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1.
Animal ; 13(3): 469-476, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012236

RESUMO

Fatty acid (FA) composition is a key component of sheep milk nutritional quality. However, breeding for FA composition in dairy sheep is hampered by the logistic and phenotyping costs. This study was aimed at estimating genetic parameters for sheep milk FA and to test the feasibility of their routine measurement by using Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy. Milk FA composition of 989 Sarda ewes farmed in 48 flocks was measured by gas chromatography (FAGC). Moreover, FTIR spectrum was collected for each sample, and it was used to predict FA composition (FAFTIR) by partial least squares regression: 700 ewes were used for estimating model parameters, whereas the remaining 289 animals were used to validate the model. One hundred replicates were performed by randomly assigning animals to estimation and validation data set, respectively. Variance components for both measured and predicted traits were estimated with an animal model that included the fixed effects of parity, days in milking interval, lambing month, province, altitude of flock location, the random effects of flock-test-date and animal genetic additive. Genetic correlations among FAGC, and between corresponding FAGC and FAFTIR were estimated by bivariate analysis. Coefficients of determination between FAGC and FAFTIR ranged from moderate (about 0.50 for odd- and branched-chain FA) to high (about 0.90 for de novo FA) values. Low-to-moderate heritabilities were observed for individual FA (ranging from 0.01 to 0.47). The largest value was observed for GC measured C16:0. Low-to-moderate heritabilities were estimated for FA groups. In most of cases, heritabilites were slightly larger for FAGC than FAFTIR. Estimates of genetic correlations among FAGC showed a large variability in magnitude and sign. The genetic correlation between FAFTIR and FAGC was higher than 60% for all investigated traits. Results of the present study confirm the existence of genetic variability of the FA composition in sheep and suggest the feasibility of using FAFTIR as proxies for these traits in large scale breeding programs.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/química , Proteínas do Leite/química , Leite/química , Ovinos/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Lactação/genética , Gravidez , Ovinos/genética
2.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 34(8): 541-553, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764339

RESUMO

The aim of this study was the determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cats and dogs and evaluation of their prevalence and possible effects. The concentrations of nine OCPs, such as α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), ß-HCH, γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT), 4,4'-DDT, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE) and 4,4'-DDE and 16 PCBs (PCB-28, -52, -70, -74, -81, -99, -101, -118, -138, -153, -156, -170, -180, -183, -187 and -208) were evaluated in the plasma samples of pet cats ( n = 15) and dogs ( n = 21). The concentrations of OCPs ranged from 1.12 ng g-1 lipid weight (lw) to 7.65 ng g-1 lw in cats and from 1.25 ng g-1 lw to 6.79 ng g-1 lw in dogs. In addition, mean PCB levels were 0.58-5.66 and 0.52-6.62 ng g-1 lw in cats and dogs, respectively. ß-HCH, γ-HCH and PCB-138 levels were significantly higher in dogs ( p < 0.05). As far as could be determined, OCPs and PCBs were detected in the plasma samples of domestic cats and dogs in Turkey for the first time. Their concentrations were similar to those reported in earlier studies abroad. However, in contrast to other research, the levels of some OCPs were higher in dogs than in cats. It is concluded that, because of their high prevalence and potential health effects in animals and humans, OCP and PCB levels should be monitored systematically in domestic cats and dogs.


Assuntos
Gatos/sangue , Cães/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Praguicidas/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Masculino , Turquia
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(6): 5582-5598, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550122

