases, including the largest share in both the first and second years of life. Shigella caused 14.9% (11.4-18.9%) of antibiotic-treated cases, and was the leading etiology at ages 24-59 months. Our findings should inform the prioritization of vaccines with the greatest potential to reduce antibiotic exposure among children.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Adenoviridae , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Criptosporidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/etiologia , Cryptosporidium , Disenteria/tratamento farmacológico , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Disenteria/etiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/etiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Renda , Lactente , Masculino , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Shigella
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3033-3040, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748039

RESUMO

We assessed the potential contribution of hospitals to contaminations of wastewater by enteric protists, including Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in raw wastewater. Wastewater samples were collected from storage tanks in two hospitals and one associated wastewater treatment plant in Shanghai, China, from March to November 2009. Enteric pathogens were detected and identified using PCR and DNA sequencing techniques. Among a total of 164 samples analyzed, 31 (18.9%), 45 (27.4%), and 122 (74.4%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi, respectively. Altogether, three Cryptosporidium species, four G. duodenalis assemblages, and 12 E. bieneusi genotypes were detected. Cryptosporidium hominis, G. duodenalis sub-assemblage AII, and E. bieneusi genotype D were the dominant ones in wastewater from both hospitals and the wastewater treatment plant. A similar distribution in genotypes of enteric pathogens was seen between samples from hospitals and the wastewater treatment plant, suggesting that humans are one of the major sources for these pathogens and hospitals are important contributors of enteric parasites in urban wastewater. Data from this study might be useful in the formulation of preventive measures against environmental contamination of waterborne pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Enterocytozoon/genética , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/classificação , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
11.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 40, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that cause enteric disease in vertebrates. In pigs, infections are most often asymptomatic, but may result in diarrhoea and poor growth. The most common species detected in pigs are C. suis and C. scrofarum with low zoonotic potential. C. parvum, with higher zoonotic potential, may also be found. As previous knowledge on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in Swedish pigs is scarce, this was investigated in our study. Faecal samples from 13 pig herds were collected and a total of 222 pooled pen samples, from suckling piglets (n = 48), growers, aged 6-12 weeks (n = 57), fatteners, aged 13-24 weeks (n = 67) and adult animals (n = 50) were included. Samples were analysed using microscopy and positive samples were further analysed using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene and the 28S rRNA gene to determine species. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in all sampled herds and in 25% (56/222) of the individual pen samples. Infections were most common in growers and fatteners with 51% (29/57) and 35% (20/67) positive samples in each group, respectively. The piglets had 8% (4/48) positive samples and adults had 6% (3/50). Species determination showed C. suis and C. scrofarum in piglets and growers, C. scrofarum in the fatteners, and C. suis and C. parvum in the adults. Although no mixed infections could be confirmed we saw signs of double peaks in the 28S rRNA gene chromatograms, possibly indicating more than one species present per sample. CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium spp. were detected on every sampled farm and in 25% of the individual pen samples in our study. We therefore conclude that Cryptosporidium spp. are present and likely common in Swedish pig herds, where pigs are loose and reared on solid floors. However, none of the farms reported any problems with poor weight gain, diarrhoea, or reduced appetite in their pig herds. The pig adapted C. suis and C. scrofarum were the predominant species identified. Two samples were positive for the more zoonotic C. parvum, and pigs should hence not be disregarded as a possible source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 28S/análise , Sus scrofa , Suécia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
12.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(19)2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709724

