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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 223: 108089, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639135

RESUMO

The morphological, biological, and molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium piscine genotype 7 from red-eye tetras (Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae) are described, and the species name Cryptosporidium abrahamseni n. sp. is proposed. Histological analysis of intestinal tissue identified large numbers of Cryptosporidium organisms along the epithelial lining of the intestine. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis at 18S rRNA (18S) and actin loci conducted on intestinal scrapings revealed that C. abrahamseni n. sp. was genetically distinct from other Cryptosporidium species. At the 18S locus, it was most closely related to C. huwi (3.2% genetic distance) and exhibited genetic distances ranging from 5.9 to 6.5% (C. molnari) to 14.9% (C. scolpthalmi) from all other Cryptosporidium species. At the actin locus, the genetic distances were larger and C. abrahamseni n. sp. exhibited 10.3% genetic distance from C. huwi, and 17.6% (C. molnari) to 28% (C. canis) genetic distance from other Cryptosporidium spp. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 18S and actin sequences confirmed that C. abrahamseni n. sp. shares the closest genetic relationship with C. huwi (6.7% genetic distance), while the genetic distance between C. abrahamseni n. sp. and other Cryptosporidium spp. ranged from 12.1% (C. molnari) to 20.4% (C. canis). Based on genetic and histological data, C. abrahamseni n. sp. is validated as a separate species.


Assuntos
Characidae/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Actinas/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/patologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/ultraestrutura , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Genótipo , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/patologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Intestinos/patologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625354

RESUMO

Introduction. Cryptosporidium parvum causes intestinal parasitic infections affecting both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals.Gap statement. Given the absence of effective treatments for cryptosporidiosis, especially in immunodeficient patients, the present study was designed to assess the therapeutic efficacy of secnidazole (SEC) and its combination with nitazoxanide (NTZ) in comparison to single NTZ treatment in relation to the immune status of a murine model of C. parvum infection.Methodology. The infected groups were administered NTZ, SEC or NTZ-SEC for three or five successive doses. At days 10 and 12 post-infection (p.i.), the mice were sacrificed, and the efficacy of the applied drugs was evaluated by comparing the histopathological alterations in ileum and measuring the T helper Th1 (interferon gamma; IFN-γ), Th2 [interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10] and Th17 (IL-17) cytokine profiles in serum.Results. The NTZ-SEC combination recorded the maximal reduction of C. parvum oocyst shedding, endogenous stages count and intestinal histopathology, regardless of the immune status of the infected mice. The efficacy of NTZ-SEC was dependent on the period of administration, as the 5 day-based treatment protocol was also more effective than the 3 day-based one in terms of immunocompetence and immunosuppression. The present treatment schedule induced an immunomodulatory effect from SEC that developed a protective immune response against C. parvum infection with reduced production of serum IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10.Conclusions. Application of NTZ-SEC combined therapy may be useful in treatment of C. parvum, especially in cases involving immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Criptosporidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metronidazol/análogos & derivados , Nitrocompostos/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Criptosporidiose/imunologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/patologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/parasitologia , Íleo/patologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Carga Parasitária