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to compare the prediction potential of milk Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for CH4 emissions of dairy cows with that of gas chromatography (GC)-based milk fatty acids (MFA). Data from 9 experiments with lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, with a total of 30 dietary treatments and 218 observations, were used. Methane emissions were measured for 3 consecutive days in climate respiration chambers and expressed as production (g/d), yield (g/kg of dry matter intake; DMI), and intensity (g/kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk; FPCM). Dry matter intake was 16.3 ± 2.18 kg/d (mean ± standard deviation), FPCM yield was 25.9 ± 5.06 kg/d, CH4 production was 366 ± 53.9 g/d, CH4 yield was 22.5 ± 2.10 g/kg of DMI, and CH4 intensity was 14.4 ± 2.58 g/kg of FPCM. Milk was sampled during the same days and analyzed by GC and by FTIR. Multivariate GC-determined MFA-based and FTIR-based CH4 prediction models were developed, and subsequently, the final CH4 prediction models were evaluated with root mean squared error of prediction and concordance correlation coefficient analysis. Further, we performed a random 10-fold cross validation to calculate the performance parameters of the models (e.g., the coefficient of determination of cross validation). The final GC-determined MFA-based CH4 prediction models estimate CH4 production, yield, and intensity with a root mean squared error of prediction of 35.7 g/d, 1.6 g/kg of DMI, and 1.6 g/kg of FPCM and with a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.72, 0.59, and 0.77, respectively. The final FTIR-based CH4 prediction models estimate CH4 production, yield, and intensity with a root mean squared error of prediction of 43.2 g/d, 1.9 g/kg of DMI, and 1.7 g/kg of FPCM and with a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.52, 0.40, and 0.72, respectively. The GC-determined MFA-based prediction models described a greater part of the observed variation in CH4 emission than did the FTIR-based models. The cross validation results indicate that all CH4 prediction models (both GC-determined MFA-based and FTIR-based models) are robust; the difference between the coefficient of determination and the coefficient of determination of cross validation ranged from 0.01 to 0.07. The results indicate that GC-determined MFA have a greater potential than FTIR spectra to estimate CH4 production, yield, and intensity. Both techniques hold potential but may not yet be ready to predict CH4 emission of dairy cows in practice. Additional CH4 measurements are needed to improve the accuracy and robustness of GC-determined MFA and FTIR spectra for CH4 prediction.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Metano/análise , Metano/biossíntese , Leite/química , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Dieta , Feminino , Lactação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/veterinária
4.
Poult Sci ; 97(4): 1420-1428, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29365165

RESUMO

Goose is an economically important herbivore waterfowl supplying nutritious meat and eggs, high-quality liver fat, and feathers. However, biogeograhpy of the gut microbiome of goose remains limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiota inhabiting 7 different gastrointestinal locations (proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and rectum) of 180-day-old geese and the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) of their metabolites based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and gas chromatography, respectively. Consequently, 3,886,340 sequences were identified into 29 phyla and 359 genera. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the major phyla, in which Bacteroidetes (28%) and Fusobacteria (0.8%) in the cecum were significantly higher than those in other sections (∼4.4 and 0.1%, respectively). In addition, Cyanobacteria in the gizzard (4.9%) was significantly higher than those in other gut sections except the proventriculus (2.4%). At the genus level, Bacteroides was the most dominant group in the cecum at 23.7%, which was much more than those in the 6 other sections (less than 4.6%). Moreover, Faecalibacterium and Butyricicoccus were significantly high in the cecum (P < 0.05). Results of SCFA showed that acetic and butyric acids in the cecum were significantly higher than those in the 6 other sections (P < 0.05); this result was consistent with the high abundance of Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Prevotella, and Butyricicoccus in the cecum. Additionally, isobutyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids were found only in the cecum. The different microbial compositions among the 7 gastrointestinal locations might be a cause and consequence of gut functional differences. All these results could offer some information for future study of the relationship between gastrointestinal microbiota and the ability of fiber utilization and adaptability.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Gansos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Masculino
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 100(11): 8705-8721, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865855

