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1.
Hist Psychol ; 24(1): 1-12, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661676

RESUMO

This contribution aims to promote a dialogue between history and psychology by outlining a direction for future research at the intersection of these disciplines. In particular, it seeks to demonstrate the potential contributions of history to psychology by employing the category of mental health in a historical context. The analysis focuses on notions of psychological health that were developed in late antiquity, especially the equation between "health of the soul" and dispassion (apatheia) within the Christian monastic movement. This theologically informed notion of what constitutes positive human functioning and well-being is examined in view of modern attempts, in mainstream and positive psychology, to define mental health. The optimism concerning the naturalness of virtue and the malleability of human nature that underlies late antique notions of "health of the soul" becomes noticeable in its absence once we turn to modern notions of mental health. It thus provides an illuminating counter-example against which to compare and analyze modern attempts to define mental health. A comparison of these alternative notions human flourishing offers an opportunity to reflect on and test the validity of contemporary attempts to define this condition in a culturally sensitive manner. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cristianismo/história , Historiografia , Saúde Mental/história , Psicologia/história , Cristianismo/psicologia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Monges/história , Monges/psicologia
2.
Hist Psychol ; 24(1): 17-21, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661678

RESUMO

In her thought-provoking article, Graiver (see record 2021-21903-001) argues that many early Christian monks achieved sustained psychological health, perceived as joyful serenity by their contemporaries, and admired within their milieu and the society at large. This state was attained by means of dispassion (apatheia) and culminated in spiritual enlightenment. In the author's opinion, conclusions of this historical research call for a reassessment of modern attitudes to psychological health that can be construed only "in a culturally sensitive manner" (p. 1). In my opinion, limitation of the evidence on mental health in Ancient Greece to medical authors only is hardly justified. The word psuchê is virtually ignored by Greek medical authors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cristianismo/história , Saúde Mental/história , Monges/história , Cristianismo/psicologia , Grécia Antiga , História Antiga , Monges/psicologia
3.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(4): 99-107, 2021 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728880

RESUMO

Within this work are approached some historical elements on the history of the evolution of the perception of the links between the soul and the body and the modification of the place of the soul within canon and Roman rights.


Assuntos
Relações Metafísicas Mente-Corpo , Cristianismo/história , Estado de Consciência , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Psicologia/história , Roma
4.
J Relig Health ; 60(2): 621-624, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713257
5.
J Relig Health ; 60(2): 961-973, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403602

RESUMO

This study examines differences in experiences between Muslim and Christian Arabs (N = 1016) utilizing data from the Detroit Arab American Study (DAAS). Results showed that Muslim and Christian Arabs held similar levels of religious centrality and psychological distress but differed in reports of negative religious public regard and experiences of discrimination. Additionally, religious public regard and religious centrality predicted psychological distress similarly for Muslim and Christian Arab Americans. The relationship between religious centrality and psychological distress was mediated by negative religious public regard and perceived discrimination. Study implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Árabes , Angústia Psicológica , Cristianismo , Humanos , Islamismo , Estresse Psicológico , Estados Unidos
6.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0242546, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503054

RESUMO

Religious rituals are associated with health benefits, potentially produced via social bonding. It is unknown whether secular rituals similarly increase social bonding. We conducted a field study with individuals who celebrate secular rituals at Sunday Assemblies and compared them with participants attending Christian rituals. We assessed levels of social bonding and affect before and after the rituals. Results showed the increase in social bonding taking place in secular rituals is comparable to religious rituals. We also found that both sets of rituals increased positive affect and decreased negative affect, and that the change in positive affect predicted the change in social bonding observed. Together these results suggest that secular rituals might play a similar role to religious ones in fostering feelings of social connection and boosting positive affect.


