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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5240, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475390

RESUMO

ß-actin is a crucial component of several chromatin remodeling complexes that control chromatin structure and accessibility. The mammalian Brahma-associated factor (BAF) is one such complex that plays essential roles in development and differentiation by regulating the chromatin state of critical genes and opposing the repressive activity of polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs). While previous work has shown that ß-actin loss can lead to extensive changes in gene expression and heterochromatin organization, it is not known if changes in ß-actin levels can directly influence chromatin remodeling activities of BAF and polycomb proteins. Here we conduct a comprehensive genomic analysis of ß-actin knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) using ATAC-Seq, HiC-seq, RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq of various epigenetic marks. We demonstrate that ß-actin levels can induce changes in chromatin structure by affecting the complex interplay between chromatin remodelers such as BAF/BRG1 and EZH2. Our results show that changes in ß-actin levels and associated chromatin remodeling activities can not only impact local chromatin accessibility but also induce reversible changes in 3D genome architecture. Our findings reveal that ß-actin-dependent chromatin remodeling plays a role in shaping the chromatin landscape and influences the regulation of genes involved in development and differentiation.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/fisiologia , Actinas/genética , Animais , Cromatina/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Fibroblastos , Dosagem de Genes , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Histonas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas do Grupo Polycomb/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5242, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475398

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at >250 loci in the human genome to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. For each locus, identifying the functional variant(s) among multiple SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium is critical to understand molecular mechanisms underlying T2D genetic risk. Using massively parallel reporter assays (MPRA), we test the cis-regulatory effects of SNPs associated with T2D and altered in vivo islet chromatin accessibility in MIN6 ß cells under steady state and pathophysiologic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions. We identify 1,982/6,621 (29.9%) SNP-containing elements that activate transcription in MIN6 and 879 SNP alleles that modulate MPRA activity. Multiple T2D-associated SNPs alter the activity of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE)-containing elements that are strongly induced by ER stress. We identify 220 functional variants at 104 T2D association signals, narrowing 54 signals to a single candidate SNP. Together, this study identifies elements driving ß cell steady state and ER stress-responsive transcriptional activation, nominates causal T2D SNPs, and uncovers potential roles for repetitive elements in ß cell transcriptional stress response and T2D genetics.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Alelos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Camundongos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Elementos Nucleotídeos Curtos e Dispersos/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4859, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381042

RESUMO

Stem and progenitor cells undergo a global elevation of nascent transcription, or hypertranscription, during key developmental transitions involving rapid cell proliferation. The chromatin remodeler Chd1 mediates hypertranscription in pluripotent cells but its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Here we report a novel role for Chd1 in protecting genome integrity at promoter regions by preventing DNA double-stranded break (DSB) accumulation in ES cells. Chd1 interacts with several DNA repair factors including Atm, Parp1, Kap1 and Topoisomerase 2ß and its absence leads to an accumulation of DSBs at Chd1-bound Pol II-transcribed genes and rDNA. Genes prone to DNA breaks in Chd1 KO ES cells are longer genes with GC-rich promoters, a more labile nucleosomal structure and roles in chromatin regulation, transcription and signaling. These results reveal a vulnerability of hypertranscribing stem cells to accumulation of endogenous DNA breaks, with important implications for developmental and cancer biology.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Cromatina/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/metabolismo , DNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Camundongos , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2351: 3-22, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382181

RESUMO

Knowledge in gene transcription and chromatin regulation has been intensely studied for decades, but thanks to next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques there has been a major leap forward in the last few years. Historically, identification of specific enhancer elements has led to the identification of master transcription factors (TFs) in the 1990s. Genetic and biochemical experiments have identified the key regulators controlling RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription and structurally analyses have elucidated detailed mechanisms. NGS and the development of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) have accelerated the gain of knowledge in the recent years. By now, we have a dazzling wealth of techniques that are currently used to put gene expression into a genome-wide context. This book is an attempt to assemble useful protocols for many researchers within and nearby research areas. In general, these innovative techniques focus on enhancer and promoter studies. The techniques should also be of interest for related fields such as DNA repair and replication.


