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1.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 38(3): 172-6, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25308454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dogs are the definitive or reservoirs hosts of more than 60 zoonotic parasites. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in pet dogs in Hamedan, Western Iran. METHODS: In cross-sectional study, 210 stool samples were collected randomly in pet dogs without clinical signs in Hamedan in April to December 2010. All samples were concentrated by formalin-ether technique. Smears of the feces were prepared and stained with Ziehl-Neelsen, trichrome, and iodine stains. RESULTS: During coproscopy, the overall proportion of GI parasitic infection was found in 6.7% (14/210) of samples. The detected parasites with their frequencies were Cryptosporidium spp. (3.8%), Toxocara canis (1.9%), and Giardia spp. (0.95%). A significant difference was not observed between infection rates in different age groups) p=0.617) or between genders (p=0.627). CONCLUSION: This is the first report of GI parasites in dogs from Western Iran. Although the rate of infection is low, the results showed that the pet dogs are reservoirs for zoonotic GI parasites and should be considered important to public health in this region. A combination of routine screening fecal samples for parasites, strategic anthelmintics regimens, and improved pet owner education is highly recommended for the control of GI parasites in pet dogs.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Toxocara canis/isolamento & purificação , Toxocaríase/parasitologia
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(8): 728-732, Aug. 2014. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-723189

RESUMO

O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a ocorrência da infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. em cabritos de Quixadá, Ceará, Brasil. Participaram do estudo 400 cabritos, com idade entre três e 360 dias, de ambos os sexos, com e sem padrão racial definido, procedentes de 25 estabelecimentos rurais distribuídos em três circuitos. As fezes foram cadastradas de acordo com o aspecto e cor, distribuídas em tubos tipo "eppendorf®" e congeladas in natura a -20°C, até o momento das extrações de DNA genômico do parasito com auxílio de kit comercial. Para amplificação de fragmentos da subunidade 18S do RNA ribossômico (rRNA) foi utilizada a "Nested"-PCR. A ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp em cabritos de Quixadá foi de 7,50% (30/400). A frequência no período seco e no chuvoso foi de 9,55% (19/199) e 5,47% (11/201), respectivamente (χ²=2,39 e P>0,05). Amostras positivas foram identificadas em 64,00% (16/25) das propriedades estudadas e dessas amostras 50,00% (15/30) e 70,00% (21/30) tinham as fezes com aspecto e cor normais, respectivamente, sugerindo que cabritos assintomáticos estão eliminando oocistos. Não foi observada positividade para Cryptosporidium spp. em animais com 301 a 360 dias, demonstrando que animais mais velhos apresentam menos possibilidade de se infectarem com o parasito...


The present study aimed to determine the occurrence of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. in goat kids from Quixadá, Ceará, Brazil. The study included 400 goat kids of both sexes, 3 to 360 days old, with or without defined breed, originating from 25 farms distributed in three circuits. Feces were registered in accordance with the appearance and color, distributed into tubes Eppendorf tubes and frozen in natura at-20°C until the moment of extraction of genomic DNA from the parasite with the aid of a commercial kit. For amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was used to Nested PCR. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in goats kids of the Quixadá was 7.50% (30/400). The frequency in the dry period and rainy was 9.55% (19/199) and 5.47% (11/201) respectively (χ²=2.39 and P>0.05). Positive samples were identified in 64.00% (16/25) of the studied farms, and from these samples 50.00% (15/30) and 70.00% (21/30) had feces with normal appearance and color respectively, suggesting that the asymptomatic goats were eliminating oocysts. No positivity for Cryptosporidium spp. was observed in 301 to 360-day-old goats, demonstrating that older animals have less chance to become infected with the parasite...


Assuntos
Animais , Cabras/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição por Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(8): 749-752, Aug. 2014. ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-723193

RESUMO

Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e a patologia de um surto de criptosporidiose em bezerros na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul. De um lote de 400 bezerros de 30-45 dias de idade, 35 adoeceram e 16 morreram. Os bezerros nasciam fracos e logo após o nascimento apresentavam diarreia amarela, emagrecimento progressivo, desidratação, depressão e morte entre 10 e 15 dias após o início dos sinais clínicos. Na necropsia havia congestão dos vasos sanguíneos intestinais e mesentéricos. Havia distensão intestinal por gás e dilatação de vasos linfáticos. Microscopicamente havia achatamento das vilosidades intestinais, com necrose e atrofia. Aderidas à superfície das células epiteliais das vilosidades, havia estruturas puntiformes basofílicas de 2-5µm de diâmetro compatíveis com Cryptosporidium spp. A microscopia eletrônica revelou a presença de diferentes estágios do agente aderidos às microvilosidades de enterócitos. Alerta-se para a importância da criptosporidiose como agente primário de diarreia em bezerros. São necessárias medidas preventivas no que se refere ao manejo para diminuir as perdas econômicas e a contaminação ambiental, e, ainda, diminuir o risco para a saúde pública...


