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1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 710, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex chromosomes are in some species largely undifferentiated (homomorphic) with restricted sex determination regions. Homomorphic but different sex chromosomes are found in the closely related genera Populus and Salix indicating flexible sex determination systems, ideal for studies of processes involved in sex chromosome evolution. We have performed genome-wide association studies of sex and analysed sex chromosomes in a population of 265 wild collected Salix viminalis accessions and studied the sex determining locus. RESULTS: A total of 19,592 markers were used in association analyses using both Fisher's exact tests and a single-marker mixed linear model, which resulted in 48 and 41 sex-associated (SA) markers respectively. Across all 48 SA markers, females were much more often heterozygous than males, which is expected if females were the heterogametic sex. The majority of the SA markers were, based on positions in the S. purpurea genome, located on chromosome 15, previously demonstrated to be the sex chromosome. Interestingly, when mapping the genotyping-by-sequencing sequence tag harbouring the two SA markers with the highest significance to the S. viminalis genomic scaffolds, five regions of very high similarity were found: three on a scaffold that represents a part of chromosome 15, one on a scaffold that represents a part of chromosome 9 and one on a scaffold not anchored to the genome. Based on segregation differences of the alleles at the two marker positions and on differences in PCR amplification between females and males we conclude that females had multiple copies of this DNA fragment (chromosome 9 and 15), whereas males only had one (chromosome 9). We therefore postulate that the female specific sequences have been copied from chromosome 9 and inserted on chromosome 15, subsequently developing into a hemizygous W chromosome linked region. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that sex determination in S. viminalis is controlled by one locus on chromosome 15. The segregation patterns observed at the SA markers furthermore confirm that S. viminalis females are the heterogametic sex. We also identified a translocation from chromosome 9 to the W chromosome.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Salix , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Salix/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética
2.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 706, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvement of wheat gercTriticum aestivum L.) yield could relieve global food shortages. Kernel size, as an important component of 1000-kernel weight (TKW), is always a significant consideration to improve yield for wheat breeders. Wheat related species possesses numerous elite genes that can be introduced into wheat breeding. It is thus vital to explore, identify, and introduce new genetic resources for kernel size from wheat wild relatives to increase wheat yield. RESULTS: In the present study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for kernel length (KL) and width (KW) were detected in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between a wild emmer accession 'LM001' and a Sichuan endemic tetraploid wheat 'Ailanmai' using the Wheat 55 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array-based constructed linkage map and phenotype from six different environments. We identified eleven QTL for KL and KW including two major ones QKL.sicau-AM-3B and QKW.sicau-AM-4B, the positive alleles of which were from LM001 and Ailanmai, respectively. They explained 17.57 to 44.28% and 13.91 to 39.01% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. For these two major QTL, Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) markers were developed and used to successfully validate their effects in three F3 populations and two natural populations containing a panel of 272 Chinese wheat landraces and that of 300 Chinese wheat cultivars, respectively. QKL.sicau-AM-3B was located at 675.6-695.4 Mb on chromosome arm 3BL. QKW.sicau-AM-4B was located at 444.2-474.0 Mb on chromosome arm 4BL. Comparison with previous studies suggested that these two major QTL were likely new loci. Further analysis indicated that the positive alleles of QKL.sicau-AM-3B and QKW.sicau-AM-4B had a great additive effect increasing TKW by 6.01%. Correlation analysis between KL and other agronomic traits showed that KL was significantly correlated to spike length, length of uppermost internode, TKW, and flag leaf length. KW was also significantly correlated with TKW. Four genes, TRIDC3BG062390, TRIDC3BG062400, TRIDC4BG037810, and TRIDC4BG037830, associated with kernel development were predicted in physical intervals harboring these two major QTL on wild emmer and Chinese Spring reference genomes. CONCLUSIONS: Two stable and major QTL for KL and KW across six environments were detected and verified in three biparental populations and two natural populations. Significant relationships between kernel size and yield-related traits were identified. KASP markers tightly linked the two major QTL could contribute greatly to subsequent fine mapping. These results suggested the application potential of wheat related species in wheat genetic improvement.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tetraploidia , Triticum/genética
3.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2703-2718, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472290