Assuntos
Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2351: 93-104, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382185

RESUMO

MNase-Seq is a genome-wide procedure that allows mapping of DNA associated to nucleosomes following micrococcal nuclease digestion. It is a rapid and robust technology useful for the analysis of chromatin properties genome-wide at the resolution of mono-nucleosomes. Here, we describe how to produce high-resolution nucleosome maps of cells grown in suspension or adherent mammalian cells. After only three steps: nuclei or cell preparation, native MNase digestion and DNA purification, libraries for high-throughput sequencing can be prepared. Genome-wide nucleosome maps allow analyzing chromatin opening at promoters or enhancers, nucleosome displacement, or labile nucleosome occupancy depending on the digestion condition used. As presented, MNase-Seq is a versatile tool for investigating chromatin dynamics, regulation, and to define open chromatin regions of regulatory elements in mammalian genomes.


Assuntos
Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Biblioteca Gênica
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2351: 123-145, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382187

RESUMO

The positioning of nucleosomes regulates the accessibility of genomic DNA and can impact the activities of functional elements. Nucleosome positioning is highly consistent at each genomic location in any particular cell-type, but can vary in an orchestrated fashion between different cell-types and between genomic loci according to their activities. Here, we describe a technique-"ChIP-MNase" (chromatin immunoprecipitation linked to micrococcal nuclease mapping)-to determine nucleosome positions at chosen sets of genomic features that can be defined by their molecular composition and recovered by chromatin immunoprecipitation. ChIP-MNase enables high-resolution analysis of nucleosome positioning at genomic regions-of-interest and can allow differential analysis of alleles undergoing distinct molecular processes.


Assuntos
Alelos , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação/métodos , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina/métodos , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Loci Gênicos , Nuclease do Micrococo/metabolismo , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Células Cultivadas , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Ligação Proteica , Controle de Qualidade
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2351: 147-161, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382188

RESUMO

Sequential ChIP (ChIP-reChIP) enables the characterization of the same nucleosome for two different types of modifications or histone subtypes. Here, we describe a ChIP-reChIP protocol to identify a heterotypic (asymmetric) H2A.Z-H2A-containing nucleosome. In this method, following MNase digestion of chromatin to mostly a mononucleosome fraction, H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes are first immunoprecipitated using affinity purified anti-H2A.Z antibodies. This H2A.Z-containing nucleosome fraction is then subsequently immunoprecipitated using anti-H2A affinity purified antibodies to yield an enriched population of heterotypic H2A.Z-H2A containing nucleosomes. This protocol can be adopted to investigate any pair-wise combination of any histone variant, histone posttranslational modification, or any other protein that binds to a modified nucleosome.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina/métodos , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Histonas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2351: 165-179, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382189

RESUMO

Targeted chromatin capture (T2C) is a 3C-based method and is used to study the 3D chromatin organization, interactomes and structural changes associated with gene regulation, progression through the cell cycle, and cell survival and development. Low input targeted chromatin capture (low-T2C) is an optimized version of the T2C protocol for low numbers of cells. Here, we describe the protocol for low-T2C, including all experimental steps and bioinformatics tools in detail.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Cromatina/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Biblioteca Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2351: 181-199, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382190

RESUMO

Proximity ligation-assisted ChIP-Seq (PLAC-Seq), also known as HiChIP, is a method to detect and quantify chromatin contacts anchored at genomic regions bound by specific proteins or histone modifications. By combining in situ Hi-C and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) using antibodies against transcription factors (TFs) or histone marks of interest, the method achieves targeted interrogation of chromatin organization at a subset of genomic regions. PLAC-Seq is able to identify long-range chromatin interactions at kilobase-scale resolution with significantly reduced sequencing cost.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação/métodos , Cromatina/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Cromatina/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2351: 211-227, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382192

