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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(6): 1247-1259, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055414

RESUMO

The transformation of residual biomass from bioremediation processes into new products is a worldwide trend driven by economic, environmental and social gain. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential for obtaining bioproducts of technological interest from the remaining periphytic biomass formed during a bioremediation process with an algal turf scrubber (ATS) system installed in a lake catchment. Different methodologies were used according to the target bioproduct. Analyses were performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC/DAD), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results demonstrated that the periphytic biomass presented potential since protein (17.7%), carbohydrates (22.4%), total lipids (3.3%) with 3.6 mg mL-1 of fatty acids, antioxidants (144.5 µmol Trolox eq. g-1) and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids (1,719.7 µg mL-1, 541.2 µg mL-1 and 317.7 µg mL-1, respectively) were obtained. Inorganic analysis presented a value of 42.3 ± 2.58% of total ash and metal presence was detected, indicating bioaccumulation. The properties found in periphyton strengthen the possibility of its application in different areas, ensuring bioremediation efficiency.


Assuntos
Clorofila A , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3871-3876, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893583

RESUMO

To establish high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) fingerprints for crude and processed Ligustri Lucidi Fructus,and to evaluate their quality through the similarity calculation and chemical pattern recognition. The separation was performed with Syncronis C_(18) column(4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 µm), with acetonitrile(A) and 0.1% phosphoric acid solution(B) as the mobile phase for gradient elution, and a detection wavelength of 280 nm. HPLC was used to detect 22 batches of crude and processed Ligustri Lucidi Fructus,and the Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine(2012 Edition) was used to evaluate the similarity among 22 batches. The research on pattern recognition was conducted with cluster analysis(CA), principal component analysis(PCA), and partial least squares discriminate analysis(PLS-DA). HPLC fingerprints of crude and processed Ligustri Lucidi Fructus were established, with similarity ranging from 0.9 to 1.0. The crude and processed Ligustri Lucidi Fructus can be obviously distinguished by using CA, PCA and PLS-DA. According to the results of PLS-DA,11 constituents including hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, specnuezhenide and oleuropein were the main marker components leading to the difference. The established fingerprint method is stable and reliable, and can provide method basis for quality control of crude and processed Ligustri Lucidi Fructus. Chemical pattern recognition is proved to be helpful in comprehensive quality control and evaluation of Ligustri Lucidi Fructus before and after the process.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ligustrum , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3877-3882, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893584

RESUMO

To establish the HPLC-ELSD specific chromatogram analysis method of Rehmanniae Radix and Rehmanniae Radix Prae-parata, and analyze and compare their chemical compositions, so as to reveal the change regularity of compositions during the proces-sing. By HPLC-ELSD method, the chromatographic column for Prevail Carbohydrate ES(4.6 mm ×250 mm, 5 µm) was adopted, with acetonitrile(A)-water(B) as mobile phase for gradient elution, and the evaporative light-scattering detector was used. A total of 23 batches of Rehmannia Radix samples, and 25 batches of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata samples and processing dynamic samples were compared. The established method had a great repeatability, precision and stability. Eight common chromatographic peaks were extracted from 23 batches of Rehmanniae Radix samples, 8 common peaks were extracted from 25 Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, and 7 chromatographic peaks were identified. The composition ratio of Rehmannia Radix was changed greatly during the processing. When the simila-rity≥0.95 and the fructose peak area was more than 2 times of stachyose tetrahydrate or more than 20 times of raffinose, the processing degree conformed to the requirements of empirical identification. The three main oligosaccharides of Rehmanniae Radix were sucrose that was heated to generate fructose and glucose, stachyose tetrahydrate that was heated to generate melibiose, sucrose and fructose, and stachyose tetrahydrate that was heated to generate manninotriose. The change in the index of proportion between monosaccharides and oligosaccharides can be used as the quantitative criterion for the processing quality of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Rehmannia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Monossacarídeos , Raízes de Plantas
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3890-3899, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893586