This paper describes the epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology of an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in calves in Southern Brazil. Thirty-five out of 400 calves with 30-45 days of age were affected and 16 died. The calves were born weak and just after birth they had yellow diarrhea, weight loss, dehydration, depression, and death between 10 and 15 days after onset of clinical signs. Congestion of the bowel and mesenteric blood vessels were observed at necropsy. Intestinal distension by gas and dilation of lymphatic vessels were also observed. Microscopically, the intestine showed flattening of the villi with necrosis and atrophy. Adhered to the surface of the villus epithelial cells there were round basophilic structures of 2- to 5-μm-diameter compatible with Cryptosporidium spp. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of different stages of the agent adhered to the microvilli of enterocytes. We alert the importance of cryptosporidiosis as a primary agent of diarrhea in calves. Preventive measures to reduce economic losses, environmental contamination, and also decrease of risk for public health are necessary...


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/fisiopatologia , Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Análise Parasitológica
4.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 17(3): 443-6, 2014 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24897803

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the point prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts infection in calves grazing along the bank of Rima River Sokoto in October 2011. The river bank is a converging zone for domestic animals reared in different quarters of the town and the surrounding settlements. A total number of 2,959 cattle were enumerated out of which 147 (4.97%) were calves. Faecal samples were collected from 100 (68.02%) calves by convenient sampling technique. Formol-Ether sedimentation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques were used to identify the Cryptosporidium oocysts in the faecal samples. Faecal consistency was also used to identify diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic calves. Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified in 33 (33.0%) of the calves examined. The detection rate was higher among the male calves (38.46%) than females while the Rahaji breed had the highest prevalence of 62.5%. A total of 6 (18.18%) among the positive cases were diarrhoeic. The differences in prevalence based on sex, breeds and presence of diarrhoea were not statistically significant. Calves may become sources of Cryptosporidia infection to man and other animals in the study area through unrestricted movements and interactions with the environment.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Oócitos/citologia , Prevalência , Rios/parasitologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24964647

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium. A total of 436 horse fecal samples were collected from 19 farms, and acid-fast staining method was used for primary screening. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 161 samples, among which 33 positive sample were selected for nested PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing of 18 S rDNA, showing 31 samples to be bovine C. parvum and 2 C. felis. The methods employed in this study should be useful as tools to identify cryptosporidiosis genotypes and species of livestock.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Cavalos/parasitologia , Animais , Cryptosporidium/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taiwan/epidemiologia
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 202(3-4): 287-91, 2014 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24780161

RESUMO

Several Cryptosporidium species are known to infect cattle. However, the occurrence of mixed infections with more than one species and the impact of this phenomenon on animal and human health are poorly understood. Therefore, to detect the presence of mixed Cryptosporidium infections, 15 immunofluorescence-positive specimens obtained from 6-week-old calves' faeces (n=60) on one dairy farm were subjected to PCR-sequencing at multiple loci. DNA sequences of three Cryptosporidium species: C. parvum (15/15), C. bovis (3/15) and C. andersoni (1/15), and two new genetic variants were identified. There was evidence of mixed infections in five specimens. C. parvum, C. bovis and C. andersoni sequences were detected together in one specimen, C. parvum and C. bovis in two specimens, and C. parvum and C. parvum-like variants in the remaining two specimens. Sequencing of gp60 amplicons identified the IIaA19G4R1 (8/15) and IIaA18G3R1 (4/15) C. parvum subgenotypes. This study provides evidence of endemic mixed infections with the three main Cryptosporidium species of cattle and new genetic variants, in calves at the transition age of six weeks. The results add to the body of evidence describing Cryptosporidium isolates as genetically heterogeneous populations, and highlight the need for iterative genotyping to explore their genetic makeup.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coinfecção , Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Cryptosporidium/genética , Variação Genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Indústria de Laticínios , Água Potável , Fezes/parasitologia , Genes de Protozoários/genética , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Nova Zelândia , Alinhamento de Sequência
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 202(3-4): 301-4, 2014 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24746237