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 9, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of enteric infections in Aboriginal children aged 0-2 years using conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques and to explore associations between the presence of pathogens and child growth. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of Aboriginal children (n = 62) residing in a remote community in Northern Australia, conducted from July 24th - October 30th 2017. Stool samples were analysed for organisms by microscopy (directly in the field and following fixation and storage in sodium-acetate formalin), and by qualitative PCR for viruses, bacteria and parasites and serology for Strongyloides-specific IgG. Child growth (height and weight) was measured and z scores calculated according to WHO growth standards. RESULTS: Nearly 60% of children had evidence for at least one enteric pathogen in their stool (37/62). The highest burden of infection was with adenovirus/sapovirus (22.9%), followed by astrovirus (9.8%) and Cryptosporidium hominis/parvum (8.2%). Non-pathogenic organisms were detected in 22.5% of children. Ten percent of children had diarrhea at the time of stool collection. Infection with two or more pathogens was negatively associated with height for age z scores (- 1.34, 95% CI - 2.61 to - 0.07), as was carriage of the non-pathogen Blastocystis hominis (- 2.05, 95% CI - 3.55 to - 0.54). CONCLUSIONS: Infants and toddlers living in this remote Northern Australian Aboriginal community had a high burden of enteric pathogens and non-pathogens. The association between carriage of pathogens/non-pathogens with impaired child growth in the critical first 1000 days of life has implications for healthy child growth and development and warrants further investigation. These findings have relevance for many other First Nations Communities that face many of the same challenges with regard to poverty, infections, and malnutrition.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Mamastrovirus/genética , Sapovirus/genética , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/parasitologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Prevalência , Sapovirus/isolamento & purificação
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 7, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the etiology of childhood diarrhea in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) especially after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines. This study aimed to identify gastrointestinal pathogens in children with diarrhea (cases) and the carriage rate of these pathogens in asymptomatic children (controls). METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 203 cases and 73 controls who presented to two major hospitals in Al Ain city, UAE. Samples were analyzed with Allplex™ Gastrointestinal Full Panel Assay for common entero-pathogens. The association between diarrhea and the isolated pathogens was calculated in a multivariate logistic regression model. The adjusted attributable fractions (aAFs) were calculated for all pathogens significantly associated with cases. RESULTS: At least one pathogen was identified in 87 samples (42.8%) from cases and 17 (23.3%) from controls (P < 0.001). Rotavirus, norovirus GII and adenovirus were significantly more prevalent in cases. Their aAFs with 95% ci are 0.95 (0.64, 1.00) for rotavirus, 0.86 (0.38, 0.97) for norovirus GII and 0.84 (0.29, 0.96) for adenovirus. None of the 13 bacteria tested for were more commonly found in the cases than in controls. Cryptosporidium spp. were more significantly detected in cases than in controls. Co-infections occurred in 27.9% of the children. Viruses and parasites were significantly more likely to occur together only in the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex PCR revealed high positivity rates in both cases and controls which demand a cautious interpretation. Rotavirus remains the main childhood diarrhea pathogen in UAE. Effective strategies are needed to better control rotavirus and other causative pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507141