RESUMO

The open chromatin enrichment and network Hi-C (OCEAN-C) was developed not only for identifying large-scale chromatin structures, including topologically associated domains (TADs) and A/B compartments, but also for globally mapping hubs of open chromatin interactions (HOCIs) and their interaction networks independent of antibody and bait-sequences.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Cromatina/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Sítios de Ligação , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Biblioteca Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ligação Proteica , Controle de Qualidade , Software , Transcrição Genética , Navegador
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2351: 229-248, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382193

RESUMO

Chromosome conformation capture and its variants interrogate population-average chromatin structure at a higher resolution and throughput than microscopic methods. Capture Hi-C is a variant tailored for the simultaneous assessment of all interactions with thousands of specific bait sequences, so is particularly suited to genome-wide studies of promoter interactions with distal regulatory elements, such as enhancers. We present the principles and methods for Promoter Capture Hi-C (PCHi-C), from experimental design to data analysis.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromossomos , Análise de Dados , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla
12.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 614-619, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402607

RESUMO

Butterflies are diverse in virtually all aspects of their ontogeny, including morphology, life history, and behavior. However, the developmental regulatory mechanisms underlying the important phenotypic traits of butterflies at different developmental stages remain unknown. Here, we investigated the developmental regulatory profiles of butterflies based on transposase accessible chromatin sequencing (ATAC-seq) at three developmental stages in two representative species ( Papilio xuthus and Kallima inachus). Results indicated that 15%-47% of open chromatin peaks appeared in associated genes located 3 kb upstream (i.e., promoter region) of their transcription start site (TSS). Comparative analysis of the different developmental stages indicated that chromatin accessibility is a dynamic process and associated genes with differentially accessible (DA) peaks show functions corresponding to their phenotypic traits. Interestingly, the black color pattern in P. xuthus 4th instar larvae may be attributed to promoter peak-related genes involved in the melanogenesis pathway. Furthermore, many longevity genes in 5th instar larvae and pupae showed open peaks 3 kb upstream of their TSS, which may contribute to the overwintering diapause observed in K. inachus adults. Combined with RNA-seq analysis, our data demonstrated that several genes enriched in the melanogenesis and longevity pathways also exhibit higher expression, confirming that the expression of genes may be closely related to their phenotypic traits. This study offers new insights into larval cuticle color and adult longevity in butterflies and provides a resource for investigating the developmental regulatory mechanisms underlying butterfly ontogeny.


Assuntos
Borboletas/fisiologia , Cromatina/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Borboletas/anatomia & histologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Tegumento Comum/fisiologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/fisiologia , Pigmentação/fisiologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5078, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426578

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified loci for kidney disease, but the causal variants, genes, and pathways remain unknown. Here we identify two kidney disease genes Dipeptidase 1 (DPEP1) and Charged Multivesicular Body Protein 1 A (CHMP1A) via the triangulation of kidney function GWAS, human kidney expression, and methylation quantitative trait loci. Using single-cell chromatin accessibility and genome editing, we fine map the region that controls the expression of both genes. Mouse genetic models demonstrate the causal roles of both genes in kidney disease. Cellular studies indicate that both Dpep1 and Chmp1a are important regulators of a single pathway, ferroptosis and lead to kidney disease development via altering cellular iron trafficking.


Assuntos
Dipeptidases/genética , Ferroptose/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Nefropatias/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cisplatino , Metilação de DNA/genética , Dipeptidases/deficiência , Dipeptidases/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico , Edição de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Necroptose/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Piroptose/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/deficiência , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1611-1630, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343493

