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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110942, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800224

RESUMO

Spinetoram (XDE-175-J/L), a new spinosyn-based insecticide, is one of the most widely used bio-pesticide worldwide and its registration for direct application on cauliflower to control Plutella xylostella is currently under review in China. In this study, an accredited method for simultaneous determination of spinetoram and its two metabolites in cauliflower was established and validated using QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) preparation coupled with ultra-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries using this method were ranged from 74 to 99% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.4-10.5%. The dissipation kinetics and terminal residues of spinetoram and its two metabolites in cauliflower were studied in Tianjin and Guizhou over two years under open field conditions. The dissipation experiments revealed that spinetoram was swiftly degraded in cauliflower, with the half-lives less than or equal to 4.85 days. The terminal residues of total spinetoram (sum of spinetoram and its two metabolites) detected in cauliflower samples were in the range of 0.009 mg/kg-0.337 mg/kg. Dietary risk assessment study was implemented based on the scientific data of field trials, food consumption and acceptable daily intake (ADI). The estimated long-term dietary risk probability (RQ) of total spinetoram from cauliflower was between 5.79% and 5.91%, indicating that spinetoram was associated with acceptable risk for dietary cauliflower consumption. The results would provide scientific guidance for proper usage of spinetoram in cauliflower field ecosystem.


Assuntos
Brassica/fisiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Macrolídeos/toxicidade , China , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Dieta , Ecossistema , Inseticidas/análise , Cinética , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461339, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797821

RESUMO

We report on a systematic and comprehensive (0.7 ≤ k'' ≤ 122) experimental study of the effect of the zone retention factor k'' on eddy dispersion (heddy) in packed bed columns for liquid chromatography. The values for heddy are obtained by subtracting rigorously estimated contributions to the total plate height from longitudinal diffusion (hB) and the mobile (hCm) and stationary zone (hCs) mass transfer resistances. For the first time, hCm-values are calculated using an expression for the Sherwood number (Sh) that has been established and validated in the relevant velocity range. Experiments were carried out on both a fully-porous and a core-shell particle column. In both cases, the eddy dispersion systematically decreased with increasing retention factor k'', dropping 0.5 to 0.8 reduced plate height units when going from the lowest to the highest k''. To establish a simple empirical fitting equation that can represent the observed effects, the widely used power law-based Knox model has been extended to express the dependence of its A- and n-parameters on the retention factor.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Algoritmos , Cromatografia Líquida/instrumentação , Difusão , Tamanho da Partícula , Porosidade
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461345, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797825

RESUMO

Modern liquid-liquid chromatography mainly refers to the following two kinds of chromatographic apparatuses: countercurrent chromatography based on hydrodynamic equilibrium systems and centrifugal partition chromatography based on hydrostatic equilibrium systems. In this paper, the recent advancements in enantioseparations by liquid-liquid chromatography, including the separation mechanism, chiral selector, two-phase solvent system, methods to improve the peak resolution and recent applications, are reviewed. The future outlook for liquid-liquid chromatography in enantioseparations is also proposed.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Algoritmos , Distribuição Contracorrente , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ligantes , Solventes/química , Estereoisomerismo
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461373, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797851

RESUMO

Simulation software for liquid chromatography can accelerate method development capabilities. In two-dimensional chromatography this is particularly attractive because there are more method variables to consider, provided simulations can account for the effects of injecting effluent from the first dimension separation into the second dimension column. In this paper we describe the adaptation of a previously described model (the Forssén model) to enable prediction of the profile of an injection pulse as it exits an Active Solvent Modulation (ASM) valve and enters the second dimension column under a variety of flow rate and sample loop size conditions (a global model). Experimentally measured injection profiles were used to train empirical models capable of generating injection profiles as a function of sample loop volume and flow rate. The resulting parameters were then used to generate an injection profile for a loop volume not used in the training set. The resulting profile agreed well with the experimentally obtained profile for this sample loop. Finally, chromatograms were simulated using previously developed simulation software incorporating the injection profile models developed in this work. Chromatographic peaks were simulated for valerophenone on an Agilent Zorbax Stablebond C18 stationary phase with an acetonitrile/water mobile phase gradient. Results of simulations based on experimental injection profiles, profiles predicted using the Forssén or global models, and rectangular injection profiles were compared. Comparison of the resulting chromatographic peaks revealed good agreement between those produced using experimental profiles or the Forssén or global models, with less than ± 0.3% deviations for retention times and less than ± 10% deviations for the peak widths (expressed as σ).