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. is an important agent of neonatal diarrhoea in goat kids. Little is known about its molecular characterization in adult goats. A longitudinal study was set up to identify the species excreted by adult goats around parturition. Individual faecal samples were collected from 20 pregnant adult goats between 1 and 5 years old in one flock. Samplings began 3 weeks before the estimated kidding date and were done weekly until kidding and for 2 weeks after kidding. Cryptosporidium oocysts were concentrated from 15 g of faeces using a caesium chloride (CsCl) method. Oocyst output was determined using a direct immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Genomic DNA was extracted from each CsCl-concentrated faecal sample positive by IFAT and submitted to a nested PCR-RFLP on the SSU rDNA gene followed by sequencing to identify the isolates at species level. According to their kidding date, goats were sampled between 4 and 8 times. Sixteen goats, out of the eighteen which kidded, were found positive at least at one sampling date. Infection was asymptomatic. Prevalence of excretion was maximal 14 days before kidding with half of the goats excreting oocysts at this date. Excretion was higher before kidding than after kidding. Unexpected levels of excretion were observed with individual oocyst excretion ranging from 6 to 2.5 × 10(5) oocysts per gram of faeces. All isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium ubiquitum.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , França , Cabras , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Gravidez
9.
Exp Parasitol ; 141: 134-7, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24703974

RESUMO

Species of Cryptosporidium are extensively recognised as pathogens of domesticated livestock and poultry, companion animals, wildlife, and are a threat to public health. Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The aim of the present study was to screen sheep and goats for Cryptosporidium using molecular tools. A total of 504 faecal samples were collected from sheep (n=276) and goats (n=228) in village, government and institutional farms in PNG. Samples were screened by nested PCR and genotyped at the 18S rRNA and at the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) loci. The overall prevalences were 2.2% for sheep (6/278) and 4.4% (10/228) for goats. The species/genotypes identified were Cryptosporidium hominis (subtype IdA15G1) in goats (n=6), Cryptosporidium parvum (subtypes IIaA15G2R1and IIaA19G4R1) in sheep (n=4) and in goats (n=2), Cryptosporidium andersoni (n=1) and Cryptosporidium scrofarum (n=1) in sheep, Cryptosporidium xiao (n=1) and Cryptosporidium rat genotype II (n=1) in goats. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. identified in sheep and goats in PNG. Identification of Cryptosporidium in livestock warrants better care of farm animals to avoid contamination and illness in vulnerable population. The detection of zoonotic Cryptosporidium in livestock suggests these animals may serve as reservoirs for human infection.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Reservatórios de Doenças , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Glicoproteínas/genética , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
10.
Exp Parasitol ; 142: 11-6, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24721256

RESUMO

To estimate the prevalence and public health significance of cryptosporidiosis in goats in China, 1265 fecal samples from seven farms in Henan province and Chongqing city were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The overall infection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. was 3.48% (44/1256). Significant difference was observed among age groups, with the post weaned kids having the highest infection rate (4.58%; ρ<0.01). Cryptosporidium spp. were characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The SSU rRNA-based PCR identified three Cryptosporidium species, including Cryptosporidium ubiquitum (24/44) in Henan and Chongqing, and Cryptosporidium andersoni (16/44) and Cryptosporidium xiaoi (4/44) in Henan. Among which, the C. ubiquitum and C. andersoni were first identified in goats thus far and were found in all age groups except no C. andersoni being found in the postparturition nannies, whereas the C. xiaoi was detected in pre-weaned kids and pregnant nannies. Subtyping C. ubiquitum by DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene suggested the isolates identified all belonged to zoonotic XIIa subtype 2. Thus, the dominant C. ubiquitum found in this study and the XIIa subtype 2 has been found in humans indicated goats are a potential source for zoonotic infections with the C. ubiquitum. More studies are needed for better understanding of differences in the transmission and public health significance of cryptosporidiosis in goats.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Distribuição por Idade , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Oocistos/química , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/parasitologia , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Mapeamento por Restrição/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 202(3-4): 171-9, 2014 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24685023