RESUMO

By using multivariate statistical analysis to evaluate essential quality, and provide scientific basis for their comprehensive utilization, we established an UHPLC-QTRAP-MS/MS method for the fast, precise, efficient determination of 21 kinds of amino acids and 10 kinds of nucleosides in different species of Dendrobium. The analysis was performed on a Waters XBridge Amide column(2.1 mm×100 mm,3.5 µm) with elution by mobile phase of 0.2% formic acid in water-0.2% formic acid in acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.2 mL·min~(-1) with the column temperature at 30 ℃. The target compounds were analyzed by the positive ion multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) mode. The comprehensive evaluation of different species of Dendrobium was carried out by PCA and TOPSIS analysis. All 21 kinds of amino acids and 10 nucleosides showed good linearity among certain concentration range(r>0.999), the RSDs of the stability, precision, and repeatability tests were less than 3.0%. The recovery rate was in the range from 93.31% to 107.5%, and RSD was in the range of 1.1%-3.7%. The comprehensive evaluation index obtained with PCA showed that D. huoshanense was significantly higher than others regarding amino acids and D. officinale has higher nucleosides than other species. The biggest C_i difference of TOPSIS was 68.7%, and comprehensive evaluation showed that D. huoshanense produced the highest comprehensive quality. The method is precise, fast and efficient and can provide reliable basis for further researches and intrinsic quality control of Dendrobium.


Assuntos
Dendrobium , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Aminoácidos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Nucleosídeos
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3908-3914, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893588

RESUMO

G-quadruplex DNA has become an important target for tumor therapy and anti-tumor development. Modern pharmacology has proved that Macleaya cordata has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-tumor and other pharmacological effects. Affinity ultrafiltration method can screen active ingredients from compounds rapidly, but G-quadruplex DNA ligands are difficult to dissociate, which is a key step in conventional ultrafiltration method. In this paper, the filtrates after ultrafiltration were determined by HPLC-MS in substitution. The peaks with 20% reduction of MS response from the incubation vs control were considered to be ligand components to G-quadruplex. Two of the peaks with the relative abundance above 30% were identified as sanguinarine(SAN) and chelerine(CHE). Their circular dichroism conformations further proved that SAN and CHE are active ligands of HT4. In addition, another two gradients with high relative abundance were identified as protopine(PRO) and allpcryprotopine(ALL). The binding rate of SAN, CHE, PRO and ALL was calculated according to the HPLC-MS results, and the results showed a consistency with that of the molecular docking method. The proposed method can be used to screen active components from mixture.


Assuntos
Quadruplex G , Ultrafiltração , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Ligantes , Espectrometria de Massas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3952-3960, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893594

RESUMO

A method of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/electrostatic field Obitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry(UHPLC-Q-Exactive MS) was established to comprehensively identify the metabolites of carnosic acid in rats. After oral gavage of carnosic acid CMC-Na suspension in rats, urine, plasma and feces samples were collected and pretreated by solid phase extraction(SPE). Acquity UPLC BEH C_(18 )column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 µm) was used with 0.1% formic acid solution(A)-acetonitrile(B) as the mobile phase for the gradient elution. Biological samples were analyzed by quadrupole/electrostatic field Obitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry in positive and negative ion mode. Based on the accurate molecular mass, fragment ion information, and related literature reports, a total of 28 compounds(including carnosic acid) were finally identified in rat samples. As a result, the main metabolic pathways of carnosic acid in rats are oxidation, hydroxylation, methylation, glucuronide conjugation, sulfate conjugation, S-cysteine conjugation, glutathione conjugation, demethylation, decarbonylation and their composite reactions. The study showed that the metabolism of carnosic acid in rats could be efficiently and comprehensively clarified by using UHPLC-Q-Exactive MS, providing a reference for clarifying the material basis and metabolic mechanism of carnosic acid.