RESUMO

The aims of this work were (1) to develop prediction equations from mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) to establish a detailed fatty acid (FA) composition of milk; (2) to propose a milk FA index, utilizing MIRS-developed equations, in which the precision of the FA-prediction equations is taken into account to increase the value of milk; and (3) to show application examples. A total of 651 bulk cow milk samples were collected from 245 commercial farms in northwest Italy. The results of the 651 gas chromatography analyses were used to establish (421 samples) and to validate (230 samples) the outcomes of the FA composition prediction that had been obtained by MIRS. A class-based approach, in which the obtained MIRS equations were used, was proposed to define a milk classification. The method provides a numerical index [milk FA index (MFAI)] that allows a premium price to be quantified to increase the value of a favorable FA profile of milk. Ten FA were selected to calculate MFAI, according to their relevance for human health and potential cheese sensory properties, and animal welfare and environmental sustainability were also considered. These factors were selected as dimensions of MFAI. A statistical analysis and expert judgment aggregation were performed on the selected FA by weighting the FA and normalizing the dimensions to reduce redundancy. A class approach was applied, using the precision of the MIRS equations to establish the classes. The median FA concentration of the data set was set as a reference value of class 0. The width, number, and limits of classes above and below the median were calculated using the 95% confidence level of the standard error of prediction, corrected with the bias of each FA. A progressive number and a positive or negative sign were assigned to each FA class above or below the median according to their role in the above mentioned dimensions. The sum of the numbers of each class, associated with its sign for each FA, was used to generate MFAI. The MFAI was applied to dairy farms characterized by different feeding strategies, all of which deliver milk to a commercial dairy plant. The MFAI values ranged from 0.7 to 4.2, and large variations, which depended on the cows' diet and forage quality, were observed for each feeding system. The proposed method has been found to be flexible and adaptable to several contexts on both intensive and extensive dairy farms.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite/química , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Itália
6.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 44(3): 577-588, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28583773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: N-butane and n-pentane can both produce general anesthesia. Both compounds potentiate γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor function, but only butane inhibits N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. It was hypothesized that butane and pentane would exhibit anesthetic synergy due to their different actions on ligand-gated ion channels. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: A total of four Xenopus laevis frogs and 43 Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Alkane concentrations for all studies were determined via gas chromatography. Using a Xenopus oocyte expression model, standard two-electrode voltage clamp techniques were used to measure NMDA and GABAA receptor responses in vitro as a function of butane and pentane concentrations relevant to anesthesia. The minimum alveolar concentrations (MAC) of butane and pentane were measured separately in rats, and then pentane MAC was measured during coadministration of 0.25, 0.50 or 0.75 times MAC of butane. An isobole with 95% confidence intervals was constructed using regression analysis. A sum of butane and pentane that was statistically less than the lower-end confidence bound isobole indicated a synergistic interaction. RESULTS: Both butane and pentane dose-dependently potentiated GABAA receptor currents over the study concentration range. Butane dose-dependently inhibited NMDA receptor currents, but pentane did not modulate NMDA receptors. Butane and pentane MAC in rats was 39.4±0.7 and 13.7±0.4 %, respectively. A small but significant (p<0.03) synergistic anesthetic effect with pentane was observed during administration of either 0.50 or 0.75×MAC butane. CONCLUSIONS: Butane and pentane show synergistic anesthetic effects in vivo consistent with their different in vitro receptor effects. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings support the relevance of NMDA receptors in mediating anesthetic actions for some, but not all, inhaled agents.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Butanos/farmacologia , N-Metilaspartato/efeitos dos fármacos , Pentanos/farmacologia , Receptores de GABA-A/efeitos dos fármacos , Anestésicos/análise , Anestésicos Inalatórios/análise , Animais , Butanos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Sinergismo Farmacológico , N-Metilaspartato/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp/veterinária , Pentanos/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato , Xenopus laevis
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 99(6): 4726-4738, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26995123

RESUMO

In bovine milk, fat globules (MFG) have a heterogeneous size distribution with diameters ranging from 0.1 to 15 µm. Although efforts have been made to explain differences in lipid composition, little is known about the protein composition of MFG membranes (MFGM) in different sizes of MFG. In this study, protein and lipid analyses were combined to study MFG formation and secretion. Two different sized MFG fractions (7.6±0.9 µm and 3.3±1.2 µm) were obtained by centrifugation. The protein composition of MFGM in the large and small MFG fractions was compared using mass-spectrometry-based proteomics techniques. The lipid composition and fatty acid composition of MFG was determined using HPLC-evaporative light-scattering detector and gas chromatography, respectively. Two frequently studied proteins in lipid droplet biogenesis, perilipin-2 and TIP47, were increased in the large and small MFG fractions, respectively. In the large MFG fraction, besides perilipin-2, cytoplasmic vesicle proteins (heat shock proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, and Rabs), microfilaments and intermediate filament-related proteins (actin and vimentin), host defense proteins (cathelicidins), and phosphatidylinositol were higher in concentration. On the other hand, cholesterol synthesis enzymes [lanosterol synthase and sterol-4-α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating)], cholesterol, unsaturated fatty acids, and phosphatidylethanolamine were, besides TIP47, higher in concentration in the small MFG fraction. These results suggest that vesicle proteins, microfilaments and intermediate filaments, cholesterol, and specific phospholipids play an important role in lipid droplet growth, secretion, or both. The observations from this study clearly demonstrated the difference in protein and lipid composition between small and large MFG fractions. Studying the role of these components in more detail in future experiments may lead to a better understanding of fat globule formation and secretion.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Glicolipídeos/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Lipídeos/química , Proteínas do Leite/química , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária , Membranas/química , Proteoma
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 99(6): 4558-4573, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26995140

