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1.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(6): 33-43, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472045

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have recently confirmed a strong association of the 9p21.3 locus with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) in different populations but no data has been reported for the Tanzanian population. This study aimed to investigate the 9p21.3 locus harboring the disease-causing hotspot variations in Tanzanian CAD patients and their associations with the risk factors. 135 patients with CAD and 140 non-CAD patients were enrolled into the study. Further the biochemical analysis, the genotyping assays were performed by the use of qRT-PCR. The genotype and allele frequencies of rs1333049, rs2383207, rs2383206, rs10757274, rs10757278, and rs10811656 were significantly different between the groups (p<0.005). The genotype distribution of rs1333049, rs10757278 and rs10811656 polymorphisms were significantly different among patients with one, two, three stenotic vessels (p<0.05). For rs10757274 and rs10757278, the GG genotype indicated a significant 3-fold and 4-fold increased risk of CAD (p<0.0001,respectively). Additionally, haplotype analysis revealed that AAGCAG, AAACAG, GGGTGC haplotypes of 9p21.3 locus polymorphisms are associated with CAD risk. The GGGTGC haplotype was over-represented while the other two underrepresented in patients as compared to controls (p<0.00001,respectively) suggesting the first one a high-risk and the other two low-risk haplotypes for Tanzanian population. The AUC of a risk model based on non-genetic risk factors was 0.954 (95% CI: 0.930-0.977) and the combination with genetic risk factors improved the AUC to 0.982 (95% CI: 0.954-0.985) (p<0.012), indicating good diagnostic accuracy. Our results are the first data reporting statistically significant associations between 9p21.3 polymorphisms and CAD, and the very first haplotype block harboring the disease-causing variations in Tanzanian population.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia
2.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(8): 837-840, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and molecular genetic characteristics of patient with Kleefstra syndrome 1. METHODS: Clinical data, chromosomal karyotype and whole genome copy number variations (CNVs) of the patient were analyzed. RESULTS: The patient was found to have a karyotype of 45,XX,-9[4]/46,XX,r(9)(p24q34)[56]. Whole-genome CNVs detection revealed that she has carried a heterozygous deletion of approximately 670 kb at 9q34.3, which encompassed the entire EHMT1 gene. The region is strongly associated with Kleefstra syndrome (1/9q telomere deletion). In addition, the patient also had heterozygous deletion of 9pter, which may predispose to formation of ring chromosome 9. CONCLUSION: The child was diagnosed with Kleefstra syndrome type 1 in conjunct with ring chromosome 9.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Cromossomos em Anel , Criança , Deleção Cromossômica , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos
3.
Clin Biochem ; 73: 70-76, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chromosomal region 9p21.3 is most robustly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in western European populations. However, heterogeneity in CAD phenotypes leads to uncertainty whether 9p21.3 is associated with stable and/or acute clinical presentations of CAD. 9p21.3 is rich in regulatory elements, but the underlying mechanisms of its actions in CAD remain unclear. We investigate the association of 9p21.3 two haplotype blocks lead variants (rs10757278 and rs518394) with first-ever non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) in CAD patients and their association with CDKN2B mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells 6 months after the event. METHODS: We included CAD patients with sustained first MI (n = 523) and controls (n = 583). Gene expression was assessed in 72 patients 6 months after MI and 43 healthy controls. TaqMan® technology was used for the gene expression and genotyping analysis. RESULTS: CDKN2B mRNA was significantly lower in MI patients compared with the controls (p = 0.002) and in patients carrying the rs10757278 G risk allele versus AA homozygotes (p = 0.012) 6 months after the event. While we confirmed the association of rs10757278 with CDKN2B expression in MI patients, we failed to find an association between the investigated variants and MI or disease burden. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest a dysregulation of gene expression in the 9p21.3 region six months after acute MI, which is affected by a genetic variant in patients. The rs10757278 rare allele is one factor that might lead to prolonged risk for proatherogenic complications.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Haplótipos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Elementos de Resposta , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/enzimologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/enzimologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética
4.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 158(2): 74-82, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141803

