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1.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(9): 811-814, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377705

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association of gr/gr, b2/b3 and gr/gr with b1-2/b3-4 deletions (repetitions) in the AZFc region of the Y chromosome with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). METHODS: Using the next-generation sequencing technology, we examined the men with indications of Y chromosome microdeletion at our center from June 2017 to March 2018 and excluded the common causes of RSA through inquiry and other related examinations. Totally, 170 cases of AZFc deletion (80 cases of gr/gr deletion, 75 cases of b2/b3 deletion, and 15 cases of gr/gr with b1-2/b3-4 deletion) were detected and included in the case group, and another 328 normal males enlisted as controls. We analyzed the correlation of Y chromosome microdeletions with the incidence rate of RSA. RESULTS: The incidence rate of RSA was significantly higher in the case group than in the normal controls (28.8% ï¼»49/170ï¼½ vs 13.1% ï¼»43/328ï¼½, P < 0.01), 22.5% (18/80) in the gr/gr deletion cases (P < 0.05), 30.7% (23/75) in the b2/b3 deletion cases (P < 0.01), and 53.3% (8/15) in the gr/gr with b1-2/b3-4 deletion cases (P < 0.01), remarkably lower in the gr/gr than in the gr/gr with b1-2/b3-4 deletion subgroup (P < 0.05), but with no statistically significant difference between the other subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The gr/gr, b2/b3, and gr/gr with b1-2/b3-4 deletions (repetitions) in the AZFc region of the Y chromosome may cause recurrent spontaneous abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
2.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 37(11): 1226-1232, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic basis of three children with disorders of sex development (DSD) in association with rare Y chromosome rearrangements. METHODS: The three children, who all featured short stature and DSD, were subjected to G banding chromosomal karyotyping, multiplex PCR for Y chromosomal microdeletion, sequencing of the whole SRY gene, SNP-array analysis for genomic copy number variations, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). RESULTS: The combined analysis revealed chromosomal abnormalities in all of the three children, including 46,X,t(X;Y)(p22.3;q11.2) in case 1, mos 45,X,der(7)pus dic(Y:7)(p11.3p22)del(7)(p21.2p21.3) del(7)(p12.3p14.3) [56]/45,X [44] in case 2, and mos 45,X [50]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.22) [42]/47,X,idem×2 [4]/47,XYY [2] in case 3. CONCLUSION: Combined use of genetic techniques can delineate complex rearrangements involving Y chromosome in patients featuring short stature and DSD. Above findings have enabled molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling for the patients.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais , Transtornos do Cromossomo Sexual no Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Criança , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 37(11): 1287-1290, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the pathogenesis and genetic characteristics of a fetus with a der(X)t(X;Y)(p22.3;q11.2) karyotype. METHODS: G-banding karyotyping analysis, BoBs (BACs-on-Beads) assay, and single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) were used to delineate the structural chromosomal aberration of the fetus. The parents of the fetus were also subjected to karyotyping analysis. RESULTS: The fetus and its mother were both found to have a karyotype of 46,X,add(X)(p22), while the father was normal. BoBs assay indicated that there was a lack of Xp22 but a gain of Yq11 signal. SNP-array confirmed that the fetus and its mother both had a 7.13 Mb deletion at Xp22.33p22.31 (608 021-7 736 547) and gain of a 12.52 Mb fragment at Yq11.221q11.23 (16 271 151-28 788 643). CONCLUSION: The fetus was determined to have a karyotype of 46,X,der(X)t(X;Y)(p22.3;q11.2)mat. The combined use of various methods has facilitated delineation of the fetal chromosomal aberration and prediction of the risk prediction for subsequent pregnancy.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X , Cromossomos Humanos Y , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Gravidez , Translocação Genética
4.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(4): 538-544, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047540