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Solventes/química , Acetonitrilos/química , Água/química
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461413, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823111

RESUMO

Innovations in extraction phases, extraction modes and hyphenated instrument configurations, are the most important issues to address for progress in the solid phase microextraction (SPME) methodology. In this regard, we have embarked on the development of a novel biocompatible 96-monolithic inorganic hollow fiber (96-MIHF) array as a new configuration for high-throughput SPME on a 96-well plate system. An arrangement of highly ordered 96 titania/Hydroxyapatite (TiO2/HAP) nanocomposite hollow fibers and corresponding stainless-steel needles on a Teflon plate holder were used as the extraction module. The inorganic hollow fibers were prepared via a rapid and reproducible template approach (Polypropylene hollow fiber) in combination with a sol-gel method in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), as a network maker. The hollow fiber-shape sorbents were obtained with excellent precision by weight (RSD% = 4.98, n = 10) and length (RSD% = 1.08, n = 10) criteria. The proposed design can overcome a number of geometrically dependent drawbacks of conventional high-throughput SPME methods, mainly the ones related to sorbent amount and surface area due to possessing inner/outer surfaces without additional internal supports. The SPME platform, for the first time, was successfully applied for the extraction and preconcentration of doxorubicin from urine and water media without requiring sample preparation and free from significant matrix effect. The extracted analyte was analyzed by liquid chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Highly satisfactory analytical figures of merit were obtained under optimized conditions. The limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) and linearity of determination were 0.1 ng mL-1, 0.25 ng mL-1 and 0.25 to 4000 ng mL-1, respectively. The interday, intraday and inter sorbent precisions for three concentration levels ranged from 2.01 to 8.09 % (n = 3), 1.02 to 8.65 % (n = 5) and 0.99 to 1.02% (n = 15), respectively. The mean intra-well RSD value for 96 individual wells in 96-MIHF-SPME-LC-MS/MS (n = 3) at the medium concentration level was 7.81%.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Doxorrubicina/urina , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Água/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Daunorrubicina/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Polipropilenos/química , Porosidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461416, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823114

RESUMO

Animal feeds are often reported to be contaminated with chemical residues, and when present above the maximum legal limit, these compounds can cause harmful effects to consumers of animal produce. Thus, animal feed safety is an important regulatory concern. The aim of this study was to optimise a multiresidue method for the simultaneous analysis of multi-class pesticides and a number of frequently used veterinary drugs using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. The method was validated in a range of feed matrices, including maize feed, poultry feed and mixed feed concentrate. The optimised sample preparation workflow involved extraction of feeds (5 g) with ethyl acetate (10 mL), followed by a freezing step (at -20°C) used for eliminating the matrix co-extractives. The extract was further cleaned by dispersive solid phase extraction with a combination of primary secondary amine, C18 and florisil sorbents. From the cleaned-extract, an aliquot was analysed by GC-MS/MS, while another portion of it was solvent-exchanged to acetonitrile:water (50:50) and then analysed by LC-MS/MS. This method effectively minimised the matrix interferences. A total of 192 pesticides was analysed by GC-MS/MS within a runtime of 22 min. The LC-MS/MS method was validated for 187 compounds including 17 veterinary drugs. For most of the compounds, the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 mg/kg. The recoveries at LOQ and higher levels ranged between 70% and 120%, with precision-RSDs of < 20%. The method provided a precise analysis in a wide range of market-feed samples. As shown, the method is suitable for regulatory and commercial testing purposes.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Drogas Veterinárias/análise , Animais , Congelamento , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes/química , Água/química
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111042, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738626