Assuntos
Comportamento Ritualístico , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Cristianismo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares
7.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 20(1): ar9, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444108

RESUMO

Recent research has begun to explore the experiences of Christian undergraduates and faculty in biology to illuminate reasons for their underrepresentation. In this study, we focused on the experiences of graduate students and explored Christianity as a concealable stigmatized identity (CSI) in the biology community. We constructed interview questions using this CSI framework, which originates in social psychology, to research the experiences of those with stigmatized identities that could be hidden. We analyzed interviews from 33 Christian graduate students who were enrolled in biology programs and found that many Christian graduate students believe the biology community holds strong negative stereotypes against Christians and worry those negative stereotypes will be applied to them as individuals. We found that students conceal their Christian identities to avoid negative stereotypes and reveal their identities to counteract negative stereotypes. Despite these experiences, students recognize their value as boundary spanners between the majority secular scientific community and majority Christian public. Finally, we found that Christian students report that other identities they have, including ethnicity, gender, nationality, and LGBTQ+ identities, can either increase or decrease the relevance of their Christian identities within the biology community.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Estudantes , Ansiedade , Biologia , Docentes , Humanos
10.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(1): 31-42, 2020 09.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988184

RESUMO

Sin in its original form constitutes a deviation from human behavior. Christian doctrine incorporates into the Judeo-Christian tradition the deadly sins that we all know (and their demons), as well as the virtues that are supposed to defeat or at least neutralize: 1) pride / humility, 2) greed / generosity, 3) lust / chastity, 4) anger / patience, 5) gluttony / temperance, 6) envy / charity and 7) laziness / diligence. In this same line of thought, to sin would be to abuse the freedom of God. According to John Bossy, the seven deadly sins would be the expression of a social and community ethic with which the Catholic Church tried at the time to contain violence and heal the troubled medieval society. Sins and their penance were originally a healthy warning of how to manage one’s individual and social behavior (Savater, 2013). That which Modern society allows as lawful or not, has “overcome” the conduct and moral republicanism of our days (1). Morality is one of the most sophisticated features of human judgment, behavior, and mind. An individual who deviates from violent morality, rules and civil rights, even affecting the individual liberties of others, sometimes even aggressively. A scientific approach to the origins of evil refers us to the exciting analysis of the molecular, epigenetic, phylogenetic and cellular determinants of the neurobiology of sin. This formidable adventure of thought constitutes a harmonious path traveled by moral philosophy and the neurosciences of that long stretch that is between the error of Prometheus and the error of Descartes.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Cristianismo , Princípios Morais , Virtudes , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Filogenia
11.
J Christ Nurs ; 37(4): E45-E46, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898077

RESUMO

Students at a Christian nursing school faced unanticipated challenges in preparing and presenting research projects during the COVID-19 pandemic. Students and faculty rapidly adapted to a virtual environment and overcame obstacles to complete and present their work. The students demonstrated resilience and additional learning outcomes as a result of the enforced virtual experience.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Cristianismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Educação em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias
12.
J Christ Nurs ; 37(4): E43-E44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898076

RESUMO

Nurses have put themselves in precarious situations by caring for COVID-19 patients. Through the grid of faith, hope, and love as depicted in 1 Corinthians, the author commends the selfless work of nurses and esteems God's faithfulness to nurses who acknowledge him.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Religião e Medicina , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento Cooperativo , Empatia , Humanos , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Pandemias , Filosofia em Enfermagem
13.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(5): 404-409, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Health promotion and health literacy activities within church congregations are not a new concept; however, this has not yet been widely researched in New Zealand. This paper explores the views of Samoan Methodist Church ministers about health-related issues and their role in health promotion and health literacy in their churches. METHODS: This was a qualitative research study with Samoan Methodist Church ministers from Auckland, New Zealand. Ten participants were interviewed face-to-face using a semi-structured approach. A general inductive approach for analysis of qualitative data was utilised. Ethics approval was granted by the University of Auckland Human Participants Ethics Committee. RESULTS: All of the church ministers described a holistic view of health and had a sense of responsibility for the holistic wellbeing of their members. Culture was seen as the main barrier to good health. Most of the ministers identified their role in health promotion as being associated with an external health provider. CONCLUSION: Church ministers are well-respected leaders in the Samoan Church, which helps them play an important role in communicating health-promoting messages and encouraging healthy behaviours. The elders and chiefs are recognised as the cultural leaders in the church; without their support, the cultural barriers to health will be difficult to overcome. Implications for public health: Church ministers are important in health literacy messages and health promotion.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Clero/psicologia , Letramento em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Liderança , Adulto , Características Culturais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Religião e Medicina , Samoa , Adulto Jovem
14.
Science ; 369(6505): 866-870, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792403

