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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 210: 107848, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004534

RESUMO

Marine bivalves are usually cultivated in shallow, estuarine waters where there is a high concentration of nutrients. Many micro-pollutants, including the protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which also occur in such environments, may be concentrated in shellfish tissues during their feeding process. Shellfish can thus be considered as vehicles for foodborne infections, as they are usually consumed lightly cooked or raw. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the presence of both parasites in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis that are cultivated in Thermaikos Gulf, North Greece, which is fed by four rivers that are contaminated with both protozoa. Moreover, the occurrence of these protozoa was monitored in treated wastewaters from 3 treatment plants that discharge into the gulf. In order to identify potential sources of contamination and to estimate the risk for human infection, an attempt was made to genotype Giardia and Cryptosporidium in positive samples. Immunofluorescence was used for detection and molecular techniques were used for both detection and genotyping of the parasites. In total, 120 mussel samples, coming from 10 farms, were examined for the presence of both protozoa over the 6-month farming period. None of them were found positive by immunofluorescence microscopy for the presence of parasites. Only in 3 mussel samples, PCR targeting the GP60 gene detected Cryptosporidium spp. DNA, but sequencing was not successful. Thirteen out of 18 monthly samples collected from the 3 wastewater treatment plants, revealed the presence of Giardia duodenalis cysts belonging to sub-assemblage AII, at relatively low counts (up to 11.2 cysts/L). Cryptosporidium oocysts (up to 0.9 oocysts/L) were also detected in 4 out of 8 samples, although sequencing was not successful at any of the target genes. At the studied location and under the sampling conditions described, mussels tested were not found to be harboring Giardia cysts and the presence of Cryptosporidium was found only in few cases (by PCR detection only). Our results suggest that the likelihood that mussels from these locations act as vehicles of human infection for Giardia and Cryptosporidium seems low.


Assuntos
Bivalves/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Giardia/genética , Giardíase/transmissão , Grécia , Humanos , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rios/parasitologia , Águas Residuárias/parasitologia
2.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3195-3204, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724068