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To provide a theoretical basis for building a Y chromosome database in specific regions by analyzing the pedigree specific core haplogroup and region specific genetic structure in Changshu. Methods One thousand seven hundred and two samples from unrelated Han male individuals in Changshu were collected. Then 27 Y-STR were genotyped through YfilerTM Plus PCR Amplification Kit, Y-SNP haplogroup of each sample was speculated using Y-Predictor software and some samples were verified by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). Results A total of 1 556 haplotypes were found on the 27 Y-STR genetic markers of the 1 702 samples. The haplotype diversity (HD) value was 0.999 827. DYS385 (0.933) had the highest gene diversity (GD) value while DYS438 (0.409) had the lowest. By the Y-Predictor software, all samples were confirmed to be from 162 sub-haplogroups of C, D, N, O, Q and R. Samples were randomly selected to verify the prediction results by the software and the prediction accuracy of Y-Predictor software was as high as 95.74%. Conclusion This study found that 27 Y-STR genetic markers have relatively high polymorphisms in the Changshu population, and have good forensic individual identification and paternity testing ability.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y , Genética Populacional , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Frequência do Gene , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Polimorfismo Genético
5.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101788, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950019

RESUMO

Novel Y chromosomal STR (Y-STR) markers have been continuously discovered during the past decades, promoting the widely application of Y-STRs in the area of forensic science. Here, four multicopy Y-STR markers were focused, including DYF383S1, DYF409S1, DYF411S1 and DYF371, which are rarely reported in China and differ in the number of copies on Y chromosome. Characterization of the markers was performed in population of Hunan province, China, based on sequence analysis. Allele nomenclature and allelic ladder were then developed to avoid the disunity of typing standard. To evaluate their forensic performance, gene diversity of the four loci was investigated in 548 unrelated male individuals from Hunan population. The number of haplotype was analyzed by both conservative (C-type) and expanded approach (E-type) for markers containing more than 2 copies. As detected, there were 7, 9, 13 alleles and 15, 22, 23 haplotypes for DYF383S1, DYF409S1 and DYF411S1, respectively. Thirty-two C-types and 56 E-types were found in DYF371, indicating the highest haplotype diversity (HD) among all tested loci (0.871 and 0.888 for C-type and E-type, respectively). Two other Y-STRs (DYF409S1, DYF411S1) also showed high haplotype diversity (>0.8) in the population. Combining the four loci, discrimination capacity reached 0.505 (C-type) or 0.533 (E-type), and the total HD values exceeded 0.991. The results inferred great potential of the multicopy markers to improve the resolution of paternal identification in China population.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Genética Forense , Genética Populacional , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Variação Genética , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Paternidade
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22124, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925763

RESUMO

RATIONALE: This study aimed to report 1 family case with novel Y chromosome structural variations by an established next-generation sequencing (NGS) method using unique STSs. PATIENT CONCERNS: The case studied was from a family with a father and son (the proband). G-band staining was used for karyotype analysis. Y chromosome microdeletions were detected by sequence-tagged site (STS)-PCR analysis and a new NGS screening strategy. DIAGNOSES: Semen analysis showed that the proband was azoospermic. The patient had an abnormal karyotype (45,X[48%]/46,XY[52%]). His father exhibited a normal karyotype. STS-PCR analysis showed that the proband had a deletion of the AZFb+c region, and his father had no deletion of STS markers examined. The sequencing method revealed that the patient had DNA sequence deletions from nt 20099846 to nt 28365090 (8.3 Mb), including the region from yel4 to the Yq terminal, and his father exhibited a deletion of b1/b3 and duplication of gr/gr. INTERVENTIONS: The proband was advised to undergo genetic counseling, and consider the use of sperm from a sperm bank or adoption to become a father. OUTCOMES: The proband was azoospermic. AZFc partial deletions may produce a potential risk for large AZFb+c deletions or abnormal karyotypes causing spermatogenic failure in men. LESSONS: The NGS method can be considered a clinical diagnostic tool to detect Y chromosome microdeletions. The partial AZFc deletions and/or duplications can be a risk of extensive deletions in offspring.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Transtornos do Cromossomo Sexual no Desenvolvimento Sexual/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Cromossomo Sexual no Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Adulto , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Sitios de Sequências Rotuladas , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais
7.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101760, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739877