RESUMO

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins have received considerable attention in recent years because of their adverse effects on marine breeding industries and human health. In this study, a reliable method for the analysis of extracellular PSP toxins in the culture medium of marine toxic dinoflagellates was developed for the first time using graphitized carbon black-solid-phase extraction and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification of typical PSP toxins in algal culture medium ranged from 0.072 µg/L to 0.151 µg/L under optimal conditions. Satisfactory absolute recoveries (87.5%-102.4%), precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 7.6%), and linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9998) were also achieved. In addition, the proposed method was applied to screen and determine the extracellular PSP toxins of two typical toxigenic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium minutum and Alexandrium tamarense. The total concentrations of the extracellular PSP toxins in A. minutum and A. tamarense over the whole growth period were within 2.0-735.5 and 2.0-19.2 µg/L, respectively. The concentrations of extracellular PSP toxins varied remarkably in the different growth stages of A. minutum and A. tamarense, and the contents of some extracellular PSP toxins were substantially higher than those of intracellular PSP toxins. Therefore, the extracellular PSP toxins released by toxigenic red tide algae cannot be ignored, and their environmental fate, bioavailability, and potential harm to aquatic environment need to be investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Meios de Cultura/química , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Fuligem/química
8.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127479, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758777

RESUMO

The presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in natural water resources due to incomplete removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is a serious environmental concern at present. In this work, the effects of three pharmaceuticals (propranolol, triclosan, and nimesulide) on Gammarus pulex metabolic profiles at different doses and times of exposure have been investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The complex data sets generated in the different exposure experiments were analyzed with the ROIMCR procedure, based on the selection of the MS regions of interest (ROI) data and on their analysis by the Multivariate Curve-Resolution Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) chemometrics method. This approach, allowed the resolution and identification of the metabolites present in the analyzed samples, as well as the estimation of their concentration changes due to the exposure experiments. ANOVA Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA) and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) were then conducted to assess the changes in the concentration of the metabolites for the three pharmaceuticals at the different conditions of exposure. The three tested pharmaceuticals changed the concentrations of metabolites, which were related to different KEGG functional classes. These changes summarize the biochemical response of Gammarus pulex to the exposure by the three investigated pharmaceuticals. Possible pathway alterations related to protein synthesis and oxidative stress were observed in the concentration of identified metabolites.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/fisiologia , Propranolol/toxicidade , Sulfonamidas/toxicidade , Triclosan/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Águas Residuárias
9.
J Anal Toxicol ; 44(7): 708-717, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808043