RESUMO

Whole genomic sequencing (WGS) and comparative genomics are increasingly used in the characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. They are facilitated by the establishment of procedures for WGS analysis of clinical specimens without laboratory propagation of pathogens. Results of recent comparative genomics analysis suggest that gene duplication might be associated with broad host ranges of some zoonotic Cryptosporidium species and subtypes, while genetic recombination could be involved in the emergence of virulent subtypes. The availability of WGS data has further facilitated the development of advanced molecular typing tools. The use of these tools together with comparative genomics analyses has begun to improve the investigations of outbreaks in industrialized nations. More WGS data, however, are needed from both industrialized nations and developing countries before we can have in-depth understanding of the population genetics and evolution of Cryptosporidium spp. and genetic determinants of various phenotypic traits in human-pathogenic subtypes.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Genômica , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/patogenicidade , Genoma de Protozoário/genética , Genótipo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Virulência/genética
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 502, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium viatorum is a minor Cryptosporidium pathogen in humans. Currently, there is limited information regarding the prevalence and genotypes of C. viatorum in animals in China. METHODS: In this study, 228 faecal samples were collected from two wild rat species (Leopoldamys edwardsi and Berylmys bowersi) in Chongqing Municipality and Guangdong Province, China. These specimens were analyzed for C. viatorum and then subtyped it using PCR and sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and 60-kilodalton glycoprotein (gp60) genes, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 25 (11.0%) faecal samples were tested positive for C. viatorum by SSU rRNA assay. Of these samples, 4 (3.6%) came from L. edwardsi and 21 (18.0%) from B. bowersi. Of the 25 C. viatorum-positive samples, 17 were successfully amplified at the gp60 gene locus, which represented four subtypes belonging to two subtype families, including XVa (XVaA6, XVaA3g, XVaA3h) and XVc (XVcA2G1). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gp60 amino acid sequences indicated that all of the C. viatorum isolates grouped together, supporting the conclusion that C. viatorum from the wild rats represent two subtype families. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate an occurrence of C. viatorum XVa subtype family from rats which is genetically identical to those found in humans. Our findings suggest that wild rats may be a potential source of human cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Murinae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico/química , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/transmissão , Sialoglicoproteínas/química , Sialoglicoproteínas/genética
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 808, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. are prevalent zoonotic parasites associated with a high burden among children. To date only limited molecular epidemiological data on E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. in humans living in Thailand has been published. METHODS: PCR-based tools were used to detect and characterize E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene was used to investigate E. bieneusi, and the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to investigate Cryptosporidium spp., and 697 fecal samples from villagers and school children in rural areas in Thailand were analyzed. RESULTS: The infection rates were 2.15% (15/697) for E. bieneusi and 0.14% (1/697) for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence of E. bieneusi was significantly high in Loei province. Sequence analysis indicated that the Cryptosporidium isolate was C. parvum. Nine E. bieneusi genotypes were identified, EbpC, Peru12, TMH6, TMH3, TMH7, H, D, and two novel genotypes TMLH1 and TMLH2. E. bieneusi prevalence was significantly higher in male participants than in female participants, and in children aged 3-15 years than in participants aged > 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence, genotypes, and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi were found to vary significantly high even in one country. Transmission routes and key animal carriers of E. bieneusi may be associated with differences in hygiene, sanitation, and cultural behaviors. Further molecular studies including longitudinal studies will be required to unveil epidemiological characteristics of these opportunistic intestinal protozoa in all over the countries.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Gatos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Microsporidiose/transmissão , Filogenia , Prevalência , População Rural , Saneamento , Suínos , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007607, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a major pathogen associated with diarrheal disease in young children. We studied Cryptosporidium diarrhea in children enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in rural Gambia. METHODS: We recruited children <5 years of age with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) for 3 years (2008-2010), and children with either MSD or less severe diarrhea (LSD) for one year (November 2011-November 2012) at sentinel health centers. One or more randomly selected controls were matched to each case. Stool samples were tested to identify Cryptosporidium by immunoassay. A subset of randomly selected case-controls pairs were tested for Cryptosporidium species. We investigated the epidemiology of, and evaluated possible risk factors for, Cryptosporidium-positive diarrhea. RESULTS: We enrolled 1938 cases (1381 MSD, 557 LSD) and 2969 matched controls; 231/1929 (12.0%) of diarrhea cases and 141/2962 (4.8%) of controls were positive for Cryptosporidium. Most Cryptosporidium diarrhea cases (85.7%, 198/231) were aged 6-23 months, and most (81.4%, 188/231) occurred during the rainy season. Cryptosporidium hominis (C. hominis) was the predominant (82.6%) species. We found associations between increased risk of Cryptosporidium-positive MSD or LSD, or both, with consumption of stored drinking water and certain animals living in the compound-cow, cat (MSD only) and rodents (LSD only). Larger households, fowl living in the compound, and the presence of Giardia infection were associated with decreased risk of Cryptosporidium MSD and LSD. CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium-positive diarrhea is prevalent in this setting, especially at 6-23 months of age. The preponderance of Cryptosporidium infection in the rainy season and increased risk of Cryptosporidium-positive diarrhea with consumption of stored drinking water suggest water-borne transmission. Further investigation is needed to clarify the role of animals and contamination of stored drinking water in Cryptosporidium transmission.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Diarreia Infantil/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Criptosporidiose/complicações , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium , Diarreia Infantil/parasitologia , Fezes , Feminino , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(25): 568-572, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246941

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is a parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis, a profuse, watery diarrhea that can last up to 3 weeks in immunocompetent patients and can lead to life-threatening malnutrition and wasting in immunocompromised patients.* Fecal-oral transmission can occur by ingestion of contaminated recreational water, drinking water, or food, or through contact with infected persons or animals. For the period 2009-2017, public health officials from 40 states and Puerto Rico voluntarily reported 444 cryptosporidiosis outbreaks resulting in 7,465 cases. Exposure to treated recreational water (e.g., in pools and water playgrounds) was associated with 156 (35.1%) outbreaks resulting in 4,232 (56.7%) cases. Other predominant outbreak exposures included contact with cattle (65 outbreaks; 14.6%) and contact with infected persons in child care settings (57; 12.8%). The annual number of reported cryptosporidiosis outbreaks overall increased an average of approximately 13% per year over time. Reversing this trend will require dissemination of prevention messages to discourage swimming or attending child care while ill with diarrhea and encourage hand washing after contact with animals. Prevention and control measures can be optimized by improving understanding of Cryptosporidium transmission through regular analysis of systematically collected epidemiologic and molecular characterization data.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Creches , Pré-Escolar , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Piscinas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água
7.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2079-2086, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187226