RESUMO

An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among veterinary students performing fetotomy exercises on euthanized calves took place in September 2018 in Denmark. A prospective cohort investigation was performed to identify risk factors and provide guidance for preventing outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in this setting. Ninety-seven students attended the fetotomy exercises and completed a questionnaire about symptoms and potential risk behavior. Real-time PCR was used to detect Cryptosporidium spp. in stool samples from students and to quantify the fecal parasite load in the calves used for the exercises. gp60 subtyping was carried out for the Cryptosporidium-positive samples. Our case definition was based on participation in a fetotomy exercise, reported symptoms, and laboratory results. Eleven laboratory-confirmed or probable cases (11%) were identified in two outbreaks during the prospective study period, with attack rates of 4/10 (40%) and 7/9 (78%), respectively. The risk factors for cryptosporidiosis we identified were performing the exercise on a diarrheic calf, reporting visible fecal contamination on the personal protective equipment (PPE), and reporting problems with PPE during the exercise. Cryptosporidium parvum IIaA15G2R1 was detected in both cases and calves. A significantly higher proportion of the calves aged 7 days old and above were positive compared with younger calves. Furthermore, a high fecal Cryptosporidium load in a calf was associated with a higher probability of an outbreak among the students. Based on our results, using noninfected calves for the exercises, appropriate use of PPE, and thorough hand hygiene are recommended to reduce the risk of contracting cryptosporidiosis in connection with fetotomy exercises.IMPORTANCE Cryptosporidium spp. can cause severe diarrhea in infected individuals. Cryptosporidium parvum is zoonotic, and cattle are the main reservoir. In several countries, outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have occurred in veterinary students after handling calves. We carried out a 1-year-long prospective study to investigate the occurrence of these recurrent cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in Denmark. Our investigation used a One Health approach and combined comprehensive epidemiological approaches and laboratory methods applied to both students and calves in the setting of the fetotomy exercises. Two outbreaks took place during the study period; additionally, we retrospectively identified two more suspected outbreaks prior to the study period. The results illustrated a high risk of contracting cryptosporidiosis among veterinary students in the setting of the fetotomy exercises, especially when using calves with high fecal Cryptosporidium loads. Our data can be used to inform future efforts to prevent transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum to students during fetotomy exercises.


Assuntos
Bovinos/cirurgia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feto/cirurgia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Animais , Criptosporidiose/microbiologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/fisiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Medicina Veterinária , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008448, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that causes mild to severe diarrhoeal disease in humans. To date, several commercial companies have developed rapid immunoassays for the detection of Cryptosporidium infection. However, the challenge is to identify an accurate, simple and rapid diagnostic tool for the estimation of cryptosporidiosis burden. This study aims at evaluating the accuracy of CerTest Crypto, a commercialized rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for the detection of Cryptosporidium antigens in the stool of children presenting with diarrhoea. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four study sites in Sub-Saharan Africa (Gabon, Ghana, Madagascar, and Tanzania), from May 2017 to April 2018. Stool samples were collected from children under 5 years with diarrhoea or a history of diarrhoea within the last 24 hours. All specimens were processed and analyzed using CerTest Crypto RDT against a composite diagnostic panel involving two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests (qPCR and RFLP-PCR,) as the gold standard. RESULTS: A total of 596 stool samples were collected. Evaluation of the RDT yielded a very low overall sensitivity of 49.6% (confidence interval (CI) 40.1-59.0), a specificity of 92.5% (CI 89.8-94.7), positive predictive value of 61.3% (CI 50.6-71.2), and negative predictive value of 88.5% (85.3-91.1) when compared to the composite reference standard of qPCR and RFLP-PCR for the detection of Cryptosporidium species. Moreover, the performance of this test varied across different sites. CONCLUSION: The weak performance of the studied RDT suggests the need to carefully evaluate available commercial RDTs before their use as standard tools in clinical trials and community survey of Cryptosporidium infections in pediatric cohorts.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/parasitologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107956, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659234