RESUMO

24 Y-STR loci were analyzed in 223 Altay Hui individuals and 209 Altay Kazakh individuals. Haplotype diversity (HD) and discrimination capacity (DC) values were calculated. Population pairwise genetic distances (Rst) were evaluated in AMOVA analysis and compared between two studied populations and other populations. The relationships between populations were visualized through multidimensional scaling (MDS) and neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. The results indicated higher discrimination power in the Altay Kazakh and Hui populations. The Altay Kazakh was the most distantly related to Xishuangbanna Dai, while Altay Kazakh was the most closely related to Gansu Kazakh. The results may provide useful information for paternal lineages and increase our understanding of genetic relationships between two studied populations and other populations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , China/etnologia , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Paterna/genética
8.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101738, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818903

RESUMO

Genetic markers on the Y chromosome, including short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), are used widely in forensic genetics. Both Y-STR-based haplotypes and Y-SNP-based haplogroups provide information on a population's genetic structure, which is useful for the identification of individuals. However, there are few studies on these two types of genetic markers in the various Chinese populations. In this study, 284 Han individuals from four prefecture-level cities in Shandong Province (Binzhou, Dezhou, Heze, and Weihai) were genotyped by 29 Y-STRs (from our previous study) and 213 Y-SNPs (self-designed for the Haplogroup O2 Y-SNP panel). Haplogroup O was the most predominant among the four cities. The highest haplogroup diversity (0.9745) was observed in the Heze population, with a discrimination capacity (DC) value of 0.5625. The haplotype diversity and DC values of the Binzhou and Heze populations were 1.0000. Furthermore, genetic differences were observed between the coastal and inland cities; the results of their statistical analysis are presented herein.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , China/etnologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Hum Biol ; 91(4): 257-277, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767896

RESUMO

The Fujian Tanka people are officially classified as a southern Han ethnic group, whereas they have customs similar to Daic and Austronesion people. Whether they originated in Han or Daic people, there is no consensus. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of this group: (1) the Han Chinese origin, (2) the ancient Daic origin, (3) and the admixture between Daic and Han. This study addressed this issue by analyzing the paternal Y chromosome and maternal mtDNA variation of 62 Fujian Tanka and 25 neighboring Han in Fujian. The southern East Asian predominant haplogroups (e.g., Y-chromosome O1a1a-P203 and O1b1a1a-M95, and mtDNA F2a, M7c1, and F1a1) had relatively high frequencies in Tanka. The interpopulation comparison revealed that the Tanka have a closer affinity with Daic populations than with Han Chinese in paternal lineages but are closely clustered with southern Han populations such as Hakka and Chaoshanese in maternal lineages. Network and haplotype-sharing analyses also support the admixture hypothesis. The Fujian Tanka mainly originate from the ancient indigenous Daic people and have only limited gene flows from Han Chinese populations. Notably, the divergence time inferred by the Tanka-specific haplotypes indicates that the formation of Fujian Tanka was a least 1033.8-1050.6 years before present (the early Northern Song dynasty), indicating that they are an indigenous population, not late Daic migrants from southwestern China.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , China/etnologia , DNA Mitocondrial/história , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Haplótipos/genética , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
10.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(5): 225-237, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659775

RESUMO

Loss of chromosome Y (LOY) is a mosaic aneuploidy that can be detected mainly in blood samples of male individuals. Usually, LOY occurrence increases with chronological age in healthy men. Moreover, recently LOY has been reported in association with several diseases, such as cancer, where its frequency is even higher. The Y chromosome is one of the shortest chromosomes of the human karyotype, and it is crucial for correct male development. This chromosome has functions beyond the male reproductive system, and loss of its genes or even LOY can have consequences for the male body that are yet to be elucidated. Analyses of the Y chromosome are largely applied in forensic contexts such as paternity testing, ancestry studies, and sexual assault cases, among others. Thus, LOY can be a disadvantage, limiting laboratory methods and result interpretation. However, as an advantage, LOY detection could be used as a biological age biomarker due to its association with the aging process. The potential application of LOY as biomarker highlights the necessity to clarify the molecular mechanism behind its occurrence and its possible applications in both health and forensic studies.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Medicina Legal , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Saúde , Mosaicismo , Envelhecimento/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Paternidade , Delitos Sexuais
11.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 46: 101720, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505804