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis of calves is caused by the enteroprotozoan Cryptosporidium spp. The disease results in intense diarrhea of calves associated with substantial economic losses in dairy farming worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine calf, herd, and within-herd Cryptosporidium prevalence and identify Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in calves with diarrhea in intensive dairy herds in central Argentina. A total of 1073 fecal samples were collected from 54 randomly selected dairy herds. Cryptosporidium-oocysts were isolated and concentrated from fecal samples using formol-ether and detected by light microscopy with the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Overall prevalence of oocyst-excreting calves was found to be 25.5% (274/1073) (95% C.I. 22.9; 28.1%). Of the herds studied, 89% (48/54) included at least one infected calf, whereas within-herd prevalence ranged from the absence of infection to 57% (20/35). A highly significant association was found between the presence of diarrhea and C. parvum infection (χ2 = 55.89, p < 0.001). For species determination, genomic DNA isolated from oocyst-positive fecal samples was subjected to PCR-RFLP of the 18S rRNA gene resulting exclusively in Cryptosporidium parvum identification. C. parvum isolates of calves displaying diarrhea and high rate of excretion of oocysts were subtyped by PCR amplification and direct sequencing of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene. Altogether five GP60 subtypes, designated IIaA18G1R1, IIaA20G1R1, IIaA21G1R1, IIaA22G1R1, and IIaA24G1R1 were identified. Interestingly, IIaA18G1R1 and IIaA20G1R1 were predominant in calves with diarrhea and high infection intensity. Notably, IIaA24G1R1 represents a novel, previously unrecognized C. parvum subtype. The subtype IIaA18G1R1, frequently found in this study, is strongly implicated in zoonotic transmission. These results suggest that calves might be an important source for human cryptosporidiosis in Argentina.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/classificação , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Diarreia/veterinária , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/genética , Humanos , Oocistos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Prevalência , Zoonoses
8.
Parasitol Int ; 71: 194-206, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974207

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is a medical and veterinary significant protozoan parasite that infects all classes of vertebrates. Environmental contamination with infective oocyst increases the risk of transmission to susceptible host. Estimates of Cryptosporidium prevalence in humans and animals are lacking in Nigeria, therefore a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to understand the epidemiology of the disease over a period of 30 years using publications from EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science, AJOL and Google Scholar databases. Studies that met the inclusion criteria of Cryptosporidium infections under the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) checklist were analysed. Point estimates prevalence and subgroup analyses based on potential risk factors and diagnostic techniques were evaluated at 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 64 eligible studies published between 1987 and 2017 were selected for meta-analysis. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection using quality effects model among human, cattle, sheep, goat, pigs, laboratory animals and birds was estimated as 15.0, 26.1, 16.6, 26.0, 20.1, 9.0 and 7.2%, respectively. The high report of C. parvum subtype family IIc indicates the importance of anthroponotic transmission of Cryptosporidium in Nigeria. Heterogeneity of subgroup (regions, species) and risk factors (HIV status, age, gender, faecal type) analyses were determined. The pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in different hosts were high and linked with several risk factors such as environmental contamination and animal contact. There is need for increased awareness on the prevalence of the disease to provide strategies that mitigate the disease in humans and animals.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Cabras/parasitologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Oocistos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
9.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(5): 826-836, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833731