RESUMO

The species name Cryptosporidium bollandi n. sp. is proposed for Cryptosporidium piscine genotype 2 based on morphological, biological and molecular characterisation. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA (18S) sequences revealed that C. bollandi n. sp. was most closely related to piscine genotype 4 (5.1% genetic distance) and exhibited genetic distances of 10.0%, 12.2% and 25.2% from Cryptosporidium molnari, Cryptosporidium huwi and Cryptosporidium scophthtalmi, respectively. At the actin locus, C. bollandi n. sp. was again most closely related to piscine genotype 4 (6.8% genetic distance) and exhibited 15.5% (C. molnari), 18.4% (C. huwi), 22.9% (C. scophthalmi) and up to 27.5% genetic distance from other Cryptosporidium spp. (Cryptosporidium felis). Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 18S and actin sequences showed that C. bollandi n. sp. exhibited 12.9% (C. molnari) to 21.1% (C. canis) genetic distance from all other Cryptosporidium spp. Genetic data as well as previous histological analysis clearly supports the validity of C. bollandi n. sp. as a separate species.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Actinas/química , Actinas/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Biológica , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/ultraestrutura , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Pesqueiros , Genótipo , Funções Verossimilhança , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/química , Washington/epidemiologia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008375, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged less than 5 years in low- and middle-income countries where limited access to potable water, poor sanitation, deficient hygiene, and food product contamination are prevalent. Research on the changing etiology of AGE and associated risk factors in Latin America, including Colombia, is essential to understand the epidemiology of these infections. The primary objectives of this study were to describe etiology of moderate to severe AGE in children less than 5 years of age from Bucaramanga, Colombia, a middle-income country in Latin American, and to identify the presence of emerging E. coli pathotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a prospective, matched for age, case-control study to assess the etiology of moderate to severe AGE in children less than 5 years of age in Bucaramanga, Colombia, South America. We tested for 24 pathogens using locally available diagnostic testing, including stool culture, polymerase chain reaction, microscopy and enzyme-linked immunoassay. Adjusted attributable fractions were calculated to assess the association between AGE and each pathogen in this study population. The study included 861 participants, 431 cases and 430 controls. Enteric pathogens were detected in 71% of cases and in 54% of controls (p = <0.001). Co-infection was identified in 28% of cases and in 14% of controls (p = <0.001). The adjusted attributable fraction showed that Norovirus GII explained 14% (95% CI: 10-18%) of AGE, followed by rotavirus 9.3% (6.4-12%), adenovirus 3% (1-4%), astrovirus 2.9% (0.6-5%), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) 2.4% (0.4-4%), Cryptosporidium sp. 2% (0.5-4%), Campylobacter sp. 2% (0.2-4%), and Salmonella sp.1.9% (0.3 to 3.5%). Except for Cryptosporidium, all parasite infections were not associated with AGE. Three emergent diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes were identified in cases (0.7%), including an enteroaggregative/enterotoxigenic E.coli (EAEC/ETEC), an enteroaggregative/enteropathogenic E.coli (EAEC/EPEC), and an emergent enteroinvasive E. coli with a rare O96:H19. No deaths were reported among cases or controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Norovirus and rotavirus explained the major proportion of moderate to severe AGE in this study. Higher proportion of infection in cases, in the form of single infections or co-infections, showed association with AGE. Three novel E. coli pathotypes were identified among cases in this geographic region.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/etiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Adenoviridae , Infecções por Adenoviridae/complicações , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/complicações , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/complicações , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Campylobacter , Infecções por Campylobacter/complicações , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/complicações , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli/complicações , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Norovirus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rotavirus , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Salmonella , Infecções por Salmonella/complicações , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia
16.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2317-2326, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494897

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is one of the most common causes of diarrhoea around the world. Successful management and prevention of this infectious disease requires knowledge of the diversity of species and subtypes causing human disease. We use sequence data from 2598 human faecal samples collected during an 11-year period (2009-2019) to better understand the impact of different species and subtypes on public health and to gain insights into the variation of human cryptosporidiosis in New Zealand. Human cryptosporidiosis in New Zealand is caused by a high diversity of species and subtypes. Six species cause human disease in New Zealand: C. hominis, C. parvum, C. cuniculus, C. erinacei, C. meleagridis and C. tyzzeri. Sequence analysis of the gp60 gene identified 16 subtype families and 101 subtypes. Cryptosporidium hominis IbA10G2 and C. parvum IIaA18G3R1 were the most frequent causes of human cryptosporidiosis with 27% and 29% of infections, respectively. Cryptosporidium hominis presented a peak of notified human cases during autumn (March-May) whereas most cases of human cryptosporidiosis caused by C. parvum are found during the calving and lambing season in spring (September-November). We also reported some subtypes that have been rarely detected in other countries such as IbA20G2 and IIoA13G1 and a low prevalence of the hypertransmissible and virulent IIaA15G2R1. This study provides insight into the variability of cryptosporidiosis in New Zealand essential for disease management and surveillance to prevent the introduction or spread of new species and subtypes in the country.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2359-2362, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500368

RESUMO

Several Cryptosporidium species that infect reptiles, especially squamates, are well described, but there is limited data about Cryptosporidium species infecting crocodilians. In this study, we assess the occurrence of intestinal parasites using traditional microscopic examination and describe the prevalence and Cryptosporidium species in the captive-bred Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis) in eastern China using molecular methods. The results of microscopic examination showed that no intestinal parasites were detected among the 491 fecal samples examined from the Chinese alligators. The overall prevalence for Cryptosporidium was 0.41% (2/491) by PCR detection using the SSU rRNA locus. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA, COWP, and actin genes revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium testudinis, which has been isolated primarily from chelonians. This is the first detection of the specific DNA of C. testudinis in the feces of the Chinese alligator. This study expands our knowledge of the Cryptosporidium species involved in crocodiles, and more extensive studies are necessary to confirm the validity of C. testudinis in crocodiles.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genes de Protozoários/genética , Filogenia
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2813-2819, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583163