RESUMO

Association analyses between candidate genes and bovine milk fatty acids can improve our understanding of genetic variation in milk fatty acid profiles and reveal potential opportunities to tailor milk fat composition through selection strategies. In this work, we investigated the association of 51 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) selected from 37 candidate genes using a functional and positional approach, with 47 fatty acids, 9 fatty acid groups, and 5 Δ(9)-desaturation indices in milk samples from Brown Swiss cows. Individual milk samples were collected from 1,158 Italian Brown Swiss cows, and gas chromatography was used to obtain detailed milk fatty acid compositions. A GoldenGate assay system (Illumina, San Diego, CA) was used to perform genotype 96 selected SNP located in 54 genes across 22 chromosomes. In total, 51 polymorphic SNP in 37 candidate genes were retained for the association analysis. A Bayesian linear animal model was used to estimate the contribution of each SNP. A total of 129 tests indicated relevant additive effects between a given SNP and a single fatty acid trait; 38 SNP belonging to 30 genes were relevant for a total of 57 fatty acid traits. Most of the studied fatty acid traits (~81%) were relevantly associated with multiple SNP. Relevantly associated SNP were mainly found in genes related to fat metabolism, linked to or contained in previously identified quantitative trait loci for fat yield or content, or associated with genes previously identified in association analyses with milk fatty acid profiles in other cow breeds. The most representative candidate genes were LEP, PRL, STAT5A, CCL3, ACACA, GHR, ADRB2, LPIN1, STAT1, FABP4, and CSN2. In particular, relevant associations with SNP located on bovine chromosome 19 (BTA19) were found. Two candidate genes on BTA19 (CCL3 and ACACA) were relevantly associated with de novo short- and medium-chain fatty acids, likely explaining the high heritability values found for these fatty acids (with the exception of C6:0). Two additional genes on BTA19 (CCL2 and GH1) showed associations with saturated and branched-chain fatty acids. Our findings provide basic information on genes and SNP affecting the milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows. These results may support the possibility of using genetic selection to modify milk fatty acid profiles to promote beneficial health-related effects.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Leite/química , Polimorfismo Genético , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Itália
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 99(2): 1315-1330, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26709183

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of 47 fatty acids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 13 fatty acid groups, and 5 Δ(9)-desaturation indices in milk samples from Brown Swiss cows. The genetic variation was assessed and the statistical relevance of the genetic background for each trait was evaluated using the Bayes factor test. The additive genetic, herd-date, and residual relationships were also estimated among all single fatty acids and groups of fatty acids. Individual milk samples were collected from 1,158 Italian Brown Swiss cows and a detailed analysis of fat percentages and milk fatty acid compositions was performed by gas chromatography. Bayesian animal models were used for (co)variance components estimation. Exploitable genetic variation was observed for most of the de novo synthesized fatty acids and saturated fatty acids, except for C4:0 and C6:0, whereas long-chain fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids (including CLA) were mainly influenced by herd-date effects. Herd-date effect explained large portions of the total phenotypic variance for C18:2 cis-9,cis-12 (0.668), C18:3 cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 (0.631), and the biohydrogenation and elongation products of these fatty acids. The desaturation ratios showed higher heritability estimates than the individual fatty acids, except for CLA desaturation index (0.098). Among the medium-chain fatty acids, C12:0 had greater heritability than C14:0 (0.243 vs. 0.097, respectively). Both C14:0 and C16:0 showed negative additive genetic correlations with the main monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids of milk fat, suggesting that their synthesis in the mammary gland may be influenced by the presence of unsaturated fatty acids. No correlation was observed between C4:0 and the other short-chain fatty acids (except for C6:0), confirming the independence of C4:0 from de novo mammary fatty acid synthesis. Among the genetic correlations dealing with potentially beneficial fatty acids, C18:0 was positively correlated with vaccenic and rumenic acids and negatively with linoleic acid. Finally, fatty acids C6:0 through C14:0 showed relevant correlations due to unknown environmental effects, suggesting the potential existence of genetic variances in micro-environmental sensitivity. This study allowed us to acquire new knowledge about the genetic and the environmental relationships among fatty acids. Likewise, the existence of genetic variation for most of de novo synthetized fatty acids and saturated fatty acids was also observed. Overall, these results provide useful information to combine feeding with genetic selection strategies for obtaining a desirable milk fatty acids profile, depending on the origin of fatty acids in milk.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Meio Ambiente , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cruzamento , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Variação Genética , Lactação/genética , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
10.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 53(1): 97-102, 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-784038

RESUMO

Some Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) can pose numerous adverse effects on biota. Marine turtles face numerous threats, in particular those related to anthropogenic activities. Therefore, development and improvement methodologies for monitoring chemical compounds are a relevant task. In this work, we developed a methodology based on the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction for detection of twelve OCPs, by gas chromatography with electron capture detector, in fat and liver samples of green sea turtles. Quantification limits were lower than 5.3 ng g-1; acceptable recovery rates for most compounds; medium matrix effect; matrix-calibration with linearity at the range from 1.0 to 200 ng g-1. This methodology provides contributions for the study of pesticide residues with adverse effects on sea turtle health, important skills for new directions in conservation issues...