Assuntos
Abietanos , Extração em Fase Sólida , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Ratos
8.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(4): 585-590, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for the simultaneous and rapid determination of vitamin A and vitamin E of different configurations in human serum by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) with multi-wavelength fluorescence detector. METHODS: The serum was mixed after adding internal standard, and acetonitrile was added for protein precipitation. The mixture was centrifuged after extraction with n-hexane. The n-hexane layer was dried by N_2 flow, the residue was dissolved with methanol. The HPLC system was consisted of WATERS Symmetry C_(18) column(4. 6 mm × 250 mm, 5 µm) and the mobile phase was methanol. The column temperature was 30 ℃ and fluorescence detector with online wavelength conversion method was carried out for the quantitative detection. RESULTS: The liner range of determination of vitamin A, α-vitamin E, ß-vitamin E and δ-vitamin E were 0. 050-2. 0 µg/mL, 0. 50-50 µg/mL, 0. 050-5. 0 µg/mL and 0. 050-5. 0 µg/mL, respectively(r≥0. 996). The minimum detection limits of the method for vitamin A and vitamin E were all 0. 02 µg/mL. The intraday and interday relative standard deviations(RSDs) were less than 3% at high, medium and low concentrations. The recoveries of the samples at the three concentrations were 91. 2%-107. 5%, and the RSDs were less than 10%. CONCLUSION: This method is simple and accurate, with higher sensitivity than using UV detector and can be used for the simultaneous determination of vitamin A and vitamin E of different configurations in serum, and is suitable for rapid detection of batch serum samples.


Assuntos
Vitamina A , Vitamina E , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Metanol
9.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(4): 591-602, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish an analytical method for determination of 6 kinds of α_2-agonists in animal foods by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS). METHODS: The samples of animal food were enzymatic hydrolysis by ß-glucosidase/arylsulfatase, purified by MCX column. The separation was performed on a Dikma leapsil C_(18) column(2. 1 mm×100 mm, 2. 7 µm), then the target compound were detected by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electron spray ionization(ESI) positive ion scan in mode of multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) and quantified by matrix matched external standard method. RESULTS: At the spiked level of 1, 2 and 4 µg/kg, the recoveries of each compound were in the range of 70. 4%-111. 2% with the relative standard deviations of 2. 3%-18. 8%. The qualitative limits of detections were 0. 06-0. 3 µg/kg and the quantitative limits were 0. 2-1. 0 µg/kg for the 6 targets compounds. By using the established method, the target compound in 30 samples including pork, pig liver, pig kidney, beef and mutton were detected, and no excessive veterinary drug residue were detected. CONCLUSION: The established method is simple, rapid, high sensitivity and good stability, with a wide variety and a certain development. It can provide more convenient and fast detection method support for the daily monitoring of veterinary drug residues in animal food.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Suínos
10.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(4): 597-602, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for analysis of 25-hydroxylvitamin D_2(25(OH)D_2), 25-hydroxylvitamin D_3(25(OH)D_3)and vitamin K_1 in serum by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS), which can be applied in diagnosis of vitamin deficiency and estimation on the nutritional status of people. METHODS: Serum samples mixed with d_6-25(OH)D_3, d_7-vitamin K_1(internal standard)were precipitated with acetonitrile and extracted with n-hexane. The sample solution was separated using BEH C_(18) column(2. 1 mm×100 mm, 1. 7 µm) with gradient elution using methanol-water containing 0. 1% formic acid as mobile phase. The target molecule was detected in positive electrospray ionization(ESI~+) and multiple reaction monitoring. RESULTS: The concentration of 25(OH)D_2, 25(OH)D_3 and vitamin K_1 showed good linearity in the range 5. 0-75. 0 ng/mL, 2. 0-81. 5 ng/mL and 0. 3-12. 0 ng/mL, respectively, with the correlation coefficients greater than 0. 995. The limits of detection(LOD) of 25(OH)D_2, 25(OH)D_3 and vitamin K_1 were 1, 0. 25 and 0. 1 ng/mL, and the limits of quantification(LOQ) for 25(OH)D_2, 25(OH)D_3 and vitamin K_1were 3, 0. 75 and 0. 3 ng/mL, respectively. The recoveries of three levels in the matrix were 98. 5%-104. 3%, the relative standard deviation(RSD) were all less than 5. 0%(n=6). CONCLUSION: An UPLC-MS/MS method for analysis of 25(OH)D_2, 25(OH)D_3 and vitamin K_1 in serum is sensitive, rapid, accurate and suitable for the nutritional surveillance of vitamin D and K_1 in the population.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vitamina K 1 , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
11.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 656-664, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865632