RESUMO

Plants with alien genomic components (alien chromosomes / chromosomal fragments / genes) are important materials for genomic research and crop improvement. To date, four strategies based on trait observation, chromosome analysis, specific proteins, and DNA sequences have been developed for the identification of alien genomic components. Among them, DNA sequence-based molecular markers are mainly used to identify alien genomic components. This review summarized several molecular markers for identification of alien genomic components in wheat, cabbage and other important crops. We also compared the characteristics of nine common molecular markers, such as simple sequence repeat (SSR), insertion-deletion (InDel) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). In general, the accuracy of using a combination of different identification methods is higher than using a single identification method. We analyzed the application of different combination of identification methods, and provided the best combination for wheat, brassica and other crops. High-throughput detection can be easily achieved by using the new generation molecular markers such as InDel and SNP, which can be used to determine the precise localization of alien introgression genes. To increase the identification efficiency, other new identification methods, such as microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), may also be included.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genômica , Triticum/genética
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 403, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Winter freezing temperature impacts alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) persistence and seasonal yield and can lead to the death of the plant. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of alfalfa freezing tolerance (FT) using high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping is crucial to select suitable germplasm and develop winter-hardy cultivars. Several clones of an alfalfa F1 mapping population (3010 x CW 1010) were tested for FT using a cold chamber. The population was genotyped with SNP markers identified using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with FT were mapped on the parent-specific linkage maps. The ultimate goal is to develop non-dormant and winter-hardy alfalfa cultivars that can produce extended growth in the areas where winters are often mild. RESULTS: Alfalfa FT screening method optimized in this experiment comprises three major steps: clone preparation, acclimation, and freezing test. Twenty clones of each genotype were tested, where 10 samples were treated with freezing temperature, and 10 were used as controls. A moderate positive correlation (r ~ 0.36, P < 0.01) was observed between indoor FT and field-based winter hardiness (WH), suggesting that the indoor FT test is a useful indirect selection method for winter hardiness of alfalfa germplasm. We detected a total of 20 QTL associated with four traits; nine for visual rating-based FT, five for percentage survival (PS), four for treated to control regrowth ratio (RR), and two for treated to control biomass ratio (BR). Some QTL positions overlapped with WH QTL reported previously, suggesting a genetic relationship between FT and WH. Some favorable QTL from the winter-hardy parent (3010) were from the potential genic region for a cold tolerance gene CBF. The BLAST alignment of a CBF sequence of M. truncatula, a close relative of alfalfa, against the alfalfa reference showed that the gene's ortholog resides around 75 Mb on chromosome 6. CONCLUSIONS: The indoor freezing tolerance selection method reported is useful for alfalfa breeders to accelerate breeding cycles through indirect selection. The QTL and associated markers add to the genomic resources for the research community and can be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for alfalfa cold tolerance improvement.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Congelamento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Medicago sativa/genética , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20201881, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550205

RESUMO

Studies concerning the cytogenetics of Gleicheniaceae have been scarce, especially those employing evolutionary approaches. Two chromosome number evolutionary models have been hypothesized for Gleicheniaceae. One proposes that ancestral haploid numbers were small and that the chromosome numbers of extant species evolved through polyploidy. The other model proposes that, at the genus level, fern chromosome evolution occurred from ancestors with essentially the same high chromosome numbers seen in living lineages. Neither of those hypotheses has been tested based on phylogenetic frameworks. We sought to (i) present the state of the art of Gleicheniaceae chromosome numbers; (ii) test the two evolutionary models of chromosome numbers within a phylogenetic framework; (iii) test correlations between DNA contents and chromosome numbers in the family. We report here DNA C-values for five species, which increases the number of investigated taxa nearly twofold and report two new genera records. Ancestral state chromosome reconstruction corroborates the hypothesis that ancestral chromosome numbers in Gleicheniaceae were as high as those of extant lineages. Our results demonstrate the possible role of dysploidy in the evolutionary chromosome history of Gleicheniaceae at the genus level and suggest that the relationship between chromosome number and DNA content does not appear to be linear.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Análise Citogenética , Evolução Molecular , Gleiquênias/genética , Filogenia
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246440, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550282