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium species are responsible for causing the majority of parasite-related gastrointestinal infections in the UK. This report describes an outbreak of 12 laboratory-confirmed cryptosporidiosis cases identified as part of a Scottish swimming pool investigation, with 9 primary and 3 secondary cases occurring over an 8-week period. Molecular speciation was successful for 11/12 cases, which revealed 10 Cryptosporidium hominis cases and 1 Cryptosporidium parvum case. Of the 10 C. hominis cases, further typing identified 7 as being an unusual sub-type, IbA6G3, which is the first description in the UK of this rare variant. The remaining three C. hominis cases were identified as the common IbA10G2 subtype. Following implementation of control measures on two occasions, no further cases were reported. This report highlights the importance of molecular typing to identify and characterize outbreaks, and emphasizes the need to adhere to swimming pool guidance. It also raises awareness of the potential for outbreaks to involve multiple species/sub-types, and emphasizes the importance of strong public health leadership to ensure effective multi-agency investigations and management of outbreaks.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Piscinas , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular , Escócia
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2151-2163, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309376

RESUMO

The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the effect of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine rotavirus (BRoV), and Cryptosporidiumparvum on dairy calf health and performance and to determine the prevalence of these pathogens. A total of 198 male dairy calves housed at a grain-fed veal facility were examined from June 11, 2018, to October 9, 2018. Calves were fed milk replacer twice daily and housed individually until weaning at 56 d. Once weaned, calves were moved into groups of 5 until they were moved to a finishing facility at 77 d. At the grain-fed veal facility, calves were scored for fecal consistency for the first 28 d and had fecal samples taken on arrival and at 7 and 14 d. Fecal samples were frozen and submitted to a commercial laboratory, where they were tested for BCoV, C.parvum, and 2 groups of BRoV: group A (BRoV A) and group B (BRoV B). Calves were weighed on arrival and at 14, 49, 56, and 77 d using a digital body scale. Treatments for disease and mortalities that occurred over the 77 d were also recorded. Statistical models, including Cox proportional hazards and repeated measures models, were built to determine the effect of infection with 1 of the pathogens. Over the 3 sampling points, 151 (85.8%), 178 (94.2%), 3 (1.5%), and 97 (57.4%) calves tested positive at least once for BCoV, BRoV A, BRoV B, and C.parvum, respectively. The source of the calves and the level of serum total protein measured on arrival were associated with testing positive for a pathogen. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea and severe diarrhea; calves that tested positive for BCoV and BRoV A had an increased proportion of days with severe diarrhea. In addition, calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a higher hazard of being treated for respiratory disease. With respect to body weight, calves that had diarrhea or severe diarrhea had lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d. Specifically, calves that had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea showed a reduction in weight gain of up to 15 kg compared to calves without diarrhea. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d; calves that tested positive for BCoV had a lower body weight at 56 and 77 d. This study demonstrates that the prevalence of BCoV, BRoV A, and C.parvum infection is high in this population of calves and has significant effects on the occurrence of diarrhea and body weight gain. Future studies should evaluate approaches for minimizing the effect of infection with these pathogens to improve the welfare, health, and productivity of dairy calves.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino , Criptosporidiose/fisiopatologia , Cryptosporidium parvum , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Respiratórias/terapia , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Rotavirus , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/fisiopatologia , Ganho de Peso
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 741, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholera remains a major global health challenge. Uvira, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), has had endemic cholera since the 1970's and has been implicated as a possible point of origin for national outbreaks. A previous study among this population, reported a case confirmation rate of 40% by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) among patients at the Uvira Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC). This study considers the prevalence and diversity of 15 enteric pathogens in suspected cholera cases seeking treatment at the Uvira CTC. METHODS: We used the Luminex xTAG® multiplex PCR to test for 15 enteric pathogens, including toxigenic strains of V. cholerae in rectal swabs preserved on Whatman FTA Elute cards. Results were interpreted on MAGPIX® and analyzed on the xTAG® Data Analysis Software. Prevalence of enteric pathogens were calculated and pathogen diversity was modelled with a Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 269 enrolled CTC patients, PCR detected the presence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in 38% (103/269) of the patients, which were considered to be cholera cases. These strains were detected as the sole pathogen in 36% (37/103) of these cases. Almost half (45%) of all study participants carried multiple enteric pathogens (two or more). Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (36%) and Cryptosporidium (28%) were the other most common pathogens identified amongst all participants. No pathogen was detected in 16.4% of study participants. Mean number of pathogens was highest amongst boys and girls aged 1-15 years and lowest in women aged 16-81 years. Ninety-three percent of toxigenic V. cholerae strains detected by PCR were found in patients having tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by RDT. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports previous results from DRC and other cholera endemic areas in sub-Sahara Africa with less than half of CTC admissions positive for cholera by PCR. More research is required to determine the causes of severe acute diarrhea in these low-resource, endemic areas to optimize treatment measures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is part of the impact evaluation study entitled: "Impact Evaluation of Urban Water Supply Improvements on Cholera and Other Diarrheal Diseases in Uvira, Democratic Republic of Congo" registered on 10 October 2016 at clinicaltrials.gov Identification number: NCT02928341 .