RESUMO

Methiozolin is a novel herbicide for controlling annual bluegrass. After applying 14C labelled methiozolin in two sediment (clay loam and sand)-water systems under aerobic conditions, its distribution, half-life, and metabolites within 300 days were investigated. The mass balance ranged within 92.0%-104.4% of applied radioactivity (AR). Radioactivity in the water declined sharply from 94.4% to 0.5% AR, while in the sediment it increased to 83.9% AR at 14 days before declining to 9.1% AR. The volatiles were minimal (< 0.5% AR), and the evolved labelled CO2 accounted for up to ~ 33.4% AR. From Radio-HPLC analysis, labelled methiozolin in water decreased from 108.9% to 0% AR, while a maximum of 15.1% AR remained in the sediment at the end. Eight metabolites were detected, all at minor levels and accounting for < 5.5% AR. The half-life of labelled methiozolin in the total sediment-water systems were 50.7 and 38.7 days for clay loam and sand, respectively.


Assuntos
Herbicidas/análise , Isoxazóis/análise , Tiofenos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Argila , Meia-Vida , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Poa , Água
12.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 31(10): 2013-2024, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880453

RESUMO

As corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly growing public health crisis across the world, our knowledge of meaningful diagnostic tests and treatment for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) is still evolving. This novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 can be diagnosed using RT-PCR, but inadequate access to reagents, equipment, and a nonspecific target has slowed disease detection and management. Precision medicine, individualized patient care, requires suitable diagnostics approaches to tackle the challenging aspects of viral outbreaks where many tests are needed in a rapid and deployable approach. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based technologies such as proteomics, glycomics, lipidomics, and metabolomics have been applied in disease outbreaks for identification of infectious disease agents such as virus and bacteria and the molecular phenomena associated with pathogenesis. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) is widely used in clinical diagnostics in the United States and Europe for bacterial pathogen identification. Paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (PSI-MS), a rapid ambient MS technique, has recently open a new opportunity for future clinical investigation to diagnose pathogens. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS)-based metabolomics and lipidomics have been employed in large-scale biomedical research to discriminate infectious pathogens and uncover biomarkers associated with pathogenesis. PCR-MS has emerged as a new technology with the capability to directly identify known pathogens from the clinical specimens and the potential to identify genetic evidence of undiscovered pathogens. Moreover, miniaturized MS offers possible applications with relatively fast, highly sensitive, and potentially portable ways to analyze for viral compounds. However, beneficial aspects of these rapidly growing MS technologies in pandemics like COVID-19 outbreaks has been limited. Hence, this perspective gives a brief of the existing knowledge, current challenges, and opportunities for MS-based techniques as a promising avenue in studying emerging pathogen outbreaks such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Lipidômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Proteômica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Glicômica/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
13.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(7): 995-1000, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of 3, 29-Dibenzoyl Karounitriol (3, 29-DK) from sustained- release pellets and extracts of Trichosanthes at different time points in rats using high-performance liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). METHODS: Healthy male SD rats were given a single gavage of Trichosanthes sustained-release pellets or Trichosanthes extract, and orbital blood samples were taken at different time points within 48 h after drug administration in the pellet group and within 5 h in Trichosanthes extract group for determination of the plasma concentrations of 3, 29-DK using LC-MS/MS. The standard curve of 3, 29-DK content was established, and the specificity, minimum detection limit, precision and accuracy, extraction recovery, stability and matrix effect of LC-MS/MS analysis were assessed. The mean plasms levels of 3, 29-DK at different time points after the drug administration were determined and its pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using Das 2.0 software. RESULTS: LC-MS/MS analysis showed a good linearity of 3, 29-DK concentration within the range of 0.5-32 ng/mL, and the results of methodological validation confirmed the validity of this method for biological sample determination. Trichosanthes sustained-release pellets and Trichosanthes extract showed significant differences in their AUC(0-t), AUC(0-∞), MRT(0-t), MRT(0-∞), t1/2z and Tmax of 3, 29-DK after administration in rats (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Trichosanthes sustained-release pellets are capable of sustained-release of 3, 29-DK in rats, and thus provides a basis for the study of new dosage forms of Trichosanthes.