RESUMO

Utilization of modern breeding techniques for developing high yielding and uniform plant types ultimately narrowing the genetic makeup of most crops. Narrowed genetic makeup of these crops has made them vulnerable towards disease and insect epidemics. For sustainable crop production, genetic variability of these crops must be broadened against various biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the ways to widen genetic configuration of these crops is to identify novel additional sources of durable resistance. In this regard crops wild relatives are providing valuable sources of allelic diversity towards various biotic, abiotic stress tolerance and quality components. For incorporating novel variability from wild relative's wide hybridization technique has become a promising breeding method. For this purpose, wheat-Th. bessarabicum amphiploid, addition and translocation lines have been screened in field and screen house conditions to get novel sources of yellow rust and Karnal bunt resistant. Stripe rust screening under field conditions has revealed addition lines 4JJ and 6JJ as resistant to moderately resistant while addition lines 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ and translocation lines Tr-3, Tr-6 as moderately resistant wheat-Thinopyrum-bessarabicum genetic stock. Karnal bunt screening depicted addition lines 5JJ and 4JJ as highly resistant genetic stock. These genetic stocks may be used to introgression novel stripe rust and Karnal bunt resistance from the tertiary gene pool into susceptible wheat backgrounds.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , Basidiomycota/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 412, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) is a compendium of pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungal strains. Pathogenic strains may cause vascular wilt disease and produce considerable losses in commercial tomato plots. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating resistance to Fol in tomato, the aim of our study was to characterize the transcriptional response of three cultivars (CT1, CT2 and IAC391) to a pathogenic (Fol-pt) and a non-pathogenic (Fo-npt) strain of Fo. RESULTS: All cultivars exhibited differentially expressed genes in response to each strain of the fungus at 36 h post-inoculation. For the pathogenic strain, CT1 deployed an apparent active defense response that included upregulation of WRKY transcription factors, an extracellular chitinase, and terpenoid-related genes, among others. In IAC391, differentially expressed genes included upregulated but mostly downregulated genes. Upregulated genes mapped to ethylene regulation, pathogenesis regulation and transcription regulation, while downregulated genes potentially impacted defense responses, lipid transport and metal ion binding. Finally, CT2 exhibited mostly downregulated genes upon Fol-pt infection. This included genes involved in transcription regulation, defense responses, and metal ion binding. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that CT1 mounts a defense response against Fol-pt. IAC391 exhibits an intermediate phenotype whereby some defense response genes are activated, and others are suppressed. Finally, the transcriptional profile in the CT2 hints towards lower levels of resistance. Fo-npt also induced transcriptional changes in all cultivars, but to a lesser extent. Results of this study will support genetic breeding programs currently underway in the zone.


Assuntos
Fusarium/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Colômbia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Etilenos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 413, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In plants, basic leucine zipper transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in multiple biological processes such as anthesis, fruit growth & development and stress responses. However, systematic investigation and characterization of bZIP-TFs remain unclear in Chinese white pear. Chinese white pear is a fruit crop that has important nutritional and medicinal values. RESULTS: In this study, 62 bZIP genes were comprehensively identified from Chinese Pear, and 54 genes were distributed among 17 chromosomes. Frequent whole-genome duplication (WGD) and dispersed duplication (DSD) were the major driving forces underlying the bZIP gene family in Chinese white pear. bZIP-TFs are classified into 13 subfamilies according to the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, purifying selection plays an important role in the evolution process of PbbZIPs. Synteny analysis of bZIP genes revealed that 196 orthologous gene pairs were identified between Pyrus bretschneideri, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, and Prunus persica. Moreover, cis-elements that respond to various stresses and hormones were found on the promoter regions of PbbZIP, which were induced by stimuli. Gene structure (intron/exon) and different compositions of motifs revealed that functional divergence among subfamilies. Expression pattern of PbbZIP genes differential expressed under hormonal treatment abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate  in pear fruits by real-time qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, a systematic analysis of gene structure, motif composition, subcellular localization, synteny analysis, and calculation of synonymous (Ks) and non-synonymous (Ka) was performed in Chinese white pear. Sixty-two bZIP-TFs in Chinese pear were identified, and their expression profiles were comprehensively analyzed under ABA, SA, and MeJa hormones, which respond to multiple abiotic stresses and fruit growth and development. PbbZIP gene occurred through Whole-genome duplication and dispersed duplication events. These results provide a basic framework for further elucidating the biological function characterizations under multiple developmental stages and abiotic stress responses.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pyrus/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas , Éxons , Fragaria/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Íntrons , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Sintenia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502218