RESUMO

Cohorts of pre-weaned calves were studied for Cryptosporidium infection over three successive years (2010-2012) in one beef cattle herd in western France. Each year 25-34 calves were sampled weekly from 3 days to one month of age in order to characterize oocyst output, Cryptosporidium species and clinical features associated with infection. Faecal samples were screened for the presence of oocysts using immunofluorescence analysis. DNA was extracted from positive samples and a PCR SSU rRNA followed by RFLP or sequencing was performed. For the subtyping of C. parvum, a gp60 PCR was carried out. Regardless of the year, 92-100% of the animals excreted oocysts on at least one sampling date. Depending on the year of observation, the age of highest prevalence varied. In contrast, the peak of excretion was systematically observed almost at the same age (2nd-3rd week of life) with excretion levels ranging from between 100 and 1.7 × 10(7)oocysts/g of faeces. Differences concerning clinical signs depending on the year of sampling were observed. Different species patterns were observed, with a predominance of C. bovis in the 1st year and a predominance of C. parvum in the last year. Moreover, two zoonotic subtypes of C. parvum, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA18G2R1, were recorded in different years. This study shows that, in a given farm, the Cryptosporidium species and C. parvum subtypes identified as well as the prevalence of infection and level of excretion may vary greatly and show distinct patterns according to the year.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fatores Etários , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Fezes/parasitologia , França , Genes de RNAr/genética , Genótipo , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição/genética , Prevalência
12.
Vet Parasitol ; 202(3-4): 113-8, 2014 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24768316

RESUMO

Compared with dairy and beef cattle, few data are available on the occurrence and distribution of Cryptosporidium species in yaks, which live in a very different habitat. In this study, 327 fecal specimens were collected from yaks in 4 counties in Qinghai Province of China and screened for Cryptosporidium by nested PCR analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. A total of 98 (30.0%) specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium varied significantly among age groups; infection rates were 49.3% in weaned calves, 31.7% in yearlings, and 17.4% in adults. PCR products of all Cryptosporidium-positive specimens were successfully sequenced, with 56 specimens (57.1%) having C. bovis, 33 (33.7%) having C. ryanae, 2 (2.0%) having C. andersoni, 1 (1.0%) having C. ubiquitum, 1 (1.0%) having C. xiaoi, 2 (2.0%) having a novel genotype, and 3 (3.1%) having mixed infections of C. bovis and C. ryanae. There were some age-related differences in the distribution of Cryptosporidium species in post-weaned yaks examined. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. andersoni, C. ubiquitum, C. xiaoi and a novel Cryptosporidium genotype in yaks.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Cryptosporidium/genética , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
13.
Parasitol Res ; 113(6): 2129-36, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24676462

RESUMO

Fecal specimens from two Bactrian camels were collected in the Ya'an city zoo of China and were examined for Cryptosporidium by centrifugal flotation. One specimen was found to be parasitized by Cryptosporidium via microscopy, and the oocysts were measured to have an average size of 7.03 × 5.50 µm (n > 50). The isolate was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequence analysis of the partial 18S rRNA, COWP, and A135 genes, and was confirmed to be Cryptosporidium andersoni with minor nucleotide differences. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis indicated that the subtype of the camel-derived C. andersoni isolate was A4, A4, A4, and A1 at the four minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3, and MS16, respectively). Therefore, this isolate belongs to the most common MLST subtype reported in cattle in China and is distinct from two other known camel C. andersoni MLST subtypes (A6, A4, A2, A1 and A6, A5, A2, A1). Animal transmission experiments demonstrated that the C. andersoni isolate was not infectious to immunosuppressed or immunocompetent Kun-ming mice, Sprague-Dawley rats, and hamsters but was biologically similar to most bovine C. andersoni isolates characterized so far. Therefore, transmission of this camel-derived C. andersoni isolate is very likely to occur between camels and bovine.