RESUMO

Deletion of distal 9p is associated with a rare clinical condition characterized by dysmorphic features, developmental delay, and ambiguous genitalia. The phenotype shows variable expressivity and is related to the size of the deletion. 8q24 duplication has been reported in only few cases to date, all showing dysmorphic features and mild psychomotor developmental delay. A case of chromosomal aberration involving a 9p terminal deletion with an 8q duplication has never been reported. Here, we describe a child with a female phenotype, male karyotype, dysmorphic features, ambiguous genitalia, and developmental delay. In order to assess the cause of the patient's phenotype, conventional karyotyping, FISH, and a chromosomal microarray analysis were performed on the patient and her parents. The cytogenetic and molecular analysis revealed an unbalanced chromosomal aberration with a duplication in the long arm of chromosome 8 at 8q24.11q24.3 associated with a distal deletion in the short arm of chromosome 9 at 9p24.3p24.1, derived from a maternal balanced translocation. We compared the clinical picture of our patient with other similar cases reported in the literature and found that some clinical findings, such as strabismus, symphalangism of the first finger, and cubitus valgus, have never been previously associated with 9p deletion or 8q duplication expanding the phenotypic range of this condition. This study is aimed to better define the clinical history and prognosis of patients with this rare chromosomal aberration.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XY/genética , Trissomia/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Feminino , Humanos
5.
Mutat Res ; 815: 30-40, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096160

RESUMO

Here we present and describe data on homozygous deletions (HD) of human CDKN2 A and neighboring regions on the p arm of Chromosome 9 from cancer genome sequences deposited on the online Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. Although CDKN2 A HDs have been previously described in many cancers, this is a pan-cancer report of these aberrations with the aim to map the distribution of the breakpoints. We find that HDs of this locus have a median range of 1,255,650bps. When the deletion breakpoints were mapped on both the telomere and centromere proximal sides of CDKN2A, most of the telomere proximal breakpoints concentrate to a narrow region of the chromosome which includes the gene MTAP.. The centromere proximal breakpoints of the deletions are distributed over a wider chromosomal region. Furthermore, gene expression analysis shows that the deletions that include the CDKN2A region also include the MTAP region and this observation is tissue independent. We propose a model that may explain the origin of the telomere proximal CDKN2A breakpoints Finally, we find that HD distributions for at least three other loci, RB1, SMAD4 and PTEN are also not random.


Assuntos
Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Centrômero/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Deleção de Genes , Homozigoto , Humanos , Telômero/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
7.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 157(4): 231-238, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933949

RESUMO

Constitutional complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are rare events that typically involve 2 or more chromosomes with at least 3 breakpoints and can result in normal or abnormal phenotypes depending on whether they disturb the euchromatic neighborhood. Here, we report an unusual balanced CCR involving chromosomes 1, 9, and 10 that causes an unbalanced karyotype in a severely affected toddler. The CCR was initially reported as a maternal 2-way translocation but was reclassified as a 3-way translocation after a microarray analysis of the propositus revealed the involvement of another chromosome not identified by G-banding in his phenotypically normal mother. FISH assays on maternal metaphase cells confirmed that the 1qter region of der(1) was translocated to der(10), whereas the 10qter segment was translocated to der(9), which in turn donated a segment to der(1). Subsequently, this CCR was also identified in her phenotypically normal father (the patient's grandfather). Thus, the patient inherited the previously unreported pathogenic combination of der(1) with a loss of 1q43→qter (including AKT3, ZBTB18, HNRNPU, and SMYD3) and der(9) with a gain of 10q25.2→qter (including FGFR2), leading to a compound phenotype with key features of the 1q43→qter deletion and distal 10q trisomy syndromes. Our observations suggest that the loss of SMYD3 accounts for cardiac defects in a subset of patients. Moreover, due to recurrent miscarriages in this family, our findings allowed improved genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Aconselhamento Genético , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Translocação Genética
9.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(6): 152377, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885529