RESUMO

Y-chromosomal SNP (Y-SNP), with its stable inheritance and low mutation, can provide Supplementary information in forensic investigation. While commonly used Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes show their limitations, typing of Y-SNP would become a powerful complement. In this study, a 16-plex Y-SNP typing system based on allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) was developed to discriminate four dominant Y-chromosomal haplogroups (C-M130, D-CTS3946, N-M231, and O-M175) and 12 predominant sub-haplogroups of O-M175 (O1a-M119, O1a1a1a-CTS3265, O1b-M268, O1b1a2-Page59, O2-M122, O2a1-L127.1, O2a1b-F240, O2a1b1a1-CTS5820, O2a2-P201, O2a2b1a1-M177, O2a2b1a1a1a-Y17728, O2a2b1a2-F114). A series of experimental validation studies including sensitivity, species specificity, male-female mixture and inhibition were performed. The discrimination of the typing system was preliminarily proved with a haplogroup diversity of 0.9239. Altogether, the Y-SNP typing system based on AS-PCR should be capable of distinguishing China's dominant Y-chromosomal haplogroups in a rapid and reliable manner, thus can be employed as a useful complement in forensic casework.


Assuntos
Alelos , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Haplótipos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1315-1324, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588126

RESUMO

We have determined the distribution of Y-chromosomal haplotypes and predicted haplogroups in the ethnically diverse Kingdom of Bahrain, a small archipelago in the Arabian Gulf. Paternal population structure within Bahrain was investigated using the 27 Y-STRs (short tandem repeats) in the Yfiler Plus kit to generate haplotypes from 562 unrelated Bahraini males, sub-divided into four geographical regions-Northern, Capital, Southern and Muharraq. Yfiler Plus provided a significant improvement over the 17-locus Yfiler kit in discrimination capacity (from 77% to 87.5% overall), but discrimination capacity differed widely between regions from 98.4% in Muharraq to 75.2% in the Northern region, an unusually low value possibly resulting from recent rapid population expansion. Clusters of closely related male lineages were seen, with only 79.4% of donors displaying unique haplotypes and 59% of instances of shared haplotypes occurring within, rather than between, regions. Haplogroup prediction indicated diverse origins of the population with a predominance of haplogroups J2 and J1, both typical of the Arabian Peninsula, but also haplogroups such as B2 and E1b1a likely originating in Africa, and H, L and R2 likely indicative of migration from South Asia. Haplogroup frequencies differed significantly between regions, with J2 significantly more common in the Northern region compared with the Southern, possibly due to differential settlement by Baharna and Arabs. Our study shows that paternal lineage population structure can exist even over small geographical scales, and that highly discriminating genetic tools are required where rapid expansions have occurred within tightly bounded populations.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Adulto , Barein , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 12791-12798, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457149

RESUMO

Genomic studies conducted on ancient individuals across Europe have revealed how migrations have contributed to its present genetic landscape, but the territory of present-day France has yet to be connected to the broader European picture. We generated a large dataset comprising the complete mitochondrial genomes, Y-chromosome markers, and genotypes of a number of nuclear loci of interest of 243 individuals sampled across present-day France over a period spanning 7,000 y, complemented with a partially overlapping dataset of 58 low-coverage genomes. This panel provides a high-resolution transect of the dynamics of maternal and paternal lineages in France as well as of autosomal genotypes. Parental lineages and genomic data both revealed demographic patterns in France for the Neolithic and Bronze Age transitions consistent with neighboring regions, first with a migration wave of Anatolian farmers followed by varying degrees of admixture with autochthonous hunter-gatherers, and then substantial gene flow from individuals deriving part of their ancestry from the Pontic steppe at the onset of the Bronze Age. Our data have also highlighted the persistence of Magdalenian-associated ancestry in hunter-gatherer populations outside of Spain and thus provide arguments for an expansion of these populations at the end of the Paleolithic Period more northerly than what has been described so far. Finally, no major demographic changes were detected during the transition between the Bronze and Iron Ages.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Humano , Migração Humana , População/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , França , Fluxo Gênico , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético
14.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(4): 177-184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369810