RESUMO

Human cryptosporidiosis is the leading protozoan cause of diarrhoeal mortality worldwide, and a preponderance of infections is caused by Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum. Both species consist of several subtypes with distinct geographical distributions and host preferences (that is, generalist zoonotic and specialist anthroponotic subtypes). The evolutionary processes that drive the adaptation to the human host and the population structures of Cryptosporidium remain unknown. In this study, we analyse 21 whole-genome sequences to elucidate the evolution of anthroponosis. We show that Cryptosporidium parvum splits into two subclades and that the specialist anthroponotic subtype IIc-a shares a subset of loci with C. hominis that is undergoing rapid convergent evolution driven by positive selection. C. parvum subtype IIc-a also has an elevated level of insertion and deletion mutations in the peri-telomeric genes, which is also a characteristic of other specialist subtypes. Genetic exchange between Cryptosporidium subtypes plays a prominent role throughout the evolution of the genus. Interestingly, recombinant regions are enriched for positively selected genes and potential virulence factors, which indicates adaptive introgression. Analysis of 467 gp60 sequences collected from locations across the world shows that the population genetic structure differs markedly between the main zoonotic subtype (isolation-by-distance) and the anthroponotic subtype (admixed population structure). We also show that introgression between the four anthroponotic Cryptosporidium subtypes and species included in this study has occurred recently, probably within the past millennium.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Protozoário , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
10.
Parasitol Res ; 118(5): 1549-1558, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790038

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis is a common protozoan parasitic infection that causes diarrhoea in neonatal calves. The high shedding of environmentally resistant oocysts facilitates outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in humans. In total, 58 farms (512 calves) in Germany (Saxony and Brandenburg) were visited three times each. Faecal samples of pre-weaned calves were microscopically examined for oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. using Heine staining and were scored with regard to their consistency. Overall, 88.9% of calves tested microscopically positive for Cryptosporidium spp. in at least one sample, and the excretion of oocysts was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with a higher faecal score (diarrhoea). After DNA extraction from pooled farm isolates, 47 samples were successfully subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene (gp60). All isolates belonged to subtype family IIa. IIaA15G2R1 was the most common subtype (present on 66% of the farms), followed by IIaA16G3R1 (13%). Subtypes IIaA14G1R1, IIaA14G2R1, IIaA1612R1, IIaA16G2R1, IIaA17G1R1, IIaA17G2R1, IIaA17G4R1 and IIaA19G2R1 were found sporadically. This is the first description of gp60 subtype IIaA17G4R1 in cattle in Germany.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteínas/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium parvum/classificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Diarreia/parasitologia , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Alemanha , Humanos , Oocistos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame
11.
J Parasitol ; 105(1): 170-179, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807710

RESUMO

This study reports for the first time the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in Salmo trutta. A total number of 613 brown trout was captured by local anglers in 44 Galician rivers within 10 river basins (NW Spain) during the 2015 fishing season (March-August) and classified into groups according to their size. The gastrointestinal tracts were dissected and differentiated in pyloric ceca and intestine, which were homogenized and concentrated in phosphate-buffered saline 0.04 M pH 7.2/diethyl ether (2:1). Cryptosporidium oocysts were observed by immunofluorescence microscopy in 103 of 613 specimens (16.8%), with a mean intensity of 326.7 oocysts/trout. The highest prevalence rate was detected in specimens <2 yr (23.1%). Considering the anatomical location, Cryptosporidium oocysts were observed in pyloric ceca (72 trout, 69.9%), intestine (15 trout, 14.6%), or in both locations (16 trout, 15.5%), showing statistically significant differences between the 2 locations ( P < 0.01). The prevalence rate in the pyloric ceca increased with the age/size of the fish (62.2% vs. 70.8% vs. 83.3% for trout <2, 2-3, and >3 yr, respectively). By contrast, the prevalence rate in the intestinal location decreased with the age/size of specimens (21.6% vs. 12.5% vs. 7.7% for trout <2, 2-3, and >3 yr, respectively), but statistically significant differences were not determined. The microscopic observation of clusters of 4-20 oocysts in the pyloric ceca from 5 specimens of 20-28-cm body length is remarkable. By polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of fragments of small-subunit ribosomal DNA ( SSU-rDNA), GP60, hsp70, and actin loci, Cryptosporidium molnari-like genotype was identified in 1 trout and Cryptosporidium parvum (subtypes IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA18G3R1) in 47 fish, including those specimens in which oocyst clusters were observed. This finding may indicate a true infection by C. parvum, as the homogenization process would break the epithelial cells, releasing oocysts, free or in clusters. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in wild trout captured from 27 of 44 rivers sampled in Galicia (61.4%), belonging to 9 of the 10 river basins considered, confirming the presence of this protozoan parasite in Galician rivers and proving their wide dispersion in aquatic freshwater environments. The identification of the zoonotic species C. parvum in brown trout may indicate a risk to public health as trout may be a potential source of infection to humans. Thus, edible wild fish extend the range of foodstuffs involved in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Truta/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Ceco/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium parvum/classificação , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Genótipo , Intestinos/parasitologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Prevalência , Piloro/parasitologia , Rios , Estações do Ano , Espanha/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 16, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally cryptosporidiosis is one of the commonest causes of mortality in children under 24 months old and may be associated with important longterm health effects. Whilst most strains of Cryptosporidium parvum are zoonotic, C. parvum IIc is almost certainly anthroponotic. The global distribution of this potentially important emerging infection is not clear. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of papers identifying the subtype distribution of C. parvum infections globally. We searched PubMed and Scopus using the following key terms Cryptospor* AND parvum AND (genotyp* OR subtyp* OR gp60). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they had found C. parvum within their human study population and had subtyped some or all of these samples using standard gp60 subtyping. Pooled analyses of the proportion of strains being of the IIc subtype were determined using StatsDirect. Meta-regression analyses were run to determine any association between the relative prevalence of IIc and Gross Domestic Product, proportion of the population with access to improved drinking water and improved sanitation. RESULTS: From an initial 843 studies, 85 were included in further analysis. Cryptosporidium parvum IIc was found in 43 of these 85 studies. Across all studies the pooled estimate of relative prevalence of IIc was 19.0% (95% CI: 12.9-25.9%), but there was substantial heterogeneity. In a meta-regression analysis, the relative proportion of all C. parvum infections being IIc decreased as the percentage of the population with access to improved sanitation increased and was some 3.4 times higher in those studies focussing on HIV-positive indivduals. CONCLUSIONS: The anthroponotic C. parvum IIc predominates primarily in lower-income countries with poor sanitation and in HIV-positive individuals. Given the apparent enhanced post-infectious virulence of the other main anthroponotic species of Cryptosporidium (C. hominis), it is important to learn about the impact of this subtype on human health.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium parvum/fisiologia , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/classificação , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Pobreza
13.
Parasitology ; 146(2): 220-233, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012231