RESUMO

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis. The most common genetic alteration in MM is the deletion of the INK4a/ARF locus, which encodes the p16 protein and is located on the short arm of chromosome 9 (9p21). Recently, it has been shown that homozygous deletion of 9p21 has both diagnostic and prognostic significance in MM. It is a known fact that, to interpret fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signals, a cut-off value for each probe should be determined for a correct diagnosis. To our knowledge, there is no consensus or confirmed protocol for cut-off values to evaluate FISH signals in MMs. Therefore, the aim of our research was to address 9p21 deletion status and p16 expression profiles of MM by determining our own cut-off values and the effectiveness of using p16 negativity and 9p21 deletion as markers for differentiating MMs from benign mesothelial proliferations in 114 cases. We established a cut-off value for the detection of 9p21 deletion by using 13 benign reactive cases (6 reactive mesothelial hyperplasias and 7 chronic fibrinous pleuritis cases) and found between 0-7%. According to our calculations, homozygous deletion was defined by loss of both p16 gene signals in at least 13.3% of the nuclei that showed at least 1 signal for the CEP 9 probe. Our FISH results showed homozygous 9p21 deletion in 82 of the 114 cases of MM (71.9%), and p16 expression was negative in 75 of the 114 cases (65.8%). The correlation between loss of p16 protein expression and 9p21 deletion was statistically significant. Among the p16-negative cases, 86.7% also had the 9p21 deletion. The combined examination of the 9p21 deletion and loss of p16 expression is helpful for diagnostic purposes, but because the FISH method is an expensive technique and loss of p16 expression is not specific for mesotheliomas, p16 negativity can guide practitioners to eliminate cases that require further investigation by FISH. The variability in the significance of 9p21 homozygous deletion results from inconsistencies among different institutes, suggesting that each institute should establish its own cut-off value using reactive mesothelial proliferations. Alternatively, global studies are needed to assess cut-off values.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Mesotelioma/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/genética , Valores de Referência , Deleção de Sequência
10.
Cancer Genet ; 231-232: 1-13, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803551

RESUMO

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is not as frequently reported as the B-cell counterpart (B-ALL), only occurring in about 15% of pediatric cases with a typically heterogeneous etiology. Approximately 8% of childhood T-ALL cases have rearrangements involving the ABL1 tyrosine kinase gene at 9q34.12; although a t(9;22), resulting in a fusion of ABL1 with the BCR gene at 22q11.23 is a common occurrence in B-ALL, it is not a typical finding in T-ALL. A subset of 10 of 40 documented cases of T-ALL analyzed over a 5-year period is presented, each having gene rearrangements within band 9q34 that resulted in fusions other than BCR/ABL1. These cases included fusions involving ABL1, SET (9q34.11), NUP214 (9q34.13), SPTAN1 (9p34.11), and TNRC6B (22q13.1). Among the 10 cases are: six SET/NUP214 fusions, two ABL1/NUP214 fusions (one of which was associated with episomal amplification) and novel SPTAN1/ABL1 and TNRC6B/ABL1 fusions. The evaluations of these clones were each significantly aided by FISH analysis, which directed subsequent microarray and anchored multiplex PCR testing for fusion confirmations.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
11.
Acta pediatr. esp ; 77(1/2): e31-e34, ene.-feb. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182878

RESUMO

El síndrome de Kleefstra se caracteriza por una facies peculiar y la presencia de hipotonía, déficit intelectual y retraso grave en la expresión oral, aunque pueden aparecer otras anomalías: cardiacas, de audición, defectos genitales en varones, epilepsia, infecciones respiratorias severas, sobrepeso y alteraciones del comportamiento. Se trata de una enfermedad genética poco frecuente, ocasionada por mutaciones puntuales en el gen histona-lisina-N-metiltransferasa 1 eucromática (EHMT1) o por una microdeleción cromosómica en 9q34.3 (en el 75% de los casos). Este gen codifica una enzima que modifica la función de la histona, esencial para el desarrollo normal. Presentamos el caso clínico de un niño con hipotonía, retraso psicomotor, ausencia de habla y facies peculiar, cuyo diagnóstico se obtuvo gracias a las nuevas técnicas de genética molecular