Alguns Pesticidas organoclorados (OCPs) podem causar numerosos efeitos adversos na biota. As tartarugas marinhas enfrentam diversas ameaças, em especial aquelas relacionadas às atividades antropogênicas, por isso o desenvolvimento de melhorias nos métodos para monitorar compostos químicos são tarefas importantes. Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma metodologia baseada na extração QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) para a detecção de doze OCPs, por cromatografia gasosa com captura de elétrons, em amostras de gordura e fígado de tartarugas verdes. Os limites de quantificação ficaram abaixo de 5.3 ng g-1; com taxas de recuperação aceitáveis para a maioria de compostos; efeito matriz médio; calibração da matriz com linearidade variando de 1.0 a 200 ng g-1. Esta metodologia traz contribuições ao estudo de resíduos com efeito adverso na saúde das tartarugas marinhas, sendo importante instrumento para novas direções em temas de conservação...


Assuntos
Animais , Fígado/química , Inseticidas Organoclorados/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Tartarugas , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Envenenamento/veterinária , Resíduos Tóxicos/análise
11.
Br Poult Sci ; 56(5): 605-11, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26302029

RESUMO

Single-dose toxicokinetics of permethrin was investigated in broiler chickens. A total of 20 male broiler chickens were assigned at random to two groups of 10 at 30 days of age. A single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight of permethrin was administered intravenously to the first group; in the second group, the same dose was administered into the crop. Serum permethrin was measured using an electron capture detector and gas chromatography equipment. The derived serum permethrin concentration/time curve demonstrated that the distribution kinetics of permethrin was well described by a two-compartment open model. For intravenous permethrin administration, the half-life at λ phase (t1/2λ), mean residence time (MRT) and area under the concentration-time curve in 0→∞ (AUC0→∞) values respectively were 4.73 ± 1.00 h, 5.06 ± 1.05 h and 16.45 ± 3.28 mg/h/l. In contrast, the Cmax, tmax, t1/2λ, MRT and AUC0→∞ values respectively of the group given intra-crop permethrin were 0.60 ± 0.42 µg/ml, 0.55 ± 0.19 h, 5.54 ± 0.78 h, 7.06 ± 0.63 h and 1.95 ± 0.97 mg/h/l. The bioavailability of permethrin was 0.11. For both administration routes, the residence time of permethrin in the body was short and the bioavailability of permethrin was low. These results are relevant for assessing the use and safety of permethrin.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/sangue , Permetrina/sangue , Administração Intravenosa/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Papo das Aves/metabolismo , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intravenosas , Inseticidas/farmacocinética , Masculino , Permetrina/farmacocinética , Distribuição Aleatória , Toxicocinética
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 44(2): 555-65, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25827626

RESUMO

Methamidophos (MAP), an organophosphorus pesticide used around the world, has been associated with a wide spectrum of toxic effects on organisms in the environment. In this study, the flounder Paralichthys olivaceus was subjected to 10 mg/L MAP for 72 h and 144 h, and the morphological and proteomic changes in the brain were observed, analyzed and compared with those in the non-exposed control group. Under the light microscope and transmission electron microscope, MAP had evidently induced changes in or damage to the flounder tissues. Gas chromatography analysis demonstrated that the MAP residues were significantly accumulated in the flounder brain tissues. Proteomic changes in the brain tissue were revealed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and 27 protein spots were observed to be significantly changed by MAP exposure. The results indicated that the regulated proteins were involved in immune and stress responses, protein biosynthesis and modification, signal transduction, organismal development, and 50% of them are protease. qRT-PCR was used to further detect the corresponding change of transcription. These data may be beneficial to understand the molecular mechanism of MAP toxicity in flounder, be very useful for MAP-resistance screening in flounder culture. According to our results and analyzing, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and granzyme K (GzmK) had taken important part in immune response to MAP-stress and could be biomarkers for MAP-stress in flounder.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linguado/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Granzimas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Compostos Organotiofosforados/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional/veterinária , Linguado/imunologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 86(1): 1329, 2015 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26824339