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cólera/microbiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Diarreia/microbiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Prevalência , Microbiologia da Água , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 485-488, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955234

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The parasite Cryptosporidium spp. is an intracellular protozoa which has a broad range of hosts and zoonotic potential. It presents a serious health risk for agricultural workers and veterinarians. The aim of the study was to identify the species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium occurring in a veterinary student who came into contact with calves on a farm. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique was employed to confirm the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. ELISA test was applied to detect coproantigen in faecal specimens. Nested PCR was used to amplify a small ribosomal subunit (SSU rRNA) and sequencing of the GP60 gene served to identify the zoonotic subtypes. RESULTS: The nested PCR allowed to confirm the C. parvum species; subsequently, the IIdA15G1 zoonotic subtype was identified. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first confirmed case in Slovakia of human cryptosporidiosis caused by the unique subtype IIdA15G1.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/classificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , Eslováquia , Estudantes de Medicina , Medicina Veterinária , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/parasitologia
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3659-3673, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960371

RESUMO

Alongside exotic reptiles, amphibians, such as toads, frogs, salamanders, and newts, are nowadays considered popular pets worldwide. As reported for other exotic pet animals, amphibians are known to harbor numerous gastrointestinal parasites. Nonetheless, very little data are available on captive amphibian parasitic diseases. In this study, we applied direct saline fecal smears (DSFS) to examine in total 161 stool samples from 41 different amphibian species belonging to the orders Anura and Caudata. In addition, carbolfuchsin-smear (CFS) staining (n = 74 samples) was used to detect amphibian Cryptosporidium oocysts. Also, complete dissections of deceased amphibians (n = 107) were performed to specify parasite infections and to address parasite-associated pathogenicity. Overall, examined amphibian fecal samples contained 12 different parasite taxa. The order Rhabditida with the species Rhabdias spp. and Strongyloides spp. were the most prevalent nematode species (19.3%), followed by flagellated protozoans (8.7%), Amphibiocapillaria spp./Neocapillaria spp. (7.5%), Oswaldocruzia spp. (4.3%), Blastocystis spp. (3.1%), Cosmocerca spp. (3.1%), oxyurids (Pharyngonoidae) (3.1%), spirurids (1.2%), un-sporulated coccidian oocysts (0.6%), Tritrichomonas spp. (0.6%), Karotomorpha spp. (0.6%), and Cryptosporidium spp. (0.6%). One CFS-stained fecal sample (1.4%) was positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Within dissected amphibians, 31 (48.4%) of the anurans and 11 (26.2%) of the salamanders were infected with gastrointestinal parasites. One cutaneous Pseudocapillaroides xenopi infection was diagnosed in an adult African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). Etiologically, 17 (15.9%) of them died due to severe parasitic and/or bacterial infections (e.g., Chryseobacterium indologenes, Citrobacter freudii, Sphingobacterium multivorum, Klebsiella pneumoniae). High prevalence and pathological findings of several clinical amphibian parasitoses call for more detailed investigation on gastrointestinal parasite-derived molecular mechanisms associated with detrimental lesions or even death.


Assuntos
Animais Exóticos , Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Anuros/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Urodelos/parasitologia , Animais , Anuros/microbiologia , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Chryseobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Oocistos , Sphingobacterium , Strongyloides/isolamento & purificação , Urodelos/microbiologia
10.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 62: e64, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901761