Assuntos
Camelus , Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Cryptosporidium/genética , Genótipo , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , China , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Masculino , Filogeografia
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 202(3-4): 326-9, 2014 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24636788

RESUMO

Preliminary results obtained in calves, lambs and goat kids infected by Cryptosporidium sp. have indicated a partial prophylactic efficacy of halofuginone lactate when administered at 100 µg/kg body weight (BW). In this study, the efficacy of halofuginone lactate was evaluated in goat neonates experimentally inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts per oral route. The trial consisted in 2 replicated experiments carried out successively at 2 months of interval. Twenty-two 2- to 4-day-old kids were experimentally inoculated once, 2-3 days after the arrival in premises, with 10(6)C. parvum oocysts per oral route and were allocated into 2 groups. Animals of group 1 acted as untreated control whereas animals of group 2 received halofuginone lactate for 10 days from the infection day to day 9 post-infection (DPI) at a daily oral dose rate of 100 µg/kg BW. Individual oocyst shedding was monitored by daily examination of faecal smears stained by carbol fuchsin and scored semi-quantitatively (0-5) until 19 DPI. Daily diarrhoea scores, weight gain and mortality were recorded. In the first experiment, oocyst excretion started 1 DPI in the control group, was highest on 4 DPI (mean score 3.6) and became undetectable from 16-19 DPI. In the treated group, oocyst shedding started 1 day later, showed lower scores compared to control on 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 DPI and vanished from 16 to 19 DPI. No significant difference was seen for weight gains between groups. Five kids died in the control group compared to 1 kid in the treated group. In the second (replicated) experiment, oocyst excretion started 2 DPI in the control group, was highest on 4 DPI (mean score 4.5) and became undetectable 18 and 19 DPI. In the treated group, oocyst shedding started 2 days later, peaked on 13 DPI (mean score 2.3) and persisted until the end of the experiment. No significant difference was seen for weight gains between groups. Ten kids died in the control group compared to 3 kids in the treated group. The results demonstrated the efficacy of halofuginone lactate when given as a prophylactic treatment at 100 µg/kg BW during 10 days in reducing oocyst shedding, diarrhoea and mortality in goat kid cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Quinazolinonas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Criptosporidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptosporidiose/mortalidade , Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Cryptosporidium parvum , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/mortalidade , Cabras , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 38(1): 22-5, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24659697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cryptosporidium is an important zoonotic parasite in humans and animals worldwide. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in Iran. METHODS: Fecal samples (n=1.749) were collected randomly in asymptomatic sheep from different rural regions of Iran in 2011 to 2012. All samples were examined by using the cold modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. RESULTS: Oocysts of Cryptosporidium was found in 11.3% (198/1749) of samples (9.8 < CI 95% < 12.8). There was a statistical differences among Cryptosporidium infection, age groups (p < 0.0001), and gender (p=0.02). CONCLUSION: This study is the first report of Cryptosporidium infection in sheep in different regions of Iran. Therefore, further comprehensive molecular studies in sheep to identify the source of contaminations (animals or humans) and designing control strategies is highly recommended.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Oocistos/fisiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
16.
J Parasitol ; 100(4): 532-6, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24628387

RESUMO

Given the paucity of literature available on rabbits infected with Cryptosporidium in Sichuan Province (China), 290 fecal samples were collected from rabbits in the animal house of Sichuan Agricultural University, China and examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts using the Sheather's sucrose flotation technique and a modified acid-fast staining method. Three samples tested positive (prevalence = 1.03%). The positive isolates were genotyped by sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA, HSP70, COWP, and Cp135 genes and characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis was established using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method. All the isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium cuniculus. Further subtyping of the positive isolates was performed by DNA sequencing of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Only 1 subtype family was detected, Va, which was proposed to be a new subtype, VaA31. This study is the first report about the prevalence, genetic identification, and Cp135 gene of C. cuniculus in rabbits in Sichuan Province, China. The obtained results indicate that the C. cuniculus subtype in rabbits in Sichuan Province is unique.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteínas/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Coelhos/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência/métodos
17.
Vet Parasitol ; 202(3-4): 330-4, 2014 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24630710