RESUMO

During a six-year period (from January 2009 to December 2014), specimens collected from 344 cases of suspected organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in wildlife, including birds, were submitted to the Toxicology Laboratory (ARC-OVI) for analysis. A positive diagnosis was made in 135 (39%) of these cases. The majority of cases were from birds, which included Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres) and African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus) and bateleur eagles (Terathopius ecaudatus). In one incident 49 vultures were killed when a farmer intentionally laced carcasses with carbofuran in an attempt to control jackal predation. There were 22 incidents of poisoning in helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris). On nine different occasions blue cranes (Anthropoides paradiseus) were poisoned, in one incident 14 birds were reported to have been killed. Over the period of investigation, there were 20 cases of poisoning involving mammalian species, the majority being vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). The carbamate pesticides were responsible for 57 incidents of poisoning. Aldicarb, carbofuran and methomyl were detected in 26, 18 and 12 cases respectively. The majority of organophosphorus pesticide poisonings were caused by diazinon (n = 19), monocrotophos (n = 13) and methamidophos (n = 10).


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Poluentes Ambientais/envenenamento , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Aldicarb/envenenamento , Animais , Carbofurano/envenenamento , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária , Metomil/envenenamento , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/veterinária , África do Sul/epidemiologia
14.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 41(1): 1-18, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25347968

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary lipids on growth performance, body composition, serum parameters, and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT strain) of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. We randomly assigned adult male Nile tilapia (average initial body weight = 220.00 ± 9.54 g) into six groups consisting of four replicates (20 fish per replicate). Fish in each group were hand-fed a semi-purified diets containing different lipid levels [3.3 (the control group), 28.4, 51.4, 75.4, 101.9, and 124.1 g kg(-1)] for 8 weeks. The results indicated that there was no obvious effect in feeding rate among all groups (P > 0.05). The highest weight gain, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio in 75.4 g kg(-1) diet group were increased by 23.31, 16.17, and 22.02 % than that of fish in the control group (P < 0.05). Protein retention ratio was highest in 51.4 g kg(-1) diet group. The results revealed that the optimum dietary lipid level for maximum growth performance is 76.6-87.9 g kg(-1). Increasing dietary lipid levels contributed to increased tissue and whole body lipid levels. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased, and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased with increasing dietary lipid levels. With the exception of MUFAs, the fatty acid profiles of liver and muscle were similar. Dietary lipid levels were negatively correlated with low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol content and positively with triacylglycerol and glucose contents. In the lipid-fed groups, there was a significant down-regulation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA in liver, muscle, and visceral adipose tissues. There was a rapid up-regulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA in muscle and liver with increasing dietary lipid levels. In visceral adipose tissue, LPL mRNA was significantly down-regulated in the lipid-fed groups. Dietary lipids increased hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) mRNA expression levels in the three tissues. These results strongly suggested that moderate dietary lipid levels were beneficial for adult tilapia growth performance and feed efficiency. However, excessive dietary lipid levels contributed to lipid deposition. Additionally, excessive dietary lipids may induce a competition between lipolysis and lipogenesis. FAS did not have tissue-specific regulation; however, the regulation of dietary lipids on LPL expression is tissue specific. FAS was a negative feedback regulator on fat deposition, and HSL was an indicator of fat content in tilapia.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Esterol Esterase/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Ciclídeos/sangue , Primers do DNA/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
15.
J Anim Sci ; 92(12): 5593-602, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25367521

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of some prebiotic substances and 2 dietary protein levels on the composition and activity of feline fecal microbiota. Two in vitro studies were conducted. First, 6 nondigestible oligosaccharides were studied; treatments were control diet (CTRL), gluconic acid (GA), carrot fiber (CF), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), lactitol (LAC), and pectins from citrus fruit (PEC). Substrates were added to feline fecal cultures at 2 g/L for 24 h incubation. Compared with the CTRL, ammonia had been reduced (P<0.05) by GOS (-9%) after 6 h and by GA (-14%), LAC (-12%), and PEC (-10%) after 24 h. After 24 h, all treatments had resulted in a lower pH versus the CTRL. Putrescine concentrations at 24 h were greater (P<0.05) in cultures treated with FOS (+90%), GOS (+96%), and LAC (+87%). Compared with the CTRL, total VFA were higher (P<0.05) in bottles containing CF (+41%), whereas the acetic to propionic acid ratio was reduced by LAC (-51%; P<0.05). After 24 h, Enterobacteriaceae had been reduced (P<0.05) by LAC and PEC. In a second study, LAC and FOS were selected to be tested in the presence of 2 diets differing in their protein content. There were 6 treatments: low-protein (LP) CTRL with no addition of prebiotics (CTRL-LP), high-protein (HP) CTRL with no addition of prebiotics (CTRL-HP), LP diet plus FOS, CTRL-HP plus FOS, LP diet plus LAC, and CTRL-HP plus LAC. Both FOS and LAC were added to feline fecal cultures at 2 g/L for 24 h incubation. Ammonia at 24 h was affected (P<0.05) by the protein level (36.2 vs. 50.2 mmol/L for LP and HP, respectively). The CTRL-HPs resulted in a higher pH and increased concentrations of biogenic amines were found after 6 and 24 h of incubation (P<0.05); putrescine at 24 h showed an increase (P<0.05) in cultures treated with FOS. Total VFA were influenced (P<0.05) by the protein level (40.9 vs. 32.6 mmol/L for LP and HP, respectively). At 24 h, the CTRL-HPs were associated with increased Clostridium perfringens and reduced Lactobacillus spp. and enterococci counts (P<0.05). The results from the present study show that different prebiotics exert different effects on the composition and activity of feline intestinal microbiota and that high dietary protein levels in a cat's diet can have negative effects on the animal intestinal environment.