RESUMO

Intestinal mucins are the first line of defense against microorganisms. Although knowledge about the mechanisms involved in the establishment of intestinal protozoa is limited, there is evidence that these parasites produce lectin-like molecules and glycosidases, that exert both, constitutive and secretory functions, promoting the establishment of these microorganisms. In the present review, we analyse the main interactions between mucins of the host intestine and the four main protozoan parasites in humans and their implications in intestinal colonization. There are lectin-like molecules that contain complex oligosaccharide structures and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), mannose and sialic acid as main components, which are excreted/secreted by Giardia intestinalis, and recognized by the host using mannose-binding lectins (MBL). Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium spp. express the lectin galactose/N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, which facilitates their adhesion to cells. In Cryptosporidium, the glycoproteins gp30, gp40/15 and gp900 and the glycoprotein lectin CpClec are involved in protozoan adhesion to intestinal cells, forming an adhesion-attack complex. G. intestinalis and E. histolytica can also produce glycosidases such as ß-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase, α-d-glucosidase, ß-d-galactosidase, ß-l-fucosidase, α-N-acetyl-d-galactosaminidase and ß-mannosidase. In Blastocystis, α-D-mannose, α-D-glucose, GlcNAc, α-D-fucose, chitin and sialic acid that have been identified on their surface. Fucosidases, hexosaminidases and polygalacturonases, which may be involved in the mucin degradation process, have also been described in the Blastocystis secretoma. Similarly, symbiotic coexistence with the intestinal microbiota promotes the survival of parasites facilitating cell invasion and nutrients obtention. Furthermore, it is necessary to identify and characterize more glycosidases, which have been only partially described by in silico analyses of the parasite genome.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Glicoproteínas , Mucinas , Parasitos , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/parasitologia , Entamoeba/patogenicidade , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lectinas , Parasitos/patogenicidade
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008647, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877398

RESUMO

The transmission of trachoma, caused by repeat infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, and many enteropathogens are linked to water quantity. We hypothesized that children living further from a water source would have higher exposure to C. trachomatis and enteric pathogens as determined by antibody responses. We used a multiplex bead assay to measure IgG antibody responses to C. trachomatis, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Vibrio cholerae in eluted dried blood spots collected from 2267 children ages 0-9 years in 40 communities in rural Ethiopia in 2016. Linear distance from the child's house to the nearest water source was calculated. We derived seroprevalence cutoffs using external negative control populations, if available, or by fitting finite mixture models. We used targeted maximum likelihood estimation to estimate differences in seroprevalence according to distance to the nearest water source. Seroprevalence among 1-9-year-olds was 43% for C. trachomatis, 28% for S. enterica, 70% for E. histolytica, 54% for G. intestinalis, 96% for C. jejuni, 76% for ETEC and 94% for C. parvum. Seroprevalence increased with age for all pathogens. Median distance to the nearest water source was 473 meters (IQR 268, 719). Children living furthest from a water source had a 12% (95% CI: 2.6, 21.6) higher seroprevalence of S. enterica and a 12.7% (95% CI: 2.9, 22.6) higher seroprevalence of G. intestinalis compared to children living nearest. Seroprevalence for C. trachomatis and enteropathogens was high, with marked increases for most enteropathogens in the first two years of life. Children living further from a water source had higher seroprevalence of S. enterica and G. intestinalis indicating that improving access to water in the Ethiopia's Amhara region may reduce exposure to these enteropathogens in young children.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/imunologia , Criptosporidiose/sangue , Cryptosporidium/imunologia , Entamebíase/sangue , Giardíase/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Chlamydia/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Entamoeba histolytica/genética , Entamoeba histolytica/imunologia , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Água Doce/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/imunologia , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
12.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 672020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812530