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a melanoma-associated locus on chromosome band 7p21.1 with rs117132860 as the lead SNP and a secondary independent signal marked by rs73069846. rs117132860 is also associated with tanning ability and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Because ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a key environmental exposure for all three traits, we investigated the mechanisms by which this locus contributes to melanoma risk, focusing on cellular response to UVR. Fine-mapping of melanoma GWASs identified four independent sets of candidate causal variants. A GWAS region-focused Capture-C study of primary melanocytes identified physical interactions between two causal sets and the promoter of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Subsequent chromatin state annotation, eQTL, and luciferase assays identified rs117132860 as a functional variant and reinforced AHR as a likely causal gene. Because AHR plays critical roles in cellular response to dioxin and UVR, we explored links between this SNP and AHR expression after both 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. Allele-specific AHR binding to rs117132860-G was enhanced following both, consistent with predicted weakened AHR binding to the risk/poor-tanning rs117132860-A allele, and allele-preferential AHR expression driven from the protective rs117132860-G allele was observed following UVB exposure. Small deletions surrounding rs117132860 introduced via CRISPR abrogates AHR binding, reduces melanocyte cell growth, and prolongs growth arrest following UVB exposure. These data suggest AHR is a melanoma susceptibility gene at the 7p21.1 risk locus and rs117132860 is a functional variant within a UVB-responsive element, leading to allelic AHR expression and altering melanocyte growth phenotypes upon exposure.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Loci Gênicos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Alelos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanócitos/efeitos da radiação , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Cultura Primária de Células , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Banho de Sol , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1647-1668, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416157

RESUMO

Interpretation of the function of non-coding risk loci for neuropsychiatric disorders and brain-relevant traits via gene expression and alternative splicing quantitative trait locus (e/sQTL) analyses is generally performed in bulk post-mortem adult tissue. However, genetic risk loci are enriched in regulatory elements active during neocortical differentiation, and regulatory effects of risk variants may be masked by heterogeneity in bulk tissue. Here, we map e/sQTLs, and allele-specific expression in cultured cells representing two major developmental stages, primary human neural progenitors (n = 85) and their sorted neuronal progeny (n = 74), identifying numerous loci not detected in either bulk developing cortical wall or adult cortex. Using colocalization and genetic imputation via transcriptome-wide association, we uncover cell-type-specific regulatory mechanisms underlying risk for brain-relevant traits that are active during neocortical differentiation. Specifically, we identified a progenitor-specific eQTL for CENPW co-localized with common variant associations for cortical surface area and educational attainment.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Neocórtex/metabolismo , Neurogênese/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Alelos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Escolaridade , Feminino , Feto , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Neocórtex/citologia , Neocórtex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neuroticismo , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Prognóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1725-1734, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433009

RESUMO

Copy-number variations (CNVs) are a common cause of congenital limb malformations and are interpreted primarily on the basis of their effect on gene dosage. However, recent studies show that CNVs also influence the 3D genome chromatin organization. The functional interpretation of whether a phenotype is the result of gene dosage or a regulatory position effect remains challenging. Here, we report on two unrelated families with individuals affected by bilateral hypoplasia of the femoral bones, both harboring de novo duplications on chromosome 10q24.32. The ∼0.5 Mb duplications include FGF8, a key regulator of limb development and several limb enhancer elements. To functionally characterize these variants, we analyzed the local chromatin architecture in the affected individuals' cells and re-engineered the duplications in mice by using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing. We found that the duplications were associated with ectopic chromatin contacts and increased FGF8 expression. Transgenic mice carrying the heterozygous tandem duplication including Fgf8 exhibited proximal shortening of the limbs, resembling the human phenotype. To evaluate whether the phenotype was a result of gene dosage, we generated another transgenic mice line, carrying the duplication on one allele and a concurrent Fgf8 deletion on the other allele, as a control. Surprisingly, the same malformations were observed. Capture Hi-C experiments revealed ectopic interaction with the duplicated region and Fgf8, indicating a position effect. In summary, we show that duplications at the FGF8 locus are associated with femoral hypoplasia and that the phenotype is most likely the result of position effects altering FGF8 expression rather than gene dosage effects.