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) deficiency is an important challenge the world faces while having to increase crop yields. It is therefore necessary to select maize (Zea may L.) genotypes with high phosphorus use efficiency (PUE). Here, we extensively analyzed the biomass, grain yield, and PUE-related traits of 359 maize inbred lines grown under both low-P and normal-P conditions. A significant decrease in grain yield per plant and biomass, an increase in PUE under low-P condition, as well as significant correlations between the two treatments were observed. In a genome-wide association study, 49, 53, and 48 candidate genes were identified for eleven traits under low-P, normal-P conditions, and in low-P tolerance index (phenotype under low-P divided by phenotype under normal-P condition) datasets, respectively. Several gene ontology pathways were enriched for the genes identified under low-P condition. In addition, seven key genes related to phosphate transporter or stress response were molecularly characterized. Further analyses uncovered the favorable haplotype for several core genes, which is less prevalent in modern lines but often enriched in a specific subpopulation. Collectively, our research provides progress in the genetic dissection and molecular characterization of PUE in maize.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fósforo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Estresse Fisiológico , Zea mays/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576120

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) catalyze a great number of biochemical reactions and play vital roles in plant growth, development and secondary metabolism. As yet, the genome-scale investigation on P450s is still lacking in the model legume Medicago truncatula. In particular, whether and how many MtP450s are involved in drought and salt stresses for Medicago growth, development and yield remain unclear. In this study, a total of 346 MtP450 genes were identified and classified into 10 clans containing 48 families. Among them, sixty-one MtP450 genes pairs are tandem duplication events and 10 MtP450 genes are segmental duplication events. MtP450 genes within one family exhibit high conservation and specificity in intron-exon structure. Meanwhile, many Mt450 genes displayed tissue-specific expression pattern in various tissues. Specifically, the expression pattern of 204 Mt450 genes under drought/NaCl treatments were analyzed by using the weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA). Among them, eight genes (CYP72A59v1, CYP74B4, CYP71AU56, CYP81E9, CYP71A31, CYP704G6, CYP76Y14, and CYP78A126), and six genes (CYP83D3, CYP76F70, CYP72A66, CYP76E1, CYP74C12, and CYP94A52) were found to be hub genes under drought/NaCl treatments, respectively. The expression levels of these selected hub genes could be induced, respectively, by drought/NaCl treatments, as validated by qPCR analyses, and most of these genes are involved in the secondary metabolism and fatty acid pathways. The genome-wide identification and co-expression analyses of M. truncatulaP450 superfamily genes established a gene atlas for a deep and systematic investigation of P450 genes in M. truncatula, and the selected drought-/salt-responsive genes could be utilized for further functional characterization and molecular breeding for resistance in legume crops.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Medicago truncatula/genética , Medicago truncatula/fisiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Sequência Conservada , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/química , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicago truncatula/enzimologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Sintenia/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576142

RESUMO

The plant disease resistance system involves a very complex regulatory network in which jasmonates play a key role in response to external biotic or abiotic stresses. As inhibitors of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, JASMONATE ZIM domain (JAZ) proteins have been identified in many plant species, and their functions are gradually being clarified. In this study, 26 JAZ genes were identified in tomato. The physical and chemical properties, predicted subcellular localization, gene structure, cis-acting elements, and interspecies collinearity of 26 SlJAZ genes were subsequently analyzed. RNA-seq data combined with qRT-PCR analysis data showed that the expression of most SlJAZ genes were induced in response to Stemphylium lycopersici, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA). Tobacco rattle virus RNA2-based VIGS vector (TRV2)-SlJAZ25 plants were more resistant to tomato gray leaf spots than TRV2-00 plants. Therefore, we speculated that SlJAZ25 played a negative regulatory role in tomato resistance to gray leaf spots. Based on combining the results of previous studies and those of our experiments, we speculated that SlJAZ25 might be closely related to JA and SA hormone regulation. SlJAZ25 interacted with SlJAR1, SlCOI1, SlMYC2, and other resistance-related genes to form a regulatory network, and these genes played an important role in the regulation of tomato gray leaf spots. The subcellular localization results showed that the SlJAZ25 gene was located in the nucleus. Overall, this study is the first to identify and analyze JAZ family genes in tomato via bioinformatics approaches, clarifying the regulatory role of SlJAZ25 genes in tomato resistance to gray leaf spots and providing new ideas for improving plant disease resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Família Multigênica , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Sintenia/genética
12.
Nat Genet ; 53(9): 1392-1402, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493868