Assuntos
Trichosanthes , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(3): 356-363, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the optimum extraction technique and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method to simultaneously quantify nine compounds of gallic acid, hydroxy-paeoniflorin, catechin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, pentagalloylglucose, benzoic acid, benzoylpaeoniflorin and paeonol in Paeoniae Radix Alba. METHODS: Linear gradient elution was applied using water containing 0.1%phosphoric acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, column temperature of 30℃ and wavelength of 230 nm. The method of ultrasound extraction was used. Methanol and ethanol were used as extraction solvents, and three factors and three levels of orthogonal experiments was designed using L 9(3 4) table to investigate the effects of solvent concentration, ratio of liquid to material and extraction time on the total content of nine components of Paeoniae Radix Alba. RESULTS: HPLC method was verified to have high specificity, sensitivity and accuracy through methodological validation, and it could be used for simultaneous quantitative analysis of nine components of Paeoniae Radix Alba. The results showed that the optimum extraction technology of nine components of Paeoniae Radix Alba was using 70%ethanol as extraction solvent, ratio of liquid to material was 200 mL/g and ultrasound extraction time was 30 min. CONCLUSIONS: HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of nine components of Paeoniae Radix Alba is established, and the optimum extraction technology is confirmed.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Paeonia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
15.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(3): 327-337, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761540

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Psoralen synthase and angelicin synthase responsible for the formation of psoralen and angelicin in Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn were identified and functionally characterized, respectively. Furanocoumarins were reported to possess several activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective, and function as phytotoxin and allelochemical in plants. Furanocoumarins are the main bioactive ingredient in P. praeruptorum which is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL), p-coumaroyl CoA 2'-hyfroxylase (C2'H) were cloned previously to elucidate the biosynthetic mechanism of coumarin lactone ring. However, the genes involved in complex coumarins in P. praeruptorum have not been explored. Herein, putative psoralen synthase CYP71AJ49 and angelicin synthase CYP71AJ51 were cloned from P. praeruptorum. In vivo and in vitro yeast assays were conducted to confirm their activities. Furthermore, the results of High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) verified that CYP71AJ49 catalyzed the conversion of marmesin to psoralen, and CYP71AJ51 catalyzed columbianetin to angelicin. Subsequently, the expression profile showed that CYP71AJ49 and CYP71AJ51 were easily affected by environmental conditions, especially UV and temperature. The genes tissue-specific expression and compounds tissue-specific distribution pattern indicated the existence of substance transport in P. praeruptorum. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted with 27 CYP71AJs, CYP71AJ49 and CYP71AJ51 were classified in I-4 and I-2, respectively. These results provide further insight to understand the biosynthetic mechanism of complex coumarins.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/enzimologia , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Furocumarinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Apiaceae/genética , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Coenzima A Ligases/genética , Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/química , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Furocumarinas/química , Furocumarinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Cinética , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Transcriptoma
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0227528, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841235