Assuntos
Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10/química , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Fator 8 de Crescimento de Fibroblasto/genética , Deformidades Congênitas das Extremidades Inferiores/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Pré-Escolar , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Família , Feminino , Fêmur/anormalidades , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/metabolismo , Fator 8 de Crescimento de Fibroblasto/metabolismo , Edição de Genes , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Deformidades Congênitas das Extremidades Inferiores/diagnóstico por imagem , Deformidades Congênitas das Extremidades Inferiores/metabolismo , Deformidades Congênitas das Extremidades Inferiores/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Linhagem , Fenótipo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445492

RESUMO

Functional characterization of cancer risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has become a big challenge. To identify the regulatory risk SNPs that can lead to transcriptional misregulation, we performed parallel reporter gene assays with both alleles of 213 prostate cancer risk-associated GWAS SNPs in 22Rv1 cells. We disclosed 32 regulatory SNPs that exhibited different regulatory activities with two alleles. For one of the regulatory SNPs, rs684232, we found that the variation altered chromatin binding of transcription factor FOXA1 on the DNA region and led to aberrant gene expression of VPS53, FAM57A, and GEMIN4, which play vital roles in prostate cancer malignancy. Our findings reveal the roles and underlying mechanism of rs684232 in prostate cancer progression and hold great promise in benefiting prostate cancer patients with prognostic prediction and target therapies.


Assuntos
Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Pequenas/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445507

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulators play a crucial role in establishing and maintaining gene expression states. To date, the main efforts to study cellular heterogeneity have focused on elucidating the variable nature of the chromatin landscape. Specific chromatin organisation is fundamental for normal organogenesis and developmental homeostasis and can be affected by different environmental factors. The latter can lead to detrimental alterations in gene transcription, as well as pathological conditions such as cancer. Epigenetic marks regulate the transcriptional output of cells. Centromeres are chromosome structures that are epigenetically regulated and are crucial for accurate segregation. The advent of single-cell epigenetic profiling has provided finer analytical resolution, exposing the intrinsic peculiarities of different cells within an apparently homogenous population. In this review, we discuss recent advances in methodologies applied to epigenetics, such as CUT&RUN and CUT&TAG. Then, we compare standard and emerging single-cell techniques and their relevance for investigating human diseases. Finally, we describe emerging methodologies that investigate centromeric chromatin specification and neocentromere formation.


Assuntos
Centrômero/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Epigênese Genética , Humanos
19.
Science ; 373(6552): 306-315, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437148

RESUMO

Mammalian SWI/SNF (mSWI/SNF) adenosine triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodelers modulate genomic architecture and gene expression and are frequently mutated in disease. However, the specific chromatin features that govern their nucleosome binding and remodeling activities remain unknown. We subjected endogenously purified mSWI/SNF complexes and their constituent assembly modules to a diverse library of DNA-barcoded mononucleosomes, performing more than 25,000 binding and remodeling measurements. Here, we define histone modification-, variant-, and mutation-specific effects, alone and in combination, on mSWI/SNF activities and chromatin interactions. Further, we identify the combinatorial contributions of complex module components, reader domains, and nucleosome engagement properties to the localization of complexes to selectively permissive chromatin states. These findings uncover principles that shape the genomic binding and activity of a major chromatin remodeler complex family.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/química , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/química , Código das Histonas , Histonas/química , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Mutação , Nucleossomos/química , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/química
20.
Science ; 373(6558)2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446580

RESUMO

The immune system has evolved in the face of microbial exposure. How maternal infection experienced at distinct developmental stages shapes the offspring immune system remains poorly understood. Here, we show that during pregnancy, maternally restricted infection can have permanent and tissue-specific impacts on offspring immunity. Mechanistically, maternal interleukin-6 produced in response to infection can directly impose epigenetic changes on fetal intestinal epithelial stem cells, leading to long-lasting impacts on intestinal immune homeostasis. As a result, offspring of previously infected dams develop enhanced protective immunity to gut infection and increased inflammation in the context of colitis. Thus, maternal infection can be coopted by the fetus to promote long-term, tissue-specific fitness, a phenomenon that may come at the cost of predisposition to inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Colite/imunologia , Imunidade , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Infecções por Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/imunologia , Animais , Candidíase/imunologia , Cromatina/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/embriologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Intestinos/embriologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Células-Tronco/imunologia , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
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