Assuntos
Gatos/microbiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos/microbiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/veterinária , Técnicas In Vitro/veterinária , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/veterinária , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem
16.
J Dairy Res ; 81(3): 340-9, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25052435

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to estimate heritability and crossbreeding parameters (breed and heterosis effects) of various fatty acid (FA) concentrations in milk fat of New Zealand dairy cattle. For this purpose, calibration equations to predict concentration of each of the most common FAs were derived with partial least squares (PLS) using mid-infrared (MIR) spectral data from milk samples (n=850) collected in the 2003-04 season from 348 second-parity crossbred cows during peak, mid and late lactation. The milk samples produced both, MIR spectral data and concentration of the most common FAs determined using gas chromatography (GC). The concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) between the concentration of a FA determined by GC and the PLS equation ranged from 0.63 to 0.94, suggesting that some prediction equations can be considered to have substantial predictive ability. The PLS calibration equations were then used to predict the concentration of each of the fatty acids in 26,769 milk samples from 7385 cows that were herd-tested during the 2007-08 season. Data were analysed using a single-trait repeatability animal model. Shorter chain FA (16:0 and below) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in Jersey cows, while longer chain, including unsaturated longer chain FA were higher in Holstein-Friesian cows. The estimates of heritabilities ranged from 0.17 to 0.41 suggesting that selective breeding could be used to ensure milk fat composition stays aligned to consumer, market and manufacturing needs.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Feminino , Hibridização Genética/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/veterinária
17.
Poult Sci ; 93(8): 2069-77, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24931969

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to examine the changes in yolk and yolk sac fatty acid composition and also to investigate egg content, yolk absorption, embryo development during incubation, and chick quality at hatch in eggs from 36- and 52-wk-old broiler breeders. The fatty acid profiles of the yolk, the yolk sac of embryos, and the residual yolk sac of chicks were analyzed before incubation, on d 18, and at hatch, respectively. Yolk sac weight, and embryo weight and length were measured on d 18, and chick weight and length were measured at hatch. Egg weight, yolk and albumen weight, yolk percentage, and yolk:albumen ratio increased as breeder age increased, but the albumen percentage decreased. Yolk absorption in absolute value (g) was higher in embryos from the old flock on d 18 and at hatch. Relative yolk absorption was similar between age groups on d 18, whereas it was higher in the young flock at hatch. Breeder age affected the yolk sac weight and was higher in the old flock during incubation. Embryo or chick weight and length, and yolk-free BW were affected by breeder age during incubation. These parameters were higher in the old flock with a difference of 3.7 g, 0.8 cm, and 2.6 g, respectively, on d 18 and 7.4 g, 1.4 cm, and 6.3 g, respectively, at hatch compared with the young flock. The effect of breeder age on fatty acid composition differed significantly by sampling day. Palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids were major fatty acids in the fresh yolk, ranging from 13.02 to 29.24%. These were followed by palmitoleic and arachidonic acids ranging from 1.24 to 7.04%, with the remaining fatty acids below 1%. Higher concentrations of myristic, palmitoleic, and oleic acids and lower concentrations of heptadeconoic, stearic, linoleic, and arachidonic acids were found in the residual yolk sac of the young flock than the old flock. The results showed preferentially selective absorption of some fatty acids by the embryo during incubation.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Saco Vitelino/química , Saco Vitelino/embriologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Embrião de Galinha/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Reprodução
18.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 26(2): 232-9, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24518277