RESUMO

The morphology and physiology of diaspores play crucial roles in determining the fate of seeds in unpredictable habitats. In some genera of the Brassicaceae different types of diaspores can be found. Lepidium appelianum produces non-dormant seeds within indehiscent fruits while in L. campestre dormant seeds are released from dehiscent fruits. We investigated whether the allocation of relevant defence compounds into different tissues in different Lepidium species may be related to the diverse dispersal strategy (indehiscent and dehiscent) and seed physiology (non-dormant and dormant). Total glucosinolate concentration and composition were analysed in immature and mature seeds and pericarps of L. appelianum and L. campestre using high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, for comparison, transgenic RNAi L. campestre lines were used that produce indehiscent fruits due to silencing of LcINDEHISCENCE, the INDEHISCENCE ortholog of L. campestre. Total glucosinolate concentrations were lower in immature compared to mature seeds in all studied Lepidium species and transgenic lines. In contrast, indehiscent fruits of L. appelianum maintained their total glucosinolate concentration in mature pericarps compared to immature ones, while in dehiscent L. campestre and in indehiscent RNAi-LcIND L. campestre a significant decrease in total glucosinolate concentrations from immature to mature pericarps could be detected. Indole glucosinolates were detected in lower abundance than the other glucosinolate classes (aliphatic and aromatic). Relatively high concentrations of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate were found in mature seeds of L. appelianum compared to other tissues, while no indole glucosinolates were detected in mature diaspores of L. campestre. The diaspores of the latter species may rather depend on aliphatic and aromatic glucosinolates for long-term protection. The allocation patterns of glucosinolates correlate with the morpho-physiologically distinct fruits of L. appelianum and L. campestre and may be explained by the distinct dispersal strategies and the dormancy status of both species.


Assuntos
Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Lepidium/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ecossistema , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Lepidium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dormência de Plantas , Sementes/fisiologia , Água
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236297, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780750

RESUMO

Naproxen is a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the control of postoperative inflammatory signs and symptoms in dentistry. Its association with esomeprazole has been widely studied and has yielded good results for the control of acute pain, even with the delayed absorption of naproxen owing to the presence of esomeprazole. To further understand the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of this drug alone and in combination with esomeprazole, we will analyze the pharmacokinetic parameters of naproxen and its major metabolite, 6-O-desmethylnaproxen, in saliva samples. A rapid, sensitive, and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of naproxen and 6-O-desmethylnaproxen in saliva will be developed and validated. Sequential saliva samples from six patients will be analyzed before and 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 8, 11, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the ingestion of one naproxen tablet (500 mg) and esomeprazole-associated naproxen tablets (500 + 20 mg), at two different times. After liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and HCl, the samples will be analyzed using an 8040 Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan). Separation of naproxen and its major metabolic products will be performed using a Shim-Pack XR-ODS 75Lx2.0 column and C18 pre-column (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) at 40°C using a mixture of methanol and 10 mM ammonium acetate (70:30, v/v) with an injection flow of 0.3 mL/min. The total analytical run time will be 5 min. The detection and quantification of naproxen and its metabolite will be validated, which elucidate the pharmacokinetics of this drug, thereby contributing to its proper prescription for the medical and dental interventions that cause acute pain.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Esomeprazol/farmacocinética , Naproxeno/análogos & derivados , Saliva/química , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Combinação de Medicamentos , Esomeprazol/administração & dosagem , Esomeprazol/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Absorção Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Metanol/química , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naproxeno/administração & dosagem , Naproxeno/isolamento & purificação , Naproxeno/farmacocinética , Dor Processual/tratamento farmacológico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comprimidos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461351, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797831

RESUMO

Traditional polymer-separation methods, such as size-exclusion chromatography and (gradient) liquid adsorption chromatography, cannot provide separations exclusively based on the number of deprotonated carboxylic-acid groups along the backbone chain of polymers. A novel separation method, based on non-aqueous ion-exchange chromatography (NAIEX), was developed, which allows such a separation of acid-functional polymers that are soluble in organic solvents. The polar, aprotic N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone was found to be a suitable solvent. It features a high relative permittivity (favouring dissociation of ion pairs into free ions) and it is a good solvent for polymers and organic salts, such as triethyl-ammonium formate. A negative charge is established on these polymers by deprotonation of the carboxylic-acid groups in the presence of an organic superbase (tetramethyl guanidine). Traditional potent organic bases, such as triethylamine, do not possess the base strength to compensate for the increase in pKa of polymeric carboxylic acid groups in non-aqueous conditions. Triethyl-ammonium formate is proposed as an alternative to traditional salts used for elution in aqueous ion-exchange chromatography. Separation was performed on an industry-standard strong-anion-exchange column and (near-)universal detection of the polymers was performed by high-temperature evaporative-light-scattering detection. The NAIEX method yielded a separation based on the acid-functionality distribution of the polymer. NAIEX was compared with traditional normal- and reversed-phase liquid-chromatography approaches for the separation of acid-functional copolymers.