RESUMO

Fecal samples from wild-caught common voles (n = 328) from 16 locations in the Czech Republic were screened for Cryptosporidium by microscopy and PCR/sequencing at loci coding small-subunit rRNA, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, actin and 70 kDa heat shock protein. Cryptosporidium infections were detected in 74 voles (22.6%). Rates of infection did not differ between males and females nor between juveniles and adults. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of eight Cryptosporidium species/genotypes including two new species, C. alticolis and C. microti. These species from wild-caught common voles were able to infect common and meadow voles under experimental conditions, with a prepatent period of 3-5 days post-infection (DPI), but they were not infectious for various other rodents or chickens. Meadow voles lost infection earlier than common voles (11-14 vs 13-16 DPI) and had significantly lower infection intensity. Cryptosporidium alticolis infects the anterior small intestine and has larger oocysts (5.4 × 4.9 µm), whereas C. microti infects the large intestine and has smaller oocysts (4.3 × 4.1 µm). None of the rodents developed clinical signs of infection. Genetic and biological data support the establishment of C. alticolis and C. microti as separate species of the genus Cryptosporidium.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Galinhas , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/ultraestrutura , República Tcheca , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/ultraestrutura , Variação Genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Microscopia de Interferência , Murinae , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/transmissão , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
14.
Parasitol Int ; 68(1): 9-13, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240872

RESUMO

Long-tailed chinchillas Chinchilla lanigera are popular rodent species kept both in households, where they are hand-raised as pets, and in zoological facilities. From January 2016 to February 2017, 13 juvenile chinchillas from five facilities in Japan were diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis at the animal hospital. Eight of the cases were fatal. All of the animals were imported from the Czech Republic by the same vendor. Histopathological and multilocus sequence analyses using 18S ribosomal RNA, actin, 70-kDa heat shock protein, and 60-kDa glycoprotein genes confirmed Cryptosporidium ubiquitum of subtype XIId as the etiological agent. Multilocus analysis demonstrated the presence of two new sequence types closely related to the C. ubiquitum Xlld strain isolated from a human in the USA. This study indicated that potentially zoonotic Cryptosporidium is widespread and may have caused a high number of deaths among imported juvenile chinchillas.