RESUMO

Despite early domestication around 3000 BC, the evolutionary history of the ancient allotetraploid species Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss remains uncertain. Here, we report a chromosome-scale de novo assembly of a yellow-seeded B. juncea genome by integrating long-read and short-read sequencing, optical mapping and Hi-C technologies. Nuclear and organelle phylogenies of 480 accessions worldwide supported that B. juncea is most likely a single origin in West Asia, 8,000-14,000 years ago, via natural interspecific hybridization. Subsequently, new crop types evolved through spontaneous gene mutations and introgressions along three independent routes of eastward expansion. Selective sweeps, genome-wide trait associations and tissue-specific RNA-sequencing analysis shed light on the domestication history of flowering time and seed weight, and on human selection for morphological diversification in this versatile species. Our data provide a comprehensive insight into the origin and domestication and a foundation for genomics-based breeding of B. juncea.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Domesticação , Mostardeira/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genoma de Planta/genética , Hibridização Genética/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502298

RESUMO

Auxin response factors (ARFs) are a family of transcription factors that play an important role of auxin regulation through their binding with auxin response elements. ARF genes are represented by a large multigene family in plants; however, to our knowledge, the ARF gene family has not been well studied and characterized in sweet potatoes. In this study, a total of 25 ARF genes were identified in Ipomea trifida. The identified ItrARF genes' conserved motifs, chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships, and their protein characteristics were systemically investigated using different bioinformatics tools. The expression patterns of ItfARF genes were analyzed within the storage roots and normal roots at an early stage of development. ItfARF16b and ItfARF16c were both highly expressed in the storage root, with minimal to no expression in the normal root. ItfARF6a and ItfARF10a exhibited higher expression in the normal root but not in the storage root. Subsequently, ItfARF1a, ItfARF2b, ItfARF3a, ItfARF6b, ItfARF8a, ItfARF8b, and ItfARF10b were expressed in both root types with moderate to high expression for each. All ten of these ARF genes and their prominent expression signify their importance within the development of each respective root type. This study provides comprehensive information regarding the ARF family in sweet potatoes, which will be useful for future research to discover further functional verification of these ItfARF genes.


Assuntos
Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
14.
Science ; 373(6555): 655-662, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353948