Assuntos
Cromatografia por Troca Iônica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Polímeros/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Sais/química , Solventes/química
19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461358, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797837

RESUMO

In this study, the in-situ conversion of the synthesized Co-Al layered double hydroxide (Co-Al LDH) nanosheets to three dimensional hierarchical zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (3D HZIF-67) was presented as a cost-effective, highly efficient, flexible and robust sorbent to carry out the microextraction process. In the first stage, the anodized aluminum foil was prepared electrochemically. Then, the Co-Al LDH precursor was constructed on the surface of the previously-prepared anodized Al foil applying in-situ formation approach. The procedure is followed by the conversion of the prepared Co-Al LDH film to 3D HZIF-67 film via a facile solvothermal method without adding cobalt salt. The in-situ prepared 3D HZIF-67-anodized Al was used for the thin film microextraction (TFME) of caffeine. The effective factors in TFME procedure were investigated and optimized through applying Central Composite Design (CCD). In the obtained optimal condition, the calibration curves for TFME-HPLC-UV of caffeine were linear in the range of 1-200 µg L-1 with the coefficient of determination (r2) higher than 0.9915. The limits of detection were 0.33 and 0.38 µg L-1, in water and urine matrices, respectively. Moreover, the enrichment factors (EFs) and absolute recoveries (%AR) were also calculated as 173-198 and 57.1%-65.3%, respectively. The inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were evaluated as the method precision for 20 and 200 µg L-1 of spiked sample and were between 4.9-6.1%. The repeatability of the preparation step was investigated as batch-to-batch reproducibility and it was found to be 4.9%; as a result, the reproducibility of the presented film was approved. Finally, the proposed method was utilized to determine caffeine (as the model analyte) from different types of real samples including urine, coffee, beverage (Pepsi) and shampoo. The obtained recoveries (higher than 88%) confirmed the capability of the method for real sample analysis.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Cafeína/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cobalto/química , Hidróxidos/química , Imidazóis/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Zeolitas/química , Adsorção , Eletrodos , Limite de Detecção , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Porosidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes/química , Propriedades de Superfície
20.
Curr Protoc Plant Biol ; 5(3): e20115, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841544

RESUMO

As the principal co-factors of many metabolic pathways, the measurement of both adenine nucleotides and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide provides important information about cellular energy metabolism. However, given their rapid and reversible conversion as well as their relatively low concentration ranges, it is difficult to measure these compounds. Here, we describe a highly sensitive and selective ion-pairing HPLC method with fluorescence detection to quantify adenine nucleotides in plants. In addition, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a crucially important redox-active substrate for multiple catabolic and anabolic reactions with the ratios of NAD+ /NADH and NADP+ /NADPH being suggested as indicators of the general intracellular redox potential and hence metabolic state. Here, we describe highly sensitive enzyme cycling-based colorimetric assays (with a detection limit in the pmol range) performed subsequent to a simple extraction procedure involving acid or base extraction to allow the measurement of the cellular levels of these metabolites. © 2020 The Authors. Basic Protocol 1: Preparation of plant material for the measurement Basic Protocol 2: Measurement of ATP, ADP, and AMP via HPLC Basic Protocol 3: NAD+ /NADP+ measurements Basic Protocol 4: NADH/NADPH measurements Basic Protocol 5: Data analysis and quality control approaches.


Assuntos
Nucleotídeos de Adenina , NAD , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , NADP , Oxirredução
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