RESUMO

Nonmosaic trisomy involving 19p13.3p13.2 is a very uncommon abnormality. At present, only 12 cases with this genetic condition have been reported in the literature. However, the size of the trisomic fragment is heterogeneous and thus, the clinical spectrum is variable. Herein, we report the clinical and cytogenetic characterization of a 5-year-old boy with nonmosaic trisomy 19p13.3p13.2 (7.38 Mb), generated by a derivative Y chromosome resulting from a de novo unbalanced translocation t(Y;19)(q12;p13.2). We demonstrated the integrity of the euchromatic regions in the abnormal Y chromosome to confirm the pure trisomy 19p. Our patient shares some clinical features described in other reported patients with pure trisomy 19p, such as craniofacial anomalies, developmental delay, and heart defects. Different to previous reports, our case exhibits frontal pachygyria and polymicrogyria. These additional features contribute to further delineate the clinical spectrum of trisomy 19p13.3p13.2.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 19/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Lisencefalia/genética , Polimicrogiria/genética , Translocação Genética/genética , Trissomia/genética , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lisencefalia/patologia , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Pais , Polimicrogiria/patologia , Trissomia/patologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ann Hum Biol ; 47(3): 294-299, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281408

RESUMO

Background: Due to their long history, complex admixture processes and large population sizes, more research is required to explore the fine genetic structure of Han populations from different geographic locations of China.Aim: To characterise the paternal genetic structure of the Han Chinese in Henan province, which was once the central living region of the ancient Huaxia population, the precursors of the Han Chinese.Subjects and methods: We sequenced Y chromosomes of 60 males from Zhengzhou, Henan Province, and reconstructed a phylogenetic tree for these samples with age estimation.Results: We observed high diversity of paternal lineages in our collection. We found that the in situ Neolithic expansion of the "Major lineages" contributed to a large portion of the paternal gene pool of the Han population in Henan Province. We also detected a large number of "Minor lineages" that diverged in the Palaeolithic Age.Conclusion: We suggest that the high genetic diversity in the paternal gene pool of modern Han populations is mainly attributed to the reservation of a larger number of lineages that diverged in the Palaeolithic Age, while the recent expansion of limited lineages contributed to the majority of the gene pool of modern Han populations. We propose that such a structure is a basal characteristic for the genetic structure of modern Han populations.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Herança Paterna , China , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Neuron ; 106(5): 759-768.e7, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243781

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is more prevalent in males; however, the etiology for this sex bias is not well understood. Many mutations on X-linked cell adhesion molecule NLGN4X result in ASD or intellectual disability. NLGN4X is part of an X-Y pair, with NLGN4Y sharing ∼97% sequence homology. Using biochemistry, electrophysiology, and imaging, we show that NLGN4Y displays severe deficits in maturation, surface expression, and synaptogenesis regulated by one amino acid difference with NLGN4X. Furthermore, we identify a cluster of ASD-associated mutations surrounding the critical amino acid in NLGN4X, and these mutations phenocopy NLGN4Y. We show that NLGN4Y cannot compensate for the functional deficits observed in ASD-associated NLGN4X mutations. Altogether, our data reveal a potential pathogenic mechanism for male bias in NLGN4X-associated ASD.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Transporte Proteico/genética
17.
Neurobiol Aging ; 90: 150.e1-150.e4, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147245