RESUMO

Can intergroup contact build social cohesion after war? I randomly assigned Iraqi Christians displaced by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) to an all-Christian soccer team or to a team mixed with Muslims. The intervention improved behaviors toward Muslim peers: Christians with Muslim teammates were more likely to vote for a Muslim (not on their team) to receive a sportsmanship award, register for a mixed team next season, and train with Muslims 6 months after the intervention. The intervention did not substantially affect behaviors in other social contexts, such as patronizing a restaurant in Muslim-dominated Mosul or attending a mixed social event, nor did it yield consistent effects on intergroup attitudes. Although contact can build tolerant behaviors toward peers within an intervention, building broader social cohesion outside of it is more challenging.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados/psicologia , Cristianismo/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Islamismo/psicologia , Futebol/psicologia , Humanos , Iraque
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 494, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the greatest public health burdens, particularly for people living with several barriers to access to health care services, such as the hill tribe adult population in Thailand. People aged 25 years and over who are out of the target population for HBV immunization under the national Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) are at risk of HBV infection. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and determine the factors associated with HBV infection among hill tribe adults aged 25 years and over living in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used to collect information on hill tribe adults aged 25 years and over living in 36 selected hill tribe villages in Chiang Rai Province. All people living in the selected villages who met the criteria were invited to participate in the study. A validated questionnaire and a 5-mL blood specimen were used as research instruments. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs), and antibody to hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) were detected by using the Wondfo Test Kit@, which has high sensitivity and specificity. Logistic regression was used to detect the associations between variables at the significance level of α = 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 1491 individuals were recruited into the analysis; 60.8% were females, 81.3% were aged between 30 and 60 years, and 86.0% were married. The majority were illiterate (54.9%), were Buddhist (55.7%), worked in agricultural sectors (87.3%), and had an annual income of less than 50,000 baht per year (72.9%). The overall prevalence of hepatitis B infection was 26.6%; 7.6% were positive for HBsAg, 19.2% were positive for anti-HBs, and 18.9% were positive for anti-HBc. In the multivariate analysis, three variables were found to be associated with hepatitis B infection: those who were in the Yao and Lisu tribes had a 1.64-fold (95% CI = 1.08-2.49) and a 1.93-fold (95% CI = 1.10-3.31) greater chance, respectively, of HBV infection than did those in the Karen tribe; those who were Christian had a 1.41-fold (95% CI = 1.06-1.87) greater chance of HBV infection than did those who were Buddhist; and those who did not use alcohol had a 1.29-fold (95% CI = 1.01-1.65) greater chance of HBV infection than did those who used alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to develop and implement effective public health interventions among hill tribe adult populations who are not part of the EPI-targeted population, particularly Christians, those in the Lisu and Yao tribes, and those who do not use alcohol, to reduce the HBV infection rate, save lives and reduce medical expenses.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Adulto , Budismo , Cristianismo , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(10): 1785-1794, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Despite a higher prevalence of MetS in African American (AA) women, little is known about the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in improving metabolic markers in this high-risk group. This study investigated the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle intervention delivered by lay health coaches in reducing MetS among AA women. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cluster-randomized diabetes prevention program (DPP) was implemented in 11 churches utilizing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to develop and deliver the interventions. A total of 221 adults, AA women who were overweight or obese, and did not have diabetes were included in this study. The prevalence of MetS was 42.08% before receiving the DPP intervention and 31.22% after the intervention that represented a 10.86% absolute reduction and a 25.81% relative reduction from baseline. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of being free from MetS at post-intervention in contrast to baseline was 2.14 (p = 0.02). Factors that increased the odds of being free from MetS were younger age, reduction in intake of total calories, total fat, saturated and trans-fat, and dietary sodium. CONCLUSION: A faith adapted lifestyle intervention held in church settings and delivered by minimally trained lay health coaches reduced the prevalence of MetS in AA women who were overweight or obese. Findings from this study can be used to translate evidence into public health programs at the community level for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04082702 (www.clinicaltrials.gov).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Organizações Religiosas , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/terapia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Cristianismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Texas/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235971, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678861