RESUMO

Piglets from 4 to 8 weeks of age originated from a Cryptosporidium-free research breed were orally inoculated with 1 × 10(6) infectious oocysts of Cryptosporidium scrofarum. The number of shed oocysts per gram of faeces served to describe the infection intensity and prepatent period. In addition, faecal samples collected daily and tissue samples of the small and large intestine collected at 30 days post-inoculation were examined for the C. scrofarum small subunit ribosomal RNA gene using PCR. The piglets inoculated at 4-weeks of age remained uninfected, whereas 5-week-old and older animals were fully susceptible with a prepatent period ranging from 4 to 8 days. Susceptible pigs shed oocysts intermittently, and shedding intensity, reaching a mean maximum of 6000 oocysts per gram, did not differ significantly among infected animals. This study demonstrates that pigs become susceptible to C. scrofarum infection as late as 5-weeks of age. The mechanisms of age related susceptibility remain unknown.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Criptosporidiose/imunologia , Criptosporidiose/patologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genes de RNAr/genética , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 7: 112, 2014 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24568139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea induces massive problems in the rearing of calves. The aim of the study was to obtain current data about the frequency of Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Eimeria spp. in diarrhoeic calves in Southern Germany with the particular focus on giardiosis. RESULTS: 1564 samples were analysed for the three pathogens using microscopical methods. Giardia spp. was detectable in 112/1564 samples (7.2%). The mean age was 46.5 days and the odds of being infected with Giardia spp. increased slowly up to 8 times from about 12 days to 30 days of age. There appeared to be no seasonal influence on the frequency of Giardia spp. A mono-infection with Giardia spp. was diagnosed in 46 calves (2.9%) whereas 15 calves (1.0%) had a mixed-infection with Cryptosporidium spp. and 51 calves (3.3%) with Eimeria spp. Cryptosporidium spp. and Eimeria spp. could be detected in 646/1564 samples (41.3%) and 208/1564 samples (13.3%), respectively, with a mean age of 11.3 and 55.0 days, respectively. The odds of being infected with Cryptosporidium spp. increased up to 4.5 times until an age of 10 days. After that the odds decreased continuously and was approaching zero at about 30 days. The odds of being infected with Eimeria spp. increased continuously up to 30 times from about 20 days to 60 days of age. There appeared to be no significant seasonal influence on the frequency of Cryptosporidium spp.; but there was one for Eimeria spp.: the odds of being infected with Eimeria spp. in March and April decreased by about half and increased up to 2.3 times between July and September. Additionally, as requested by the veterinarians, 1282 of those samples were analysed for E. coli, Rota-, Coronavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. using an ELISA. Obtained frequencies for these pathogens were 0.9%, 37.8%, 3.4% and 45.3% with a mean age of 24.8 days, 12.1 days, 9.0 days and 12.1 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that in Southern Germany in addition to Eimeria spp., Giardia spp. seems to play a contributing role in diarrhoea in older calves, whereas Cryptosporidium spp. and Rotavirus are mostly relevant in young calves.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Giardíase/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Eimeria/fisiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Giardia/fisiologia , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Acta Parasitol ; 59(1): 193-6, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24570068

RESUMO

In this paper we report the occurrence of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium (C. ubiquitum and C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1) and the host-specific Giardia duodenalis genotype E in a sheep farm from Brazil. Fecal specimens were collected from 100 animals and screened for the presence of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence analysis of selected samples was used to confirm the species and to characterize the isolates. Of 100 specimens, 34 were positive for Giardia (34%) and 25 were positive for Cryptosporidium (25%). The prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was higher in lambs than in ewes. Co-infection was observed in 14% of animals. All G. duodenalis isolates belonged to genotype E. The genetic characterization performed in 22 Cryptosporidium-positive samples revealed the presence of zoonotic C. ubiquitum and C. parvum in 76% (19/25) and 12% (3/25) of infected animals, respectively. The presence of zoonotic Cryptosporidium subtypes in lambs was of epidemiological and public health relevance.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 10: 26, 2014 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24433398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis in dogs has been reported worldwide, involving both asymptomatic and diarrheic dogs. Large-scale surveys of Cryptosporidium infection in dogs have been performed in some countries using different diagnostic methods. But, few data are available on the infection rate and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs in China. RESULT: In this study, 770 fecal samples from 66 locations in Henan Province were examined. The average Cryptosporidium infection rate was 3.8%, with dogs in kennels having the highest rate of 7.0% (χ² = 14.82, P < 0.01). The infection rate was 8.0% in dogs younger than 90 days, which was significantly higher than that in the other age groups (1.1-3.8%;χ² = 18.82, P < 0.01). No association was noted between the infection rate and the sex of the dogs. Twenty-nine Cryptosporidium-positive samples were amplified at the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), and actin loci using PCR. Sequence analysis of these amplicons identified only Cryptosporidium canis, which showed 100% identity with the published sequences of the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that C. canis is popular in the dog population in China, considering the large number of dogs in China and the close contact between dogs and humans, the role of C. canis in the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis warrants attention.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/veterinária , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia
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