The Kleefstra syndrome is characterized by a peculiar facies, intelectual deficit and severe delay in the oral expression. Other anomalies that may occur are cardiac, hearing, genital defects in men, epilepsy, severe respiratory infections, overweight and behavioral abnormalities. It’s a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the eucromatic histone-lysine-N-methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) or a chromosome microdeletion 9q34.3 (in 75% of the cases). This gene encodes an enzyme that modifies the function of histone, essential for normal development. We present the case of a child with hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, absence of speech and peculiar facies, whose diagnosis was obtained due to the new techniques in molecular genetics


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Síndrome
12.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 36(4): 769-775, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Male carriers of an X-autosome translocation are generally infertile, regardless of the position of the breakpoint on the X chromosome while the pathogenicity of Xp22.3 subtelomeric duplications is under debate. To shed light into this controversy, we present a rare case, of an azoospermic male with no other significant clinical findings, in whom classical cytogenetics revealed additional unbalanced chromosomal material, at the telomere of the long arm of one homolog of chromosome 9. METHODS: In peripheral blood specimens of the index case and his parents, we performed GBanding, Inverted-DAPI Banding, AgNOR staining, Telomere specific Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH), Molecular karyotyping by Multi-color FISH, whole genome SNP microarrays, sub-telomeric MLPA, and transcription analysis of the expression of KAL1 gene by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Multi-color FISH revealed an unbalanced translocation involving the short arm of chromosome X. SNP microarray analysis combined to classical cytogenetics and MLPA demonstrated a de novo 8.796 Mb duplication of Xp22.31-p22.33. Compared to three control specimens, the patient presented significantly elevated expression levels of KAL1 mRNA in peripheral blood, suggesting transcriptional functionality of the duplicated segment. CONCLUSIONS: The duplicated segment contains the pseudo-autosomal region PAR1 and more than 30 genes including SHOX, ARSE, STS, KAL1, and FAM9A and is not listed as polymorphic. Our data advocate that duplications of the Xp22.3 region may not be associated with a clinical consequence.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Translocação Genética/genética , Adulto , Criança , Bandeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Gravidez , Telômero/genética
14.
Cancer Genet ; 230: 37-46, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify and characterize constitutional chromosomal rearrangements that mimic recurrent genetic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHODS: Bone marrow and blood chromosome studies were reviewed to identify constitutional rearrangements that resemble those designated by the 2017 revised World Health Organization (WHO) "AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities". Mate-pair sequencing (MPseq) was performed on cases with constitutional chromosome mimics of recurrent AML abnormalities to further define the rearrangement breakpoints. RESULTS: Three cases with constitutional rearrangements were identified, including t(6;9)(p23;q34), inv(16)(p13.1q22), and t(9;22)(q34.1;q12.2). Two cases were bone marrow specimens being evaluated for hematologic neoplasms, while one case was a blood specimen being evaluated for primary ovarian insufficiency. MPseq provided high-resolution and precise rearrangement breakpoints, and resolved the atypical FISH results generated with each rearrangement. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illustrate that constitutional rearrangements can mimic recurrent genetic abnormalities observed in AML, and we emphasize the importance of correlating genetic data with clinical and hematopathologic information.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Rearranjo Gênico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Adulto , Medula Óssea/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Cariotipagem/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 276: 212-217, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) have a significant genetic contribution and commonly co-exist. To compare and contrast genetic determinants of the two diseases, we investigated associations of the LPA and 9p21 loci, i.e. the two strongest CAD risk loci, with risk of AVS. METHODS: We genotyped the CAD-associated variants at the LPA (rs10455872) and 9p21 loci (rs1333049) in the GeneCAST (Genetics of Calcific Aortic STenosis) Consortium and conducted a meta-analysis for their association with AVS. Cases and controls were stratified by CAD status. External validation of findings was undertaken in five cohorts including 7880 cases and 851,152 controls. RESULTS: In the meta-analysis including 4651 cases and 8231 controls the CAD-associated allele at the LPA locus was associated with increased risk of AVS (OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.24-1.52, p = 6.9 × 10-10) with a larger effect size in those without CAD (OR 1.53; 95%CI 1.31-1.79) compared to those with CAD (OR 1.27; 95%CI 1.12-1.45). The CAD-associated allele at 9p21 was associated with a trend towards lower risk of AVS (OR 0.93; 95%CI 0.88-0.99, p = 0.014). External validation confirmed the association of the LPA risk allele with risk of AVS (OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.27-1.47), again with a higher effect size in those without CAD. The small protective effect of the 9p21 CAD risk allele could not be replicated (OR 0.98; 95%CI 0.95-1.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the association of the LPA locus with risk of AVS, with a higher effect in those without concomitant CAD. Overall, 9p21 was not associated with AVS.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Lipoproteína(a)/genética , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
16.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 32(10): 1688-1695, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29262756