RESUMO

Although the microscopic examination of stool samples remains the reference method of choice for the diagnosis of intestinal protistan infections, this method is time-consuming and requires experienced and well-trained operators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of agreement between the BD MAX TM Enteric Parasite Panel (EPP) and microscopy for the detection of Giardia intestinalis (Lambl, 1859), Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica Schaudinn, 1903 in stool samples. The study included faecal samples of 362 patients who were admitted to our hospital due to gastrointestinal complaints. In the microscopic examination, which was made with the native-lugol method on the stool samples that were taken from the patients, cysts, trophozoites and eggs of the parasite were examined. The diagnosis of G. intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum Tyzzer, 1912 and Cryptosporidium hominis Morgan-Ryan, Fall, Ward, Hijjawi, Sulaiman, Fayer, Thompson, Olson, Lal et Xiao, 2002, and E. histolytica was made in the faecal samples using the EPP assay. In the microscopic examination, Cryptosporidium spp. positive stool samples were stained with kinyoun's acid-fast. In the microscopic examination, parasites were detected in 41 (11%) of the 362 stool samples. In contrast, EPP assay identified parasites in 23 (6.3%) of the samples. In the microscopic examination, E. histolytica and Entamoeba dispar Brumpt, 1925 were detected in 22 (6.1%) of the samples, G. intestinalis was seen in 15 (4.1%), and C. parvum or C. hominis were detected in three (0.8%); these values were five (1.4%), 16 (4.4%) and two (0.5%) positive with the EPP assay. Although C. parvum or C. hominis were detected as positive in the microscopic examination of three samples, only two of the samples were positive in both EPP assay and kinyoun's acid-fast method. The EPP assay is a relatively simple test that can distinguish E. histolytica and E. dispar, but it cannot replace microscopy in the diagnosis of amoebiasis. Diagnosis for G. intestinalis and C. parvum/C. hominis with the BD MAXTM enteric parasite panel was equivalent to that with microscopy. We believe that E. histolytica must be diagnosed with nucleic acid amplification tests that have a high sensitivity and specificity like EPP assay in certain patient groups.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba histolytica/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Turquia/epidemiologia
13.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3119-3123, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743725

RESUMO

Few reports of Cryptosporidium spp. in snakes in China have been published. To determine the infection rate and document the presence of Cryptosporidium in pet snakes using molecular methods, 273 fecal samples were collected from eight species of pet snakes from 13 pet households in Beijing, China, and were examined by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Cryptosporidium was detected from 17 of 273 (6.2%) samples, and nine out of 13 households tested positive for Cryptosporidium with a range of 3.3 to 33.3% among households showing significant difference (p < 0.01). The infection rate of Cryptosporidium for females and males was 6.5% (13/201) and 5.6% (4/72), respectively, showing no significant difference (p > 0.05). Six out of eight pet snake species tested positive for Cryptosporidium with a range of 4.2 to 9.1% among species, showing no significant difference (p > 0.05). Two Cryptosporidium species were identified: Cryptosporidium serpentis in 10 samples and Cryptosporidium varanii in seven samples. No zoonotic Cryptosporidium species occur in our study populations.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Serpentes/parasitologia , Animais , Pequim , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
14.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3033-3040, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748039

RESUMO

We assessed the potential contribution of hospitals to contaminations of wastewater by enteric protists, including Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in raw wastewater. Wastewater samples were collected from storage tanks in two hospitals and one associated wastewater treatment plant in Shanghai, China, from March to November 2009. Enteric pathogens were detected and identified using PCR and DNA sequencing techniques. Among a total of 164 samples analyzed, 31 (18.9%), 45 (27.4%), and 122 (74.4%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi, respectively. Altogether, three Cryptosporidium species, four G. duodenalis assemblages, and 12 E. bieneusi genotypes were detected. Cryptosporidium hominis, G. duodenalis sub-assemblage AII, and E. bieneusi genotype D were the dominant ones in wastewater from both hospitals and the wastewater treatment plant. A similar distribution in genotypes of enteric pathogens was seen between samples from hospitals and the wastewater treatment plant, suggesting that humans are one of the major sources for these pathogens and hospitals are important contributors of enteric parasites in urban wastewater. Data from this study might be useful in the formulation of preventive measures against environmental contamination of waterborne pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Enterocytozoon/genética , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/classificação , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
15.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107967, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858044