RESUMO

Research has revealed scarcely any biological factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that are specific to men. Here, we found that the extreme downregulation of chromosome Y (EDY) increases the age-related risk of AD in men. We considered that EDY was a possible male-specific pathway toward AD because EDY is the most likely consequence of the mosaic loss of chromosome Y, which has been recently associated with AD. We studied EDY in the undiseased brain of 371 individuals and observed that it co-occurred across multiple brain regions (p < 10-4) and associated with rs114241159 (p = 1.53 × 10-7) within ACSS3/PPFIA2, previously linked to amyloid beta concentrations. We also analyzed the 5 largest transcriptomic case-control studies, publicly available to date on AD (cases/controls = 556/462) and found a significant interaction with age (OREDY × age = 1.22, p = 0.0038). Our analyses suggest that aging men who live longer by avoiding EDY are more resilient to AD than those who do not.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mosaicismo
18.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(1): 18-21, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008001

RESUMO

Multiple isodicentric Y chromosomes [idic(Y)] is a rare cytogenetic abnormality, most exclusively described in constitutional karyotypes. Only recently has this entity been reported in hematologic neoplasms such as myeloid disorders, albeit these cases remain very scarce. The possible involvement of increasing copies of potential proto-oncogenes located on the multiple idic(Y) led to consider one of them, CRLF2, as a target for kinase inhibitors. We report here, to our knowledge, the first case of multiple idic(Y) in a patient with myelofibrosis secondary to essential thrombocythemia. The patient received ruxolitinib therapy with initial good clinical response.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/complicações , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais , Trombocitemia Essencial/complicações , Idoso , Alelos , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Contagem de Plaquetas , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Prognóstico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Citocinas/genética , Trombocitemia Essencial/genética
19.
Hum Genet ; 139(4): 421-446, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020362

RESUMO

Y chromosome (ChrY), the male-specific sex chromosome, has been considered as a genetic wasteland. Aging-related mosaic loss of ChrY (LOY) has been known for more than half a century, but it was constantly considered as a neutral karyotype related to normal aging. These views have been challenged with genome-wide association studies identifying mosaic LOY in human somatic cells is the most commonly acquired mutation in male's genome and is associated with a wide spectrum of human diseases including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and cardiovascular disease. These previously undescribed clinical significances deeply modify our perception on ChrY and open up a range of new questions. Here, we review the latest advances in our knowledge of the biological origins and clinical consequences of mosaic LOY. We highlight the association of mosaic LOY to pathogenic conditions and evaluate the cause-and-consequence relationships between mosaic LOY and pathogenesis. The known risk factors of mosaic LOY including age, genetic variants, ChrY structural aberrations and environmental stressors are discussed. In light of evidence from pioneering and more recent studies, we propose the micronucleation hypothesis and centromere-dysfunction and telomere-attrition models to explain how mosaic LOY occurs and why ChrY is prone to lose. We believe it is importantly and timely to extend mosaic LOY research from epidemiological associations to mechanistic studies. In this regard, we outline important gaps and assess several future directions from a biological and clinical perspective. An improved understanding of mosaic LOY will open new pathways to modify and increase healthy aging in males.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Cromossomos Humanos Y , Mosaicismo , Neoplasias , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2055, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029844

RESUMO

The Union Territories of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and Ladakh in North India owing to their unique geographic location offer a wide variety of landscape from plains to high altitudes and is a congruence of many languages and cultural practices. Here, we present the genetic diversity studies of Gujjars from Jammu region of J&K and Ladakhi population based on a battery of autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and short tandem repeats (STRs), Y-chromosomal STRs and the control region of the mitochondrial genome. These two populations were observed to be genetically distant to each other as well as to other populations from India. Interestingly, Y-STR analyses showed a closer affinity of Gujjars to other nomadic populations of Pashtuns from Baghlans and Kunduz provinces of Afghanistan and Pashtuns and Sindhis of Pakistan. Gujjars exhibited lesser genetic diversity as compared to Ladakhi population. M30f and M9 were the most abundant mitochondrial haplogroups observed among Gujjars and Ladakhis, respectively. A lower matrilineal to patrilineal diversity was observed for both these populations. The current study presents the first comprehensive analysis of Gujjars and Ladakhis and reveals their unique genetic affiliations with other populations of the world.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Afeganistão , Feminino , Geografia , Migração Humana , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Paquistão , Linhagem , Filogenia , Filogeografia
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