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To identify the prevalence and types of fetal chromosomal polymorphisms in pregnant women and to examine possible associations with screening test parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fetal chromosomal polymorphism rate was investigated in pregnant women who had been implemented for invasive prenatal test in a tertiary reference center in Thrace Region of Turkey. Fetal chromosomal polymorphisms were determined and their effects on screening tests' parameters were investigated. Possible differences in the first and second-trimester screening test parameters between women; with fetal chromosomal polymorphism who had screening test results (Group 1) and those with a normal karyotype (Group 2) were evaluated. RESULTS: Fetal chromosomal polymorphism prevalence was 5.3% (n = 101). The most common polymorphisms were identified on chromosome 9, 1, and 16 [54.5% (n = 55); 8.9% (n = 9), and 6.9% (n = 7), respectively]. The most common polymorphic variant was 9qh+ (n = 23; 22.8%). Among the screening test parameters, significantly lower pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) (p = .028) and higher unconjugated estriol (uE3) (p = .019) values were found in Group 1. In patients having fetuses with polymorphic variants on chromosome 9, a significantly lower PAPP-A values were observed compared to women with other fetal polymorphic variants (p = .048) or women having fetuses with normal karyotype (p = .007). CONCLUSIONS: Lower PAPP-A and higher uE3 levels were observed in women having fetuses with chromosomal polymorphisms, which might affect screening test results. Lower PAPP-A levels were apparent in women having fetuses with polymorphism on chromosome 9.


Assuntos
Gonadotropina Coriônica Humana Subunidade beta/sangue , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Proteína Plasmática A Associada à Gravidez/análise , Adulto , Amniocentese/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Amostra da Vilosidade Coriônica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estriol/sangue , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Polimorfismo Genético , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Virchows Arch ; 474(4): 497-509, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132131

RESUMO

Chromosome 9 harbors several relevant oncogenes related to hematolymphoid malignancies and one specific region, 9p24, has come into the focus of attention in the last years as it contains recurrently mutant genes of therapeutic interest. The most prominent genes of this locus are programmed death ligands 1 and 2 (PDL1/PDL2), with the amplification of PDL1 being a hallmark of both classical Hodgkin and primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma, and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), which is point-mutated in myeloproliferative neoplasms and other myeloid malignancies, and rearranged in PCM1-JAK2-positive myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophila. Finally, this locus contains the lysine (K)-specific demethylase 4C (KDM4C/JMJD2C), which is also relevant for oncogenesis. Activation of these genes is effectuated, as exemplified, by multiple mechanisms, which is rather unique to oncogenes, since they are usually affected by just one type of mutation, and points towards the central role of these genes in tumor initiation and growth. Amplifications and, less frequently, translocations are the most common findings for PDL1/PDL2 and JAK2 in lymphomas. In this review, we describe the role of genes located on chromosome 9p24 and their derived proteins in diverse subtypes of lymphomas, with a special focus on PDL1 and PDL2, which are becoming a central target of immunotherapy, not only in classical Hodgkin lymphoma but also in various types of solid cancers. We also elucidate the role of the surgical pathologists in this setting - concerning what they can contribute - both diagnostically and predictively.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Imunoterapia , Linfoma/genética , Linfoma/terapia , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
18.
Mod Pathol ; 32(4): 490-498, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401948