RESUMO

An analytical method for the detection of 40 benzodiazepines, (±)-zopiclone, zaleplon and zolpidem in blood and urine by solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. Twenty-nine of 43 analytes were quantified in 0.5 mL whole blood for investigating postmortem, drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) and driving under the influence of drugs cases (DUID). The four different dynamic ranges of the seven-point, linear, 1/x weighted calibration curves with lower limits of quantification of 2, 5, 10 and 20 µg/L across the analytes encompassed the majority of our casework encountered in postmortem, DFSA and DUID samples. Reference materials were available for all analytes except α-hydroxyflualprazolam, a hydroxylated metabolite of flualprazolam. The fragmentation of α-hydroxyflualprazolam was predicted from the fragmentation pattern of α-hydroxyalprazolam, and the appropriate transitions were added to the method to enable monitoring for this analyte. Urine samples were hydrolyzed at 55°C for 30 min with a genetically modified ß-glucuronidase enzyme, which resulted in >95% efficiency measured by oxazepam glucuronide. Extensive sample preparation included combining osmotic lysing and protein precipitation with methanol/acetonitrile mixture followed by freezing and centrifugation resulted in exceptionally high signal-to-noise ratios. Bias and between-and within-day imprecision for quality controls (QCs) were all within ±15%, except for clonazolam and etizolam that were within ±20%. All 29 of the 43 analytes tested for QC performance met quantitative reporting criteria within the dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, and 14 analytes, present only in the calibrator solution, were qualitatively reported. Twenty-five analytes met all quantitative reporting criteria including dilution integrity. The ability to analyze quantitative blood and qualitative urine samples in the same batch is one of the most useful elements of this procedure. This sensitive, specific and robust analytical method was routinely employed in the analysis of >300 samples in our laboratory over the last 6 months.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas/metabolismo , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/metabolismo , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Alprazolam/análogos & derivados , Compostos Azabicíclicos/sangue , Compostos Azabicíclicos/metabolismo , Compostos Azabicíclicos/urina , Benzodiazepinas/sangue , Benzodiazepinas/urina , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Diazepam/análogos & derivados , Toxicologia Forense , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/análise , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/sangue , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/urina , Limite de Detecção , Piperazinas/sangue , Piperazinas/metabolismo , Piperazinas/urina , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/sangue , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/metabolismo , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/urina , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Zolpidem/sangue , Zolpidem/metabolismo , Zolpidem/urina
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461283, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797812

RESUMO

Two-dimensional liquid chromatography is increasingly being used to address challenging separations in fields ranging from pharmaceutical analysis to the food industry. A significant impediment to development of more methods is the lack of a complete theoretical foundation upon which sound development decisions can be made. One parameter that is currently not fully understood is the extent of filling of sampling loops in the case where effluent from the first dimension separation is transferred to the second dimension separation through this type of open loop interface. This is a highly important parameter because it is connected to several other variables in a 2D-LC system, including the first dimension flow rate, the sampling (modulation) time, and the loop volume. In this study we have used both numerical simulation methods and experimental measurements to understand the extent to which sampling loops can be filled before a significant fraction of the analyte is lost from the end of the loop. Variables included in the study are the analyte diffusion coefficient (Dmol), loop filling rate (Ffill), loop inner diameter or radius (Rloop) and loop volume (Vloop). For a straight loop capillary we find that analyte breakthrough curves (as measured at the loop outlet) depend only on a single the dimensionless parameter t*=VloopFfill·DmolRloop2 . As a function of this parameter, the fraction of analyte lost from the loop outlet for different extents of loop filling could be calculated, allowing to develop guidelines for the maximum permissible extent of filling before a specified level of analyte loss is reached. Breakthrough measurements using a coiled loop capillary show that less breakthrough is observed compared to the straight capillary at high filling flow rates, presumably due to secondary flows that increase radial dispersion. These measurements enabled the calculation of apparent radial diffusion coefficients for use with coiled capillaries such that the same relation for t* can be used to predict analyte loss due to breakthrough. These results should be very useful to practitioners of 2D-LC, enabling them to make rational decisions about the extent of loop filling on the basis of experimental conditions and analyte type.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/instrumentação , Difusão , Modelos Teóricos
11.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461359, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797838

RESUMO

The enantiomeric determination of chiral drugs in the environment is of emerging concern since their enantiomers often exhibit stereoselectivity in environmental occurrence, fate and toxicity. In this study a method based on solid-phase extraction followed by chiral liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry has been developed for the enantiomeric determination of a group of cathinones in river water and effluent wastewater. The enantioseparation was carried out using a Chiralpak CBH column in reversed-phase mode, and optimised by evaluating the effects of flow rate, buffer concentration and organic modifier. Under optimal conditions, good enantioseparations (Rs ≥1.2) were achieved for all the analytes. Two mixed-mode cation-exchange sorbents (Oasis WCX and Oasis MCX) in solid-phase extraction were evaluated in river water. Oasis MCX sorbent showed better performance with apparent recoveries ranging from 57 to 91% and matrix effect ranging from -10 to 15%. It is worth noting that a shifting of retention times and loss of enantioresolutions in environmental water samples was observed for all the analytes when the Oasis WCX sorbent was used. The method was validated with river water and effluent wastewater samples and its overall performance was satisfactory. The method quantification limits for all the analyte enantiomers ranged from 1.0 to 2.9 ng/L in river water, and from 2.3 to 6.0 ng/L in effluent wastewater. The repeatability and reproducibility values, expressed as% relative standard deviation (n = 5) were less than 15%. The method was then applied to the analysis of river water and effluent wastewater. The racemic methylone and methedrone (EF=0.49 and 0.46, respectively) were detected at low ng/L in some of the river water samples.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rios/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Estereoisomerismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461353, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797833