RESUMO

We report de novo genome assemblies, transcriptomes, annotations, and methylomes for the 26 inbreds that serve as the founders for the maize nested association mapping population. The number of pan-genes in these diverse genomes exceeds 103,000, with approximately a third found across all genotypes. The results demonstrate that the ancient tetraploid character of maize continues to degrade by fractionation to the present day. Excellent contiguity over repeat arrays and complete annotation of centromeres revealed additional variation in major cytological landmarks. We show that combining structural variation with single-nucleotide polymorphisms can improve the power of quantitative mapping studies. We also document variation at the level of DNA methylation and demonstrate that unmethylated regions are enriched for cis-regulatory elements that contribute to phenotypic variation.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Zea mays/genética , Centrômero/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Metilação de DNA , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tetraploidia , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 378, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding mechanisms of sugar accumulation and composition is essential to determining fruit quality and maintaining a desirable balance of sugars in plant storage organs. The major sugars in mature Rosaceae fruits are sucrose, fructose, glucose, and sorbitol. Among these, sucrose and fructose have high sweetness, whereas glucose and sorbitol have low sweetness. Japanese pear has extensive variation in individual sugar contents in mature fruit. Increasing total sugar content and that of individual high-sweetness sugars is a major target of breeding programs. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with fruit traits including individual sugar accumulation, to infer the candidate genes underlying the QTLs, and to assess the potential of genomic selection for breeding pear fruit traits. RESULTS: We evaluated 10 fruit traits and conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 106 cultivars and 17 breeding populations (1112 F1 individuals) using 3484 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). By implementing a mixed linear model and a Bayesian multiple-QTL model in GWAS, 56 SNPs associated with fruit traits were identified. In particular, a SNP located close to acid invertase gene PPAIV3 on chromosome 7 and a newly identified SNP on chromosome 11 had quite large effects on accumulation of sucrose and glucose, respectively. We used 'Golden Delicious' doubled haploid 13 (GDDH13), an apple reference genome, to infer the candidate genes for the identified SNPs. In the region flanking the SNP on chromosome 11, there is a tandem repeat of early responsive to dehydration (ERD6)-like sugar transporter genes that might play a role in the phenotypes observed. CONCLUSIONS: SNPs associated with individual sugar accumulation were newly identified at several loci, and candidate genes underlying QTLs were inferred using advanced apple genome information. The candidate genes for the QTLs are conserved across Pyrinae genomes, which will be useful for further fruit quality studies in Rosaceae. The accuracies of genomic selection for sucrose, fructose, and glucose with genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) were relatively high (0.67-0.75), suggesting that it would be possible to select individuals having high-sweetness fruit with high sucrose and fructose contents and low glucose content.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Pyrus/química , Pyrus/genética , Açúcares/análise , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Frutas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 376, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycolytic pathway is common in all plant organs, especially in oxygen-deficient tissues. Phosphofructokinase (PFK) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the glycolytic pathway and catalyses the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Cassava (M. esculenta) root is a huge storage organ with low amount of oxygen. However, less is known about the functions of PFK from M. esculenta (MePFK). We conducted a systematic analysis of MePFK genes to explore the function of the MePFK gene family under hypoxic stress. RESULTS: We identified 13 MePFK genes and characterised their sequence structure. The phylogenetic tree divided the 13 genes into two groups: nine were MePFKs and four were pyrophosphate-fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase (MePFPs). We confirmed by green fluorescent protein fusion protein expression that MePFK03 and MePFPA1 were localised in the chloroplast and cytoplasm, respectively. The expression profiles of the 13 MePFKs detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that MePFK02, MePFK03, MePFPA1, MePFPB1 displayed higher expression in leaves, root and flower. The expression of MePFK03, MePFPA1 and MePFPB1 in tuber root increased gradually with plant growth. We confirmed that hypoxia occurred in the cassava root, and the concentration of oxygen was sharply decreasing from the outside to the inside root. The expression of MePFK03, MePFPA1 and MePFPB1 decreased with the decrease in the oxygen concentration in cassava root. Waterlogging stress treatment showed that the transcript level of PPi-dependent MePFP and MeSuSy were up-regulated remarkably and PPi-dependent glycolysis bypass was promoted. CONCLUSION: A systematic survey of phylogenetic relation, molecular characterisation, chromosomal and subcellular localisation and cis-element prediction of MePFKs were performed in cassava. The expression profiles of MePFKs in different development stages, organs and under waterlogging stress showed that MePFPA1 plays an important role during the growth and development of cassava. Combined with the transcriptional level of MeSuSy, we found that pyrophosphate (PPi)-dependent glycolysis bypass was promoted when cassava was under waterlogging stress. The results would provide insights for further studying the function of MePFKs under hypoxic stress.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Manihot/enzimologia , Manihot/genética , Fosfofrutoquinases/genética , Fosfofrutoquinases/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/enzimologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Sequência Conservada , Citoplasma/enzimologia , Éxons , Flores/enzimologia , Íntrons , Família Multigênica , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445245

RESUMO

Sugarcane is of important economic value for producing sugar and bioethanol. Tripidium arundinaceum (old name: Erianthus arundinaceum) is an intergeneric wild species of sugarcane that has desirable resistance traits for improving sugarcane varieties. However, the scarcity of chromosome markers has hindered the cytogenetic study of T. arundinaceum. Here we applied maize chromosome painting probes (MCPs) to identify chromosomes in sorghum and T. arundinaceum using a repeated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) system. Sequential FISH revealed that these MCPs can be used as reliable chromosome markers for T. arundinaceum, even though T. arundinaceum has diverged from maize over 18 MYs (million years). Using these MCPs, we identified T. arundinaceum chromosomes based on their sequence similarity compared to sorghum and labeled them 1 through 10. Then, the karyotype of T. arundinaceum was established by multiple oligo-FISH. Furthermore, FISH results revealed that 5S rDNA and 35S rDNA are localized on chromosomes 5 and 6, respectively, in T. arundinaceum. Altogether, these results represent an essential step for further cytogenetic research of T. arundinaceum in sugarcane breeding.