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to examine hematopoietic neoplasms with 9p24/JAK2 rearrangement including neoplasms associated with t(8;9)(p22;p24)/PCM1-JAK2 fusion neoplasm as well as cases with translocations involving 9p24/JAK2 and other partner genes. From seven large medical centers, we identified ten patients with t(8;9)(p22;p24) /PCM1-JAK2 and 3 with t(9p24;v)/JAK2 at diagnosis. Majority of the cases showed myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) associated features (n = 7) characterized by variable degrees of eosinophilia, myelofibrosis, frequent proliferations of early erythroblasts in bone marrow and extramedullary sites, and infrequent/absent somatic mutations. Other less common presentations included myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or MDS/MPN (one each). Four patients presented with B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), and of them, two patients with t(8;9)(p22;p24.1) were proven to be B-lymphoblastic crisis of MPN; and the other two cases with t(9p24;v) both were de novo B-ALL, BCR-ABL1-like (Ph-like). We show that the hematopoietic neoplasms with 9p24/JAK2 rearrangement are extremely rare, and most of them are associated with t(8;9)(p22;p24)/PCM1-JAK2, a recent provisional World Health Organization entity under "myeloid/lymphoid neoplasm with a specific gene rearrangement". Cases of t(8;9)(p22;p24)/PCM1-JAK2, though heterogeneous, do exhibit some common clinicopathological characteristic features. Cases with t(9p24;v)/JAK2 are extremely rare; while such cases with a MPN presentation may resemble t(8;9)(p22;p24.1)/PCM1-JAK2, B-ALL cases presenting de novo B-ALL might belong to Ph-like B-ALL.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2018(1): 213-220, 2018 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504313

RESUMO

Genetic alterations of the PD-L1/PD-L2 locus on chromosome 9p24.1 are a defining biological feature of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The resulting programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg cells as well as the PD-L1 expressed in the HL microenvironment result in an ineffective host antitumor immune response and make HL a ripe target for programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade. Anti-PD-1 antibody monotherapy has been effective and well tolerated in patients with relapsed or refractory (rel/ref) HL, with the majority of patients experiencing an objective response (approximately two-thirds of patients) and a median duration of response of 16.6 months in the study with the longest follow-up. Based on these data, nivolumab and pembrolizumab were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of advanced rel/ref HL. Evidence has emerged that patients with HL benefit from continued PD-1 blockade beyond disease progression according to traditionally defined response criteria, and that the addition of, or switch to, chemotherapy after anti-PD-1 antibody failure can potentially re-induce clinical response. Subsequent studies have evaluated novel anti-PD-1-based combination regimens as well as the use of anti-PD-1 antibody therapy earlier in the course of a HL patient's therapy, including first salvage therapy for rel/ref disease (eg, nivolumab plus brentuximab vedotin) and even first-line treatment (eg, nivolumab added to doxorubicin, vinblastine, dacarbazine chemotherapy). The current role of PD-1 blockade in HL is as monotherapy in patients with advanced rel/ref disease, but the results of ongoing studies and the evolving treatment landscape in HL will determine the role of PD-1 blockade in the future.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Doença de Hodgkin , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/metabolismo , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Hodgkin/genética , Doença de Hodgkin/metabolismo , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Ligante de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Proteína 2 Ligante de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Células de Reed-Sternberg/metabolismo , Células de Reed-Sternberg/patologia
20.
Cell ; 175(7): 1796-1810.e20, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528432

RESUMO

The 9p21.3 cardiovascular disease locus is the most influential common genetic risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD), accounting for ∼10%-15% of disease in non-African populations. The ∼60 kb risk haplotype is human-specific and lacks coding genes, hindering efforts to decipher its function. Here, we produce induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from risk and non-risk individuals, delete each haplotype using genome editing, and generate vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Risk VSMCs exhibit globally altered transcriptional networks that intersect with previously identified CAD risk genes and pathways, concomitant with aberrant adhesion, contraction, and proliferation. Unexpectedly, deleting the risk haplotype rescues VSMC stability, while expressing the 9p21.3-associated long non-coding RNA ANRIL induces risk phenotypes in non-risk VSMCs. This study shows that the risk haplotype selectively predisposes VSMCs to adopt a cell state associated with CAD phenotypes, defines new VSMC-based networks of CAD risk genes, and establishes haplotype-edited iPSCs as powerful tools for functionally annotating the human genome.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Edição de Genes , Haplótipos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
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