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is an opportunistic protozoan parasite that can inhabit in the gastrointestinal tract of various hosts. Cryptosporidium infection in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep may pose a threat to the survival and productivity, causing considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. However, it is yet to know whether black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in China are infected with Cryptosporidium. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of Cryptosporidium infection in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in Yunnan province, China. A total of 590 fecal samples were obtained from black-boned goats and black-boned sheep from five counties in Yunnan province, and the prevalence and species distribution of Cryptosporidium were determined by amplification of the 18S rDNA fragment using the nested PCR. The overall Cryptosporidium prevalence was 13.2% (78/590), with 18.0% (55/305) in black-boned goats and 8.1% (23/285) in black-boned sheep. The age and sampling site were identified as main factors that result in significant differences in Cryptosporidium prevalence. Three species, namely C. muris, C. xiaoi, and C. ubiquitum, were identified in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in the present study, with C. muris (46/78) as the predominant species. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium infection in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in China, and the findings will facilitate better understanding, prevention, and control of Cryptosporidium infection in black-boned goats and black-boned sheep in China.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos/parasitologia
19.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2935-2942, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594239

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. are apicomplexan protozoa associated with chronic diarrhea in AIDS and other immunocompromised patients, and one of the commonest causes of childhood diarrhea and malnutrition, particularly in low-income settings. In Colombia, there are few molecular epidemiological studies on Cryptosporidium spp.; thereby, the transmission dynamics of this parasite in the country is poorly known. This study evaluated the diversity of Cryptosporidium at species, subtype family, and subtype level in children attending various day-care centers in Medellin, Colombia. Two hundred and ninety stool samples from children < 5 years of age were collected from April to November of 2015. All samples were processed by PCR and sequence analysis of the ssu RNA gene and the gp60 gene. An infection rate of 2.4% was observed, with only two Cryptosporidium species identified: C. hominis (6/7) and C. meleagridis (1/7). Cryptosporidium hominis isolates belonged to the subtypes IbA10G2, IaA13R6 and IaA13R7; IIIbA26G1R1 C. meleagridis subtype was also detected. There is a C. hominis predominance in the children evaluated, suggesting an important role of the anthroponotic transmission cycle in the day-care centers analyzed. Further investigation is required to determine infection sources and susceptible hosts in order to define appropriate management of cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Diarreia/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pobreza , Sulfotransferases/genética
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008378, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516309

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of the main enteric parasitic infections that affect children and dogs in the municipality of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil; and to identify the geopolitical areas that should receive priority interventions to combat them. Between March and November 2016, fecal samples of 143 dogs and 193 children aged 1 month to 5 years were collected in 40 rural and semirural communities using a systematic sampling approach, stratified by district. Samples were collected by legal guardians of the children and / or dog owners. Eggs, larvae, cysts and oocysts of parasites were concentrated by centrifugal-flotation and centrifugal-sedimentation, and acid-resistant staining was used to visualize parasites. One hundred and thirty-two children (68.4%), 111 dogs (77.6%) and 199 (73.7%) dog fecal samples collected from streets were parasitized. Giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, amoeba infections and hookworm were the most frequent infections in all studied populations, in addition to trichuriasis in dogs and ascaridiasis in children. A predominance of Giardia and hookworms was observed in children and dogs, respectively. The coastal districts of Aritaguá, Olivença and the main district had a higher parasitic diversity and overlapping of important potential zoonotic infections. Age over one year (p<0.001), adjusted OR = 3.65; 95% CI = 1.86-7.16) and income below the minimum monthly salary (p = 0.02, adjusted OR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.17-6.59) were the main factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections in children and dogs, respectively. The coastal districts of Aritaguá and Olivença and the main district should be prioritized through enteric disease control programs, and the factors associated with infections must be considered in the design of health interventions in these districts. The integration between affirmative income actions and investments to improve the health infrastructure of these communities may work more effectively than current preventive measures to combat enteric parasites.


Assuntos
Amebíase/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Amebíase/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardia , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Oocistos , Parasitos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/parasitologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA