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PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226826, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995573


Christians are one of the most underrepresented groups in science, and one potential explanation is that scientists have a bias against Christian students, which could discourage and actively prevent Christian students from becoming scientists. Although there is a general perception in society that there is bias against Christians in science, we do not know whether science students, who frequently interact with scientists, perceive this bias. Further, no researchers have attempted to experimentally document the existence of bias against Christians in science. To address these gaps in the literature, we designed three studies. In the first study, we found that college science students report a perceived bias against Christians in science and that evangelical Christians perceive greater bias than Catholic and non-Christian students. Then in two studies, biology professors evaluated Ph.D. program applicants and we examined whether the professors rated a student less favorably when the student revealed a Christian religious identity. We found no statistically significant differences in how biology professors rated a student who was President of the Christian Association compared to a student who was President of the Atheist Association or a student who was President of the Activities Association. However, in Study 3, biology professors did rate a Christian student who went on a mission trip with Campus Crusade for Christ as less hireable, less competent, and less likeable than a student who did not reveal a Christian identity. Taken together, these studies indicate that perceived bias against Christians in science may contribute to underrepresentation of Christians but actual bias against Christians in science may be restricted to a specific type of Christianity that scientists call fundamentalist and/or evangelical.

Biologia/educação , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Viés , Cristianismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(25): 1825-1829, 2019 12.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847021


Christmas is a celebration with a strong social radiance. It is a vehicle for political positions and debates and thus shows itself to be a controversial cosmos of significance. A cosmos with history that is not as old as is often claimed - the origin of the festival as we know it today lies in the 19th century. Since then, Christmas has developed into a global festival in which many different people take part. But Christmas is not only unifying, it is also exclusive and creates cultural differences. The aim of the text is to look at the festival in its historical genesis and to critically illuminate Christmas as an ambivalent social phenomenon.

Cristianismo/psicologia , Férias e Feriados/psicologia , Política , Afeto , Alemanha/etnologia , Humanos
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1415-1436, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-995168


Este artigo trata da disputa gerada por profissionais identificados como "psicólogos cristãos" que defendem publicamente seu direito de oferecer auxílio terapêutico com o fim de reverter a homossexualidade. Esta polêmica adquiriu contornos particulares no Brasil, onde o Conselho Federal de Psicologia desde 1999 proíbe qualquer forma de patologização da orientação sexual. Com base na literatura especializada começamos por expor, por um lado, a trajetória da homossexualidade como objeto de discurso da Psicologia e, por outro, no campo evangélico. A seguir, explicamos a conformação da Psicologia como profissão regulamentada no Brasil. Em seguida, com base em fontes documentais de caráter público, examinamos a posição do Conselho Federal de Psicologia e analisamos as disputas jurídicas travadas por psicólogos que defendem seu direito a tratar a homossexualidade como expressão de desordem moral e desvio patológico. O antagonismo que emerge na polêmica em torno da chamada "cura gay" não opõe simplesmente ciência e religião, mas envolve atores públicos capazes de se localizar estrategicamente em um ou outro campo e de fazer uso do direito em seu favor. Sua capacidade de recolocar a homossexualidade como signo de desvio moral e transtorno mental constela a política sexual como questão de peso para a democracia brasileira.(AU)

This article examines the claims of professionals identified as "Christian psychologists" who publicly defend their right to offer therapy to "reverse homosexuality". This debate took shape when "conversion therapy" was banned by the Brazilian Federal Council of Psychology in 1999. Based on specialized literature, we begin by introducing, on the one hand, the itinerary of homosexuality as object of discourse in Psychology, and in the evangelical field, on the other. And we go on explaining the process of constitution of Psychology as a regulated practice in Brazil. Then, based on public records, we examine the stand taken by the Federal Council of Psychology, and analyze the legal claims made by psychologists who defend their right to treat homosexuality as a moral offense and a mental disorder. The antagonism that emerges in the so-called "gay cure" debate does not simply oppose science and religion but involves public actors capable of strategically placing themselves in one field or the other and use the Law in their favor. Their ability to consider homosexuality as a sign of moral deviance and a mental disorder places sexual politics as a significant issue with regards to Brazilian democracy.(AU)

Este artículo aborda la disputa generada por profesionales identificados como "psicólogos cristianos" que defienden públicamente su derecho a ofrecer apoyo terapéutico con el fin de revertir la homosexualidad. Esta polémica adquirió contornos particulares en Brasil, donde el Consejo Federal de Psicología desde 1999 prohíbe cualquier forma de patologización de la orientación sexual. Basándonos en literatura especializada, comenzamos por exponer, por un lado, la trayectoria de la homosexualidad como objeto de discurso de la Psicología y, por otro, en el campo evangélico. A continuación, explicamos la conformación de la Psicología como profesión reglamentada en Brasil. Luego, basándonso en fuentes documentales de carácter público, examinamos la posición del Consejo Federal de Psicología y analizamos las disputas jurídicas entabladas por psicólogos que defienden su derecho a tratar la homosexualidad como expresión de desorden moral y desvío patológico. El antagonismo que emerge en la polémica en torno de la llamada "cura gay" no opone simplemente ciencia y religión, sino que involucra actores públicos capaces de localizarse estratégicamente en uno u otro campo y de hacer uso del derecho a su favor. Su capacidad de re-colocar la homosexualidad como signo de desvío moral y trastorno mental constela la política sexual como cuestión de peso para la democracia brasileña.(AU)

Religião e Psicologia , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Cristianismo/psicologia , Sexualidade/psicologia , Psicologia
J Christ Nurs ; 36(4): 205, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490867
J Christ Nurs ; 36(4): 222-227, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490876


Though unpublished in peer-reviewed literature for more than 40 years, the Theory of Nursing for the Whole Person has been, and remains, a highly useful framework for nursing practice, education, and research. Used by the College of Nursing at Oral Roberts University, the theory was developed by the founding dean, I. Tomine Tjelta. Founded on a Christian worldview, the theory is built on the basic nursing paradigm concepts, yet functions as a distinctly scriptural framework. The theory's five conceptual triads describe how nursing addresses the whole-person health-illness continuum for individuals, families, and communities.

Cristianismo , Enfermagem Holística , Teoria de Enfermagem , Enfermagem na Comunidade de Fé , Humanos
Perspect Biol Med ; 62(3): 434-451, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495790


When we figure medical practice as warfare, an individual clinician may be either a dutiful combatant or a conscientious objector. The rhetorical structure of this choice means that clinicians may exercise their consciences by loyally joining or disloyally exiting the medical ranks' battle against disease. But there are alternatives to loyalty and exit, and within psychiatry, these alternatives have transformed clinical services. In the 1970s, gay activists successfully resisted the American Psychiatric Association's characterization of homosexuality as a mental illness. In the 1940s, Mennonite nonresisters created the Mennonite mental health movement as a noncoercive alternative to standard psychiatric care. These gay activists and Mennonite volunteers opened communal alternatives to violence. When clinicians pursue nonviolent conflict about contested medical practices, they practice with the integrity that develops out of engaging in moral dialogue. Medicine becomes something more than a war in which individuals serve or to which they object: instead, it becomes a prudential set of practices that advance through principled disagreements and that expand the imagination of clinicians as they respond to the vulnerability of the people they meet as patients.

Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Consciência , Psiquiatria/ética , Recusa do Médico a Tratar , Cristianismo , Assistência à Saúde , Ética Médica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais , Papel Profissional , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Estados Unidos
Perspect Biol Med ; 62(3): 503-518, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495794


This essay analyzes the conflicts that arise between an individual's deeply held beliefs and the collective norms of society. Sometimes these conflicts are framed in religious terms. The author argues that such a framing is too narrow and inappropriately puts the focus on a specific set of (largely Christian) beliefs about matters related to sexuality. This essay attempts to broaden the discussion in order to highlight the ways in which conflicts between individual beliefs and practices, on the one hand, and prevailing societal norms, on the other, create the tension that can lead to societal change.

Recusa Consciente em Tratar-se , Cultura , Relações Médico-Paciente/ética , Normas Sociais , Aborto Induzido/ética , Cristianismo , Recusa Consciente em Tratar-se/ética , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Futebol Americano , Humanos , Imunização/ética , Obrigações Morais , Médicos , Gravidez , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/ética , Estados Unidos
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 28(5): 478-480, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416491
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(11): 4547-4558, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414262


This study examines associations between dimensions of religiosity/spirituality (R/S) and anxiety symptoms in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers' positive ways of thinking and romantic relationship satisfaction were examined as mediators of associations. The extent to which child ASD symptom severity and maternal broad autism phenotype (BAP) behaviors predicted interactions with religious community members was also examined. Seventy-three Christian mothers of a child with ASD completed online surveys. Higher levels of spirituality were associated with viewing their child with ASD as providing a positive contribution to the family. These positive views were, in turn, associated with less anxiety symptoms. Mothers of children with more severe ASD symptoms also reported greater negative interactions with members of their congregation.

Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Cristianismo/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Espiritualidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
Sex Reprod Healthc ; 21: 81-86, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395238


OBJECTIVE: This paper examines the factors related to emergency contraception (EC) use in the context of contraceptive discontinuation among undergraduate women in Brazil. STUDY DESIGN: This a retrospective cohort study conducted among a probability sample of 1679 undergraduate women in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected online using a contraceptive calendar. We examined factors related to EC use following contraceptive discontinuation for method-related reasons and contraceptive abandonment. We also analyzed factors related to EC use following inconsistent use of contraception. Analyses were conducted using Pearson's Chi-square tests and logistic regression. RESULTS: More than half (54.6%) of young women reported lifetime EC use and 16.5% had used EC in the 12-months prior to the survey. Last use of EC was mostly related to inconsistent or incorrect use of regular contraception (90.6%). Three quarters of women (76.2%) who discontinued contraception and were at risk of becoming pregnant did not use EC following discontinuation, and only 10.5% used EC after stopping contraception altogether. Women who were younger, who self-identified as Evangelicals, who reported more than four lifetime sexual partners, and who had no pregnancy history had higher odds of using EC following discontinuation for method-related reasons. CONCLUSION: We conclude that most undergraduate students in São Paulo Brazil do not use EC when needed, such as contraceptive discontinuation, potentially reflecting a lack of pregnancy risk recognition.

Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção Pós-Coito/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Cristianismo , Feminino , Número de Gestações , Humanos , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
Urologe A ; 58(10): 1179-1184, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338523


Religion, which is one of the most important sources of human identity, has so far hardly been taken into account in the clinic. In the largely secularized society of Germany, this has played a highly subordinate role. Currently, however, the development towards a multireligious society is emerging, which will also be reflected in everyday medical care. Disease and mortality in patients can affect different cultural-religious spheres. Although distinction between cultural and religious aspects is possible, it is not necessary for clinical practice. In the situation of oncological therapy, questions may arise which must be answered differently in the religions Christianity, Judaism and Islam and which should be taken into account when selecting therapy. The consideration of cultural-religious rules can intensify the patient's acceptance, but it can also impair it in case of disregard. Such peculiarities can be the separation into male and female spheres or the restriction of certain auxiliary substances or drugs (blood products, narcotics). Kübler-Ross's phase model is suitable for determining where cultural-religious sensitivities should be taken into account in the phases of disease and how cultural-religious offerings can benefit the course of therapy. Due to large individual, regional, cultural and confessional differences, no systematic catalogue of procedures can be provided here. However, knowledge of such differences, more sensitive interaction with patients and their families and cooperation with hospital pastors can strengthen the relationship of trust between doctor and patient and thus improve the conditions for successful oncological therapy. These aspects should not be underestimated when treating people of other faiths in Germany's secular society.

Competência Cultural , Neoplasias/terapia , Religião e Medicina , Religião , Cristianismo , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Islamismo , Judaísmo , Masculino , Neoplasias/etnologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Espiritualidade