RESUMO

Reported incidence rates of cryptosporidiosis in Ireland are consistently among the highest in Europe. Despite the national prevalence of this enteric parasite and the compulsory nature of incidence surveillance and reporting, in-depth analyses seeking to genotype clinical isolates of Cryptosporidium on an intra-species level are rarely undertaken in Ireland. This molecular epidemiology study of 163 clinical Cryptosporidium isolates was conducted in Southern Ireland, from 2015 to 2018, in order to ascertain population subtype heterogeneity. Analysis was conducted via real-time PCR amplification and gp60 gene sequencing, which successfully determined the subtype designation of 149 of the 163 (91.4%) tested isolates. Overall, 12 C. parvum and five C. hominis subtypes were identified, with the incidence of the regionally predominant C. parvum species found to primarily occur during springtime months, while C. hominis incidence was largely confined to late summer and autumnal months. Additionally, one C. parvum and four C. hominis subtypes were newly reported by this study, having not been previously identified in clinical or livestock infection in Ireland. Overall, these data give insight into the diversification of the Cryptosporidium population and emergent subtypes, while also allowing comparisons to be made with clinical epidemiological profiles reported previously in Ireland and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium parvum/classificação , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenterite/parasitologia , Glicoproteínas/química , Glicoproteínas/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Prevalência , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Alinhamento de Sequência
16.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107956, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659234

RESUMO

The species name Cryptosporidium bollandi n. sp. is proposed for Cryptosporidium piscine genotype 2 based on morphological, biological and molecular characterisation. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA (18S) sequences revealed that C. bollandi n. sp. was most closely related to piscine genotype 4 (5.1% genetic distance) and exhibited genetic distances of 10.0%, 12.2% and 25.2% from Cryptosporidium molnari, Cryptosporidium huwi and Cryptosporidium scophthtalmi, respectively. At the actin locus, C. bollandi n. sp. was again most closely related to piscine genotype 4 (6.8% genetic distance) and exhibited 15.5% (C. molnari), 18.4% (C. huwi), 22.9% (C. scophthalmi) and up to 27.5% genetic distance from other Cryptosporidium spp. (Cryptosporidium felis). Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 18S and actin sequences showed that C. bollandi n. sp. exhibited 12.9% (C. molnari) to 21.1% (C. canis) genetic distance from all other Cryptosporidium spp. Genetic data as well as previous histological analysis clearly supports the validity of C. bollandi n. sp. as a separate species.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Actinas/química , Actinas/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Biológica , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/ultraestrutura , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Pesqueiros , Genótipo , Funções Verossimilhança , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/química , Washington/epidemiologia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
17.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 40, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that cause enteric disease in vertebrates. In pigs, infections are most often asymptomatic, but may result in diarrhoea and poor growth. The most common species detected in pigs are C. suis and C. scrofarum with low zoonotic potential. C. parvum, with higher zoonotic potential, may also be found. As previous knowledge on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in Swedish pigs is scarce, this was investigated in our study. Faecal samples from 13 pig herds were collected and a total of 222 pooled pen samples, from suckling piglets (n = 48), growers, aged 6-12 weeks (n = 57), fatteners, aged 13-24 weeks (n = 67) and adult animals (n = 50) were included. Samples were analysed using microscopy and positive samples were further analysed using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene and the 28S rRNA gene to determine species. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in all sampled herds and in 25% (56/222) of the individual pen samples. Infections were most common in growers and fatteners with 51% (29/57) and 35% (20/67) positive samples in each group, respectively. The piglets had 8% (4/48) positive samples and adults had 6% (3/50). Species determination showed C. suis and C. scrofarum in piglets and growers, C. scrofarum in the fatteners, and C. suis and C. parvum in the adults. Although no mixed infections could be confirmed we saw signs of double peaks in the 28S rRNA gene chromatograms, possibly indicating more than one species present per sample. CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium spp. were detected on every sampled farm and in 25% of the individual pen samples in our study. We therefore conclude that Cryptosporidium spp. are present and likely common in Swedish pig herds, where pigs are loose and reared on solid floors. However, none of the farms reported any problems with poor weight gain, diarrhoea, or reduced appetite in their pig herds. The pig adapted C. suis and C. scrofarum were the predominant species identified. Two samples were positive for the more zoonotic C. parvum, and pigs should hence not be disregarded as a possible source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 28S/análise , Sus scrofa , Suécia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
18.
Eur J Protistol ; 75: 125718, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604041