Assuntos
Chinchila/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/patologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/mortalidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/mortalidade , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Japão/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
15.
J Infect Dis ; 219(7): 1121-1129, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2012, cryptosporidiosis cases increased in the Netherlands, but no single source was identified. In April 2013, we began a 3-year population-based case-control study coupled with genotyping to identify risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis. METHODS: Cryptosporidium cases were laboratory confirmed (by microscopy or polymerase chain reaction), and the species (ie, C. hominis or C. parvum) was determined. We analyzed data by study year, combined and by species. We performed single-variable analysis, and variables with a P value of ≤ .10 were included in a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for age, sex, and season. RESULTS: The study included 609 cases and 1548 frequency-matched controls. C. parvum was the predominant species in the first 2 study years, shifting to C. hominis in the third year. Household person-to-person transmission and eating barbequed food were strongly associated with being a case. Eating tomatoes was negatively associated. When the analysis was stratified by study year, person-to-person transmission was an independent risk factor. Analysis by species identified different risk factors for cases infected with C. parvum and C. hominis. CONCLUSION: This was the first case-control study examining risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis in the Netherlands. Providing information about Cryptosporidium exposure during outdoor activities and improvements in hygiene within households could prevent future sporadic infections.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Culinária/métodos , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lycopersicon esculentum , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Piscinas , Adulto Jovem
16.
Parasitol Int ; 69: 110-113, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590124

RESUMO

This report describes the detection of zoonotic Cryptosporidium muris, C. parvum subgenotype IIa and Giardia duodenalis genotype B in urban rodents in Malaysia. A rare occurrence of C. meleagridis was also reported suggesting a role of rodents in mechanical transmission of this pathogen. Utilization of DNA sequencing and subtyping analysis confirmed the presence of zoonotic C. parvum subtypes IIaA17G2R1 and IIaA16G3R1 for the first time in rodents.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/veterinária , Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/transmissão , Malásia/epidemiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Reforma Urbana , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
17.
J Parasitol ; 104(6): 639-644, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207199

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis is one of the leading causes of diarrhea in humans and several other vertebrate species. Because surveys of Cryptosporidium genotypes from animals and humans living in the same region are rare, our understanding of the importance of zoonotic transmission in the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis remains superficial. PCR was used to amplify a portion of the Cryptosporidium 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene from fecal DNA from humans and livestock living in Ekiti and Oyo states, Nigeria. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed using PCR targeting the heat-shock protein HSP-70, the actin, and the sporozoite glycoprotein gene gp60. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic information. Sixteen of 187 samples collected were Cryptosporidium 18S PCR positive. Of these, 5 samples originating from HIV-positive patients, 5 from otherwise healthy children, 2 from chickens, 3 from goats, and 1 from a dog were positive for at least 1 marker. Sequencing of the 18S rRNA amplicons revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum in 2 HIV positive patients and in a child; the actin sequence confirmed the presence of this species. Two samples of HIV-positive patients amplified Cryptosporidium hominis 18S rRNA, one of them confirmed by the HSP-70, actin, and gp60 sequences. Cryptosporidium meleagridis was found in another HIV patient, while C. hominis was detected in 3 children (of which 2 were confirmed by gp60). Cryptosporidium muris was found in 1 child. In birds, we found C. meleagridis and, significantly, C. parvum, whereas we detected C. parvum and C. muris in 1 goat each. The only dog sampled was positive for Cryptosporidium canis. We conclude that, in the environment we surveyed, humans and animals are a potential part of the same transmission cycle. Measures to prevent zoonotic transmission should therefore be considered to reduce the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Gado/parasitologia , Actinas/genética , Actinas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Criança , Criptosporidiose/complicações , Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/parasitologia , Cães , Patos/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/isolamento & purificação , Cabras/parasitologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Coelhos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Perus/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
18.
Trends Parasitol ; 34(11): 997-1011, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108020