RESUMO

A simple and accurate method for quantifying sucrose in equine serum that can be applied to sucrose permeability testing in the horse was developed and validated using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The assay provided an acceptable degree of linearity, accuracy, and precision at concentrations of sucrose as low as 2.34 µmol/l and as high as 20.45 µmol/l. Percentage recovery of sucrose from serum ranged from 89% to 102%; repeatability and intermediate precision (relative standard deviation) ranged from 3.6% to 6.7% and 4.1% to 9.3%, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.73 µmol/l. No interfering peaks were observed except lactose, which gave 2 peaks, one of which overlapped partially with sucrose. To evaluate the suitability of the method for quantifying sucrose in serum samples from horses with naturally occurring gastric ulceration, 10 horses with and without naturally occurring gastric ulceration were subjected to sucrose permeability testing. All horses demonstrated an increase in serum sucrose concentration over time following oral administration of sucrose; however, the increase from baseline was significant for horses with gastric ulceration at 45 min (P = 0.0082) and 90 min (P = 0.0082) when compared with healthy horses. It was concluded that gas chromatography with flame ionization detection is a valid method for quantifying sucrose in equine serum and can be applied directly to the analysis of sucrose in equine serum as part of a larger validation study aimed at developing a blood test for the diagnosis of gastric ulcers in horses.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Ionização de Chama/veterinária , Cavalos/sangue , Sacarose/sangue , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Ionização de Chama/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 97(2): 1150-6, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24290819

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to estimate heritabilities of milk fatty acids (FA) and genetic and phenotypic correlations among milk FA and milk production traits in Canadian Holsteins. One morning milk sample was collected from each of 3,185 dairy cows between February and June 2010 from 52 commercial herds enrolled in Valacta (Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada). Individual FA percentages (g/100 g of total FA) were determined for each sample by gas chromatography. After editing the data, 2,573 cows from 46 herds remained. Genetic parameters were estimated using multitrait animal models fitted under REML. The model included fixed effects of age at calving and stage of lactation each nested within parity and random effects of herd-year-season of calving, animal, and residual. The pedigree of animals with data was traced back 5 generations on both the male and female sides to account for relationships among animals. The estimates of heritability for individual FA ranged from 0.01 to 0.39, with standard errors ranging from 0.01 to 0.06. Generally, monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and saturated FA (SFA) showed higher heritability estimates than polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). Overall, SFA were negatively genetically correlated with MUFA and PUFA, whereas genetic correlations between MUFA and PUFA were positive. The SFA showed positive associations with fat yield and fat percentage, whereas unsaturated FA were negatively associated with fat yield and fat percentage. Bovine milk FA composition could be improved through genetic selection, and selection for MUFA or against SFA could alter the bovine milk fat profile in a desirable direction.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lactação/genética , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Masculino , Paridade , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Quebeque , Estações do Ano
20.
Animal ; 7(11): 1833-40, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23916277

RESUMO

N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) are subject of growing interest as they are of particular relevance for meat quality and human health. However, their content in the muscles of cattle is generally low probably as the complex result of their biosynthesis from dietary n-3 PUFA in the muscle and/or in other tissues/organs and of their subsequent uptake by the muscle. In view of this, this study aimed at understanding whether the changes in the muscle n-3 LCPUFA content, depending on the diet (maize silage v. grass) or the muscle type (Rectus abdominis, RA v. Semitendinosus, ST) in 12 Charolais steers, were related to variations in the gene expression of proteins involved in n-3 LCPUFA biosynthesis or cellular uptake. Tissue fatty acid composition was analysed by gas-liquid chromatography and mRNA abundance of proteins by quantitative real-time PCR. The grass-based diet resulted in a 2.3-fold (P < 0.0002) increase in both RA and ST n-3 LCPUFA content compared with the maize silage-based diet, whereas no difference in the expression of genes involved in n-3 LCPUFA biosynthesis and uptake was observed between diets. ST exhibited a 1.5-fold higher n-3 LCPUFA content than RA (P < 0.003), whereas the gene expression of proteins involved in n-3 LCPUFA biosynthesis and uptake was 1.3- to 18-fold higher in RA than in ST (P < 0.05). In conclusion, diet- or muscle type-dependent changes in the muscle n-3 LCPUFA content of Charolais steers did not seem to be mediated by the gene expression regulation of proteins involved in the biosynthesis or uptake of these fatty acids.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Poaceae/química , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Silagem/análise , Zea mays/química
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