Assuntos
Coloração Cromossômica , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Saccharum/genética , Sondas de DNA/química , Sondas de DNA/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4674, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344879

RESUMO

In most organisms, the number and distribution of crossovers that occur during meiosis are tightly controlled. All chromosomes must receive at least one 'obligatory crossover' and crossovers are prevented from occurring near one another by 'crossover interference'. However, the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon of crossover interference has remained mostly mysterious. Using quantitative super-resolution cytogenetics and mathematical modelling, we investigate crossover positioning in the Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type, an over-expressor of the conserved E3 ligase HEI10, and a hei10 heterozygous line. We show that crossover positions can be explained by a predictive, diffusion-mediated coarsening model, in which large, approximately evenly-spaced HEI10 foci grow at the expense of smaller, closely-spaced clusters. We propose this coarsening process explains many aspects of Arabidopsis crossover positioning, including crossover interference. Consistent with this model, we also demonstrate that crossover positioning can be predictably modified in vivo simply by altering HEI10 dosage, with higher and lower dosage leading to weaker and stronger crossover interference, respectively. As HEI10 is a conserved member of the RING finger protein family that functions in the interference-sensitive pathway for crossover formation, we anticipate that similar mechanisms may regulate crossover positioning in diverse eukaryotes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Troca Genética/genética , Meiose/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Dosagem de Genes , Estágio Paquíteno/genética , Complexo Sinaptonêmico/genética , Complexo Sinaptonêmico/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445162

RESUMO

Agrobacterium species transfer DNA (T-DNA) to plant cells where it may integrate into plant chromosomes. The process of integration is thought to involve invasion and ligation of T-DNA, or its copying, into nicks or breaks in the host genome. Integrated T-DNA often contains, at its junctions with plant DNA, deletions of T-DNA or plant DNA, filler DNA, and/or microhomology between T-DNA and plant DNA pre-integration sites. T-DNA integration is also often associated with major plant genome rearrangements, including inversions and translocations. These characteristics are similar to those often found after repair of DNA breaks, and thus DNA repair mechanisms have frequently been invoked to explain the mechanism of T-DNA integration. However, the involvement of specific plant DNA repair proteins and Agrobacterium proteins in integration remains controversial, with numerous contradictory results reported in the literature. In this review I discuss this literature and comment on many of these studies. I conclude that either multiple known DNA repair pathways can be used for integration, or that some yet unknown pathway must exist to facilitate T-DNA integration into the plant genome.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium/genética , Reparo do DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Plantas/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Transformação Genética
20.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(10): 3443-3457, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390352

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A dwarfism gene LacDWARF1 was mapped by combined BSA-Seq and comparative genomics analyses to a 65.4 kb physical genomic region on chromosome 05. Dwarf architecture is one of the most important traits utilized in Cucurbitaceae breeding because it saves labor and increases the harvest index. To our knowledge, there has been no prior research about dwarfism in the sponge gourd. This study reports the first dwarf mutant WJ209 with a decrease in cell size and internodes. A genetic analysis revealed that the mutant phenotype was controlled by a single recessive gene, which is designated Lacdwarf1 (Lacd1). Combined with bulked segregate analysis and next-generation sequencing, we quickly mapped a 65.4 kb region on chromosome 5 using F2 segregation population with InDel and SNP polymorphism markers. Gene annotation revealed that Lac05g019500 encodes a gibberellin 3ß-hydroxylase (GA3ox) that functions as the most likely candidate gene for Lacd1. DNA sequence analysis showed that there is an approximately 4 kb insertion in the first intron of Lac05g019500 in WJ209. Lac05g019500 is transcribed incorrectly in the dwarf mutant owing to the presence of the insertion. Moreover, the bioactive GAs decreased significantly in WJ209, and the dwarf phenotype could be restored by exogenous GA3 treatment, indicating that WJ209 is a GA-deficient mutant. All these results support the conclusion that Lac05g019500 is the Lacd1 gene. In addition, RNA-Seq revealed that many genes, including those related to plant hormones, cellular process, cell wall, membrane and response to stress, were significantly altered in WJ209 compared with the wild type. This study will aid in the use of molecular marker-assisted breeding in the dwarf sponge gourd.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Luffa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Íntrons , Luffa/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
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