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium species differ in host range. Parasite-host coevolution, host adaptation, and geographic segregation have led to the formation of subtype families with unique phenotypic traits within the major human-pathogenic species C. parvum and C. hominis. Transmission intensity, genetic diversity, and occurrence of genetic recombination and selective pressure have further shaped their population genetic structures. Panmixia appears to be common within the zoonotic C. parvum, especially its hypertransmissible IIaA15G2R1 subtype. Genetic recombination in C. hominis, in contrast, is more restricted to virulent subtypes, especially IbA10G2. Nonhuman primates and equine animals are commonly infected with genetically divergent C. hominis populations. Systematic studies of these and other host-adapted Cryptosporidium spp. are likely leading to improved understanding of population structures underlying various transmission patterns and intensities of Cryptosporidium.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Variação Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Genética Populacional , Saúde Pública
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 484, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a key genus of parasitic protists that infect humans and other vertebrates (mammals and birds). Birds are typically infected with C. avium, C. baileyi, C. galli and/or C. meleagridis, the latter of which is recognised as being zoonotic. Stimulated by the previous finding of C. meleagridis subtypes IIIbA21G1R1, IIIbA22G1R1 and IIIbA26G1R1 in diarrhoeic children in Wuhan city and environs in Hubei Province, China, we performed a molecular epidemiological survey to explore whether these or similar subtypes might occur in farmed chickens in this province. METHODS: PCR-coupled sequencing analyses of regions in the small subunit (SSU) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA and 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes were utilised to characterise Cryptosporidium in faecal samples from chickens (n = 471) from 14 farms from six distinct regions in Hubei Province. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium baileyi (33/471; 7.0%) and C. meleagridis (15/471; 3.2%) were identified in chickens on eight farms in five of the six distinct geographical regions. No significant age-associated difference in the prevalence of C. baileyi was evident, whereas the prevalence of C. meleagridis was significantly higher in younger (≤ 4 months) than in older chickens (> 4 months). For C. meleagridis, two subtype families, IIIb and IIIe, were defined; some of the subtypes (i.e. IIIbA26G1R1b and IIIbA22G1R1c) characterised here matched those identified previously in diarrhoeic children in Wuhan. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first molecular study reporting the genetic identity and prevalence of C. baileyi and C. meleagridis in chickens in Hubei. The findings suggest that C. meleagridis subtypes IIIbA26G1R1b and IIIbA22G1R1c are cross-transmissible between chickens and humans, raising awareness about the significance of birds as potential reservoirs of zoonotic variants of Cryptosporidium. Future studies might focus on investigating the prevalence of 'zoonotic' subtypes of Cryptosporidium meleagridis in various species of wild and domesticated birds, and on comparing them with those found in humans in China and other countries.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/classificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Análise de Sequência , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
20.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 84(18)2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006394

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium in sheep from 10 provinces in China. Fecal samples from 1,035 sheep originating from 16 farms were collected, and 295 (28.5%) were found to be Cryptosporidium positive by nested PCR. Cryptosporidium was detected at all farms, with infection rates between 5.7% and 50.0%. Three Cryptosporidium species were identified, including Cryptosporidium xiaoi (73.2%, 216/295), Cryptosporidium ubiquitum (21.7%, 64/295), and Cryptosporidium parvum (5.1%, 15/295). The distribution of Cryptosporidium species differed by province and by farm. All three species were detected in lambs and adult sheep but the highest infection rate was found in postweaned lambs. All three species were detected in all four seasons, with the highest prevalence found in autumn. Four C. parvum subtypes (IIaA15G2R1, IIaA17G2R1, IIdA18G1, and IIdA19G1) and one C. ubiquitum subtype (XIIa) were identified. For most provinces in this study, we are not aware of a previously published description or molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium infections in sheep. This information will improve our knowledge and understanding of the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in China.IMPORTANCECryptosporidium is an important zoonotic parasite that causes diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide. Previous studies suggested geographic differences in the distribution of Cryptosporidium species in sheep. However, molecular characterization studies of Cryptosporidium species in sheep have been carried out in only a few provinces in China, and the limited data available do not reflect the real situation. In this study, five districts, covering most areas where sheep are bred in China, were selected for examination of Cryptosporidium species, and Cryptosporidium infections were detected at all farms assessed, suggesting that Cryptosporidium is widespread in sheep in China. We also found geographic differences in the distribution of Cryptosporidium species but did not detect any differences between sheep age groups or seasons. Subtyping analyses showed that all of the subtypes identified in this study have been reported in humans, suggesting that sheep may be a potential source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Cabras , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
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