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to explore Protestant religious leaders' attitudes towards abortion and their strategies for pastoral care in Georgia, USA. Religious leaders may play an important role in providing sexual and reproductive health pastoral care given a long history of supporting healing and health promotion. METHODS: We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with Mainline and Black Protestant religious leaders on their attitudes toward abortion and how they provide pastoral care for abortion. The study was conducted in a county with relatively higher rates of abortion, lower access to sexual and reproductive health services, higher religiosity, and greater denominational diversity compared to other counties in the state. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by thematic analysis. RESULTS: Religious leaders' attitudes towards abortion fell on a spectrum from "pro-life" to "pro-choice". However, most participants expressed attitudes in the middle of this spectrum and described more nuanced, complex, and sometimes contradictory views. Differences in abortion attitudes stemmed from varying beliefs on when life begins and circumstances in which abortion may be morally acceptable. Religious leaders described their pastoral care on abortion as "journeying with" congregants by advising them to make well-informed decisions irrespective of the religious leader's own attitudes. However, many religious leaders described a lack of preparation and training to have these conversations. Leaders emphasized not condoning abortion, yet being willing to emotionally support women because spiritual leaders are compelled to love and provide pastoral care. Paradoxically, all leaders emphasized the importance of empathy and compassion for people who have unplanned pregnancies, yet only leaders whose attitudes were "pro-choice" or in the middle of the spectrum expressed an obligation to confront stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors towards people who experience abortion. Additionally, many leaders offer misinformation about abortion when offering pastoral care. CONCLUSION: These findings contribute to limited empirical evidence on pastoral care for abortion. We found religious leaders hold diverse attitudes and beliefs about abortion, rooted in Christian scripture and doctrine that inform advice and recommendations to congregants. While religious leaders may have formal training on pastoral care in general or theological education on the ethical issues related to abortion, they struggle to integrate their knowledge and training across these two areas. Still, leaders could be potentially important resources for empathy, compassion, and affirmation of agency in abortion decision-making, particularly in the Southern United States.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Cristianismo/psicologia , Liderança , Princípios Morais , Assistência Religiosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Georgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233681, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is unreliable, and negligible information on the mental health and trauma-exposure of asylum-seekers and displaced refugees in the Iraqi Kurdistan region. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate how responsible the ethno-religious origins are, for the prevalence of trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in displaced Iraqi asylum-seekers and refugees residing in the Iraqi Kurdistan region. METHODS: Structured interviews with a cross-sectional sample of 150 individuals, comprised of three self-identified ethno-religious groups (50 participants in each): Christians, Muslims, and Yazidis. RESULTS: 100% prevalence of trauma exposure and 48.7% of current PTSD among refugees, 70% PTSD rate of Yazidi participants, which is significantly higher (p < 0.01) compared to 44% of Muslim participants and 32% of Christian participants. These findings were corroborated using the self-rated PTSD, DSM-5 Checklist, with more severe PTSD symptom scores (p < 0.001) obtained among Yazidis (43.1; 19.7), compared to Muslims (31.3; 20.1) and Christians (29.3; 17.8). Self-rated depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) were also higher (p < 0.007) among Yazidis (12.3; 8.2) and Muslims (11.7; 5.9), compared to Christians (8.1; 7).


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cristianismo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Povos Indígenas/psicologia , Povos Indígenas/estatística & dados numéricos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Islamismo/psicologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Refugiados/psicologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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