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that inhabit the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts of vertebrates. Research of these parasites is limited by a lack of model hosts. This study aimed to determine the extent to which infection at the embryo stage can enhance the propagation of Cryptosporidium oocysts in chickens. Nine-day-old chicken embryos and one-day-old chickens were experimentally infected with different doses of Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Post hatching, all chickens had demonstrable infections, and the infection dose had no effect on the course of infection. Chickens infected as embryos shed oocysts immediately after hatching and shed significantly more oocysts over the course of the infection than chickens infected as one-day-olds. In chickens infected as embryos, C. baileyi was found in all organs except the brain whereas, C. parvum was only found in the gastrointestinal tract and trachea. In chickens infected as one-day-olds, C. baileyi was only found in the gastrointestinal tract and trachea. Chickens infected as embryos with C. baileyi died within 16 days of hatching. All other chickens cleared the infection. Infection of chickens as embryos could be used as an effective and simple model for the propagation of C. baileyi and C. parvum.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium parvum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cryptosporidium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura , Oocistos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia
19.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2935-2942, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594239

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. are apicomplexan protozoa associated with chronic diarrhea in AIDS and other immunocompromised patients, and one of the commonest causes of childhood diarrhea and malnutrition, particularly in low-income settings. In Colombia, there are few molecular epidemiological studies on Cryptosporidium spp.; thereby, the transmission dynamics of this parasite in the country is poorly known. This study evaluated the diversity of Cryptosporidium at species, subtype family, and subtype level in children attending various day-care centers in Medellin, Colombia. Two hundred and ninety stool samples from children < 5 years of age were collected from April to November of 2015. All samples were processed by PCR and sequence analysis of the ssu RNA gene and the gp60 gene. An infection rate of 2.4% was observed, with only two Cryptosporidium species identified: C. hominis (6/7) and C. meleagridis (1/7). Cryptosporidium hominis isolates belonged to the subtypes IbA10G2, IaA13R6 and IaA13R7; IIIbA26G1R1 C. meleagridis subtype was also detected. There is a C. hominis predominance in the children evaluated, suggesting an important role of the anthroponotic transmission cycle in the day-care centers analyzed. Further investigation is required to determine infection sources and susceptible hosts in order to define appropriate management of cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Diarreia/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pobreza , Sulfotransferases/genética
20.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2317-2326, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494897

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is one of the most common causes of diarrhoea around the world. Successful management and prevention of this infectious disease requires knowledge of the diversity of species and subtypes causing human disease. We use sequence data from 2598 human faecal samples collected during an 11-year period (2009-2019) to better understand the impact of different species and subtypes on public health and to gain insights into the variation of human cryptosporidiosis in New Zealand. Human cryptosporidiosis in New Zealand is caused by a high diversity of species and subtypes. Six species cause human disease in New Zealand: C. hominis, C. parvum, C. cuniculus, C. erinacei, C. meleagridis and C. tyzzeri. Sequence analysis of the gp60 gene identified 16 subtype families and 101 subtypes. Cryptosporidium hominis IbA10G2 and C. parvum IIaA18G3R1 were the most frequent causes of human cryptosporidiosis with 27% and 29% of infections, respectively. Cryptosporidium hominis presented a peak of notified human cases during autumn (March-May) whereas most cases of human cryptosporidiosis caused by C. parvum are found during the calving and lambing season in spring (September-November). We also reported some subtypes that have been rarely detected in other countries such as IbA20G2 and IIoA13G1 and a low prevalence of the hypertransmissible and virulent IIaA15G2R1. This study provides insight into the variability of cryptosporidiosis in New Zealand essential for disease management and surveillance to prevent the introduction or spread of new species and subtypes in the country.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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