RESUMO

This paper reports the development of an LC-ESI-MS2 method for the sensitive determination of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in human serum samples. Congener-specific separation was achieved by using a polar-embedded stationary phase, previously optimized for the working group, which provided better separation of isobaric compounds than the common octadecylsilane phases. MS fragmentation patterns and energies showed differences among OH-PCB congeners, mainly depending on the position of OH-group and the number of chlorine atoms in the molecule, although the most intense transitions were always those corresponding to the neutral loss of an HCl group from the quasi-molecular ion cluster. The method allowed the determination of OH-PCBs with good linearity (dynamic linear range of four orders of magnitude with R2 higher than 0.995) and precision (relative standard deviations of absolute areas lower than 10%), and with better sensitivity than other similar methods previously described in the literature. Matrix effect has been evaluated and reduced to less than 10% by the addition of isotopically labeled standards and a 10-fold dilution of the final sample extract. The low iLODs provided by the developed method (from 1.2 to 5.4 fg µL-1 for all the OH-PCBs studied, except 4'-OHCB108, whose iLOD was 61 fg µL-1) allows dilution without losses of detected peaks. Finally, the applicability of the method has been demonstrated by analyzing human serum samples belonging to an interlaboratory exercise.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
13.
J Chromatogr A ; 1628: 461425, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861181

RESUMO

A new broadly applicable achiral-chiral 2-dimensional heart-cutting (LC-LC) platform is designed comprising a multi-column selection approach in the chiral dimension. As both dimensions are operated in a highly aqueous reversed-phase type mode, analysis of a broad range of pharmaceutical solutes (LogP: 1.49-5.7) and their impurities becomes possible, while breakthrough issues arising due to solvent immiscibility and peak broadening phenomena in the second dimension are practically circumvented. These aspects, together with the chromatographic and quantitative performances are systematically assessed for various transfer loop sizes (50, 100, 200 and 500 µl), column diameters (2.0 and 4.6 mm), and various gradients (10, 20 and 40 min) with a mixture of five racemates covering a broad range in polarity. In order to broaden the selectivity of the second dimension, an automated chiral screening is performed comprising six chiral columns, allowing baseline separation for all enantiomers and a chiral resolution up to 17.21 for some of the racemates. The performance of the platform is also assessed in pharmaceutical drug development samples. A hybrid high-resolution (HiRes) sample approach is thereby used, which proves to be effective for precise confirmation of the relative prevalence of the impurities compared to the principal compound in all studied cases. The co-eluted impurities were thereby effectively detected and quantified down to the 0.05% level. The obtained figures of merits indicate the suitability of the platform for implementation in industry.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Solventes , Estereoisomerismo , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 595-601, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862252

RESUMO

The residual characteristics and risk assessment with respect to cyazofamid and its metabolite 4-chloro-5-p-tolylimidazole-2-carbonitrile were monitored in case of Korean cabbage at different preharvest intervals during a greenhouse trial. The 0.02 kg a.i/ha of cyazofamid was sprayed twice on seven-day intervals (i.e., on day 0, 7, 14, and 21 before harvest). The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis was used to monitor the residual amount of fungicide. The matrix-matched calibration curves with respect to the cyazofamid in Korean cabbage exhibited good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.999) and acceptable recoveries of 84.1%-114.9%. The biological half-life of cyazofamid in Korean cabbage was 3.18 days. During the treatment, the preharvest residue of cyazofamid in Korean cabbage 14 days before harvest (0.80 mg/kg) was lower than that specified by the MFDS-MRL (Ministry of Food and Drug Safety-Maximum Residue Limit, 2.0 mg/kg) and should be recommended as the safe preharvest-interval application limit. The hazard quotient showed low toxicity (70.58%) during the risk assessment study of cyazofamid.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Sulfonamidas/toxicidade , Brassica/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Meia-Vida , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/metabolismo , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco , Sulfonamidas/metabolismo
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461117, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709364

RESUMO

To obtain consistent chromatographic behavior, it is important to develop resin packing methods in accordance with the characteristics of each resin. Resins, particularly those with a significant level of compressibility, require proper knowledge of the packing methodology to ensure scalable performance. The study demonstrates the applicability of pressure-flow modeling based on the Blake-Kozeny equation for cellulose based resins, using the MEP HyperCel (Pall) resin as a case study. This approach enabled the understanding of the appropriate bed compressibility and the determination of the minimum column diameter that can predict bed integrity during commercial manufacturing scale operation. Studies suggested that scale-dependent wall effects become negligible for column diameters exceeding 20 cm. Pressure-flow modeling produced a minimum compression recommendation of 0.206 for the MEP HyperCel resin. Columns with diameters up to 80 cm packed with this bed compression yielded incompressible beds with pressure-flow curves consistent with model predictions. Model parameter (particle diameter, viscosity, porosity) values were then varied to demonstrate how changing operating conditions influence model predictions. This analysis supported the successful troubleshooting of unexpected high pressures at the commercial manufacturing scale using MEP HyperCel resin, further supporting the applicability of this approach.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Géis/química , Porosidade , Pressão , Viscosidade
16.
Chemosphere ; 255: 127034, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679634

RESUMO

Due to the increasing presence of plastic and plastic associated contaminants in the aquatic environments, the monitoring of this contamination in fish products and the understanding of possible human health implications is considered urgent. However, data are still relatively scarce, mostly due to the methodological challenges in the chemical analysis: these contaminants are ubiquitous and procedural contamination from the laboratory is frequent. In this work, we compared solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction (UASE) as sample preparation methods for the liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of phthalates in fish fillets. UASE was carried out with an acetone-hexane (1:1) solution and according to a reference procedure aimed to obtain the exhaustive extraction of the target analytes. SPME was carried out by applying C18 fibers in direct immersion mode and by using water/methanol 20:80 mixture to desorb the aliquot required for the analysis. Overall, SPME displayed an improved control of the background contamination and enabled lower LOQs. Precision, calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD) on replicates of a reference sample, was below 24% for both the method. Analysis of real samples purchased from Italian supermarkets showed that SPME might be an efficient tool for estimating the risk associated with fish consumption.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Solventes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Ultrassom
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461306, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709349

RESUMO

A pentafluorobenzoylation (PFBz)-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of ethanolamines (EAs, nitrogen mustard degradation products). With this method, highly hydrophilic EAs can be sufficiently analyzed with a commonly used reversed phase column (retention times: (PFBz)2-methyl diethanolamine, 9.1 min; (PFBz)2-ethyl diethanolamine, 9.8 min; and (PFBz)3-triethanolamine, 17.6 min). The applicability of the method for real samples was investigated via recovery tests. Methyl diethanolamine and ethyl diethanolamine were detected at concentrations as low as 1 ng/mL in serum and 10 ng/mL in urine, and quantified within the range of 1-1000 ng/mL and 10-1000 ng/mL, respectively.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Fluorbenzenos/química , Mecloretamina/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Etanolamina/sangue , Humanos , Hidrólise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Limite de Detecção
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461310, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709352

RESUMO

With the selection of partially saturated 2H-indazoles as model compounds, we demonstrate the possibility to use Whelk-O1 chiral stationary phases (CSPs) to succeed in efficient small-scale preparative enantioseparations. Runs of three consecutive liquid chromatography injections (about 300 µg of racemate repeatedly injected in a 100 µL loop) produced groups of peaks without band contamination (α = 1.2 and RS = 2.57). With this procedure approximately 3.0 mg of each enantiomer, with enantiomeric excess ≥ 97% were obtained. Very profitably, the high volatility of n-hexane used as the sole eluent facilitated the solvent evaporation after the enantiomer recovery. High resolution mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the chemical identity of the two enantiomers was preserved along the entire process. The ability of Whelk-O1 phases in enantioseparating structurally similar compounds was confirmed with the analysis of other two racemates. Moreover, the relevant chemoselectivity exhibited by the CSP towards the three racemates should allow to simultaneously optimizing the enantioselectivity of different analytes and perform small-scale enantioresolutions of different compounds during the same run. In this study, the integration of experimental off-line electronic circular dichroism analysis with ab initio time-dependent density-functional theory simulations facilitated the assignment of the absolute configuration of the single enantiomers, while a molecular dynamics protocol can be useful to make a priori predictions of the enantioseparation ability of CSP towards selected compounds.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Indazóis/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Indazóis/síntese química , Solventes , Estereoisomerismo
19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461331, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709357

RESUMO

In this work, a novel imidazolium bonding method was proposed for the synthesis of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) stationary phases. One obtained stationary phase (SilprAprImCl) was derived from direct reaction between N-(3-aminopropyl)-imidazole and 3-chloropropylated silica gel. Other two materials (SilprAprImBF4 and SilprAprImTf2N) were obtained from SilprAprImCl by ion exchange reaction, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis afforded the proofs of successful imidazolium immobilization and satisfied bonding efficiency. Various polar compounds such as saccharides, nucleosides, and nucleobases were utilized to evaluate the retention behaviours of these materials in HILIC mode. Different effects from mobile composition, column temperature, imidazolium unite and paired anions (Cl-, BF4-, and Tf2N-) in imidazolium were proved and discussed. Separation mechanism and the role of the imidazolium ions were also investigated in mobile phases with different pH. Moreover, chromatographic stability was evaluated by consecutive injections. Finally, the reliability of these stationary phases was demonstrated by the separation of oligosaccharides in real fructooligosaccharides samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Imidazóis/química , Propanóis/química , Ânions , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Imidazóis/síntese química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Nucleosídeos/química , Nucleosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Oligossacarídeos/química , Propanóis/síntese química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura
20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461332, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709358

RESUMO

Two structural isomeric pentacyclic triterpenes, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, were considered as the models for the quality control of many traditional Chinese herbal medicines and they have been proved to own important pharmacological activities. In the present work, liquid chromatographic and liquid-liquid chromatographic separation with high peak resolution of structural isomeric oleanolic acid and ursolic acid using hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin as mobile phase additive was successfully achieved, respectively. A high peak resolution, RS=8.143, was achieved for the two structural isomeric compounds by conventional reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, which was greatly improved compared with the published values. Meanwhile, a biphasic solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-0.1 mol/L hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (9:1:10, v/v) was selected for liquid-liquid chromatography, which provided a high peak resolution, RS = 6.573, for analytical apparatus and Rs = 8.500 for semi-preparative apparatus after optimization by liquid-liquid extractions. Two elution modes including reverse phase mode and normal phase mode were investigated for preparative separation of two acids from crude exact of Eriobotrya japonica Thunb. Furthermore, the inclusion complex between each of the two structural isomers and hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin were also investigated for high performance liquid chromatography and liquid-liquid chromatography, respectively, in which formation constants were determined for oleanolic acid and ursolic acid.


Assuntos
2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Ácido Oleanólico/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Eriobotrya/química , Isomerismo , Solventes , Temperatura , Termodinâmica , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química
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