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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4418, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887885

RESUMO

Chromosomal inversions are recurrent rearrangements that occur between different plant isolates or cultivars. Such inversions may underlie reproductive isolation in evolution and represent a major obstacle for classical breeding as no crossovers can be observed between inverted sequences on homologous chromosomes. The heterochromatic knob (hk4S) on chromosome 4 is the most well-known inversion of Arabidopsis. If a knob carrying accession such as Col-0 is crossed with a knob-less accession such as Ler-1, crossovers cannot be recovered within the inverted region. Our work shows that by egg-cell specific expression of the Cas9 nuclease from Staphylococcus aureus, a targeted reversal of the 1.1 Mb long hk4S-inversion can be achieved. By crossing Col-0 harbouring the rearranged chromosome 4 with Ler-1, meiotic crossovers can be restored into a region with previously no detectable genetic exchange. The strategy of somatic chromosome engineering for breaking genetic linkage has huge potential for application in plant breeding.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Recombinação Genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Inversão Cromossômica , Troca Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Plantas
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237774, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797075

RESUMO

The source-sink relationship determines the ultimate grain yield of rice. In this study, we used a set of reciprocal introgression lines (ILs) derived from Xuishui09 × IR2061 to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that were associated with sink-, source-, and grain yield-related traits. A total of 95 QTLs influencing eight measured traits were identified using 6181 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism markers. Nine background-independent QTLs were consistently detected in seven chromosomal regions in different genetic backgrounds. Seven QTLs clusters simultaneously affected sink-, source-, and grain yield-related traits, probably due to the genetic basis of significant correlations of grain yield with source and sink traits. We selected 15 candidate genes in the four QTLs consistently identified in the two populations by performing gene-based association and haplotype analyses using 2288 accessions from the 3K project. Among these, LOC_Os03g48970 for qTSN3b, LOC_Os06g04710 for qFLL6a, and LOC_Os07g32510 for qTGW7 were considered as the most likely candidate genes based on functional annotations. These results provide a basis for further study of candidate genes and for the development of high-yield rice varieties by balancing source-sink relationships using marker-assisted selection.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 173-185, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734417

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A novel and major QTL for the effective tiller number was identified on chromosomal arm 1BL and validated in two genetic backgrounds The effective tiller number (ETN) substantially influences plant architecture and the wheat yield improvement. In this study, we constructed a genetic map of the 2SY (20828/SY95-71) recombinant inbred line population based on the Wheat 55K array as well as the simple sequence repeat (SSR) and Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) markers. A comparison between the genetic and physical maps indicated the marker positions were consistent in the two maps. Additionally, we identified seven tillering-related quantitative trait locus (QTLs), including Qetn-sau-1B.1, which is a major QTL localized to a 6.17-cM interval flanked by markers AX-89635557 and AX-111544678 on chromosome 1BL. The Qetn-sau-1B.1 QTL was detected in eight environments and explained 12.12-55.71% of the phenotypic variance. Three genes associated with the ETN were detected in the physical interval of Qetn-sau-1B.1. We used a tightly linked KASP marker, KASP-AX-110129912, to further validate this QTL in two other populations with different genetic backgrounds. The results indicated that Qetn-sau-1B.1 significantly increased the ETN by up to 23.5%. The results of this study will be useful for the precise mapping and cloning of Qetn-sau-1B.1.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Triticum/genética , Bangladesh , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo
4.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 91, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SIAMESE (SIM) locus is a cell-cycle kinase inhibitor (CKI) gene that has to date been identified only in plants; it encodes a protein that promotes transformation from mitosis to endoreplication. Members of the SIAMESE-RELATED (SMR) family have similar functions, and some are related to cell-cycle responses and abiotic stresses. However, the functions of SMRs are poorly understood in maize (Zea mays L.). RESULTS: In the present study, 12 putative SMRs were identified throughout the entire genome of maize, and these were clustered into six groups together with the SMRs from seven other plant species. Members of the ZmSMR family were divided into four groups according to their protein sequences. Various cis-acting elements in the upstream sequences of ZmSMRs responded to abiotic stresses. Expression analyses revealed that all ZmSMRs were upregulated at 5, 20, 25, and 35 days after pollination. In addition, we found that ZmSMR9/11/12 may have regulated the initiation of endoreplication in endosperm central cells. Additionally, ZmSMR2/10 may have been primarily responsible for the endoreplication regulation of outer endosperm or aleurone cells. The relatively high expression levels of almost all ZmSMRs in the ears and tassels also implied that these genes may function in seed development. The effects of treatments with ABA, heat, cold, salt, and drought on maize seedlings and expression of ZmSMR genes suggested that ZmSMRs were strongly associated with response to abiotic stresses. CONCLUSION: The present study is the first to conduct a genome-wide analysis of members of the ZmSMR family by investigating their locations in chromosomes, identifying regulatory elements in their promoter regions, and examining motifs in their protein sequences. Expression analysis of different endosperm developmental periods, tissues, abiotic stresses, and hormonal treatments suggests that ZmSMR genes may function in endoreplication and regulate the development of reproductive organs. These results may provide valuable information for future studies of the functions of the SMR family in maize.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Zea mays/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Sequência Conservada/genética , Endosperma/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Análise de Regressão , Especificidade da Espécie , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Sintenia/genética
5.
Plant Dis ; 104(9): 2369-2376, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689920

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight (FHB) and stem rust are among the most devastating diseases of wheat worldwide. Fhb1 is the most widely utilized and the only isolated gene for FHB resistance, while Sr2 is a durable stem rust resistance gene used in rust-prone areas. The two loci are closely linked on the short arm of chromosome 3B and the two genes are in repulsion phase among cultivars. With climate change and the shift in Fusarium populations, it is imperative to develop wheat cultivars resistant to both diseases. The present study was dedicated to developing wheat germplasm combining Fhb1 and Sr2 resistance alleles in the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)'s elite cultivars' backgrounds. Four recombinant inbred lines (RILs) in Hartog background that have the resistant Fhb1 and Sr2 alleles in coupled phase linkage were crossed with seven CIMMYT bread wheat lines, resulting in 208 lines. Molecular markers for both genes were employed in addition to the use of pseudo-black chaff (PBC) as a phenotypic marker for the selection of Sr2. At various stages of the selection process, progeny lines were assessed for FHB index, Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK), stem rust, and PBC expression as well as other diseases of interest (stripe rust and leaf spotting diseases). The 25 best lines were selected for CIMMYT's wheat breeding program. In addition to expressing resistance to FHB, most of these 25 lines have an acceptable level of resistance to other tested diseases. These lines will be useful for wheat breeding programs worldwide and potentially speed up the resistance breeding efforts against FHB and stem rust.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Triticum/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236273, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722687

RESUMO

Creating a homologous restorer line for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogu-CMS) in Brassica napus is meaningful for the wider application of Ogu-CMS system in rapeseed production. Previously, an independent development of a new Ogu-CMS restorer line (CLR650) was reported locally from crossing between Raphanobrassica (AACCRR, 2n = 56) and B. napus and a new version of Ogu CMS lines CLR6430 derived from CLR650 was characterized in this study. The results showed that the fertility restoration gene in CLR6430 presented a distorted segregation in different segregating populations. However, the majority of somatic cells from roots had a regular chromosome number (2n = 38) and no radish signal covered a whole chromosome was detected using GISH. Thirty-two specific markers derived from the introgressed radish fragments were developed based on the re-sequencing results. Unique radish insertions and differences between CLR6430 and R2000 were also identified through both radish-derived markers and PCR product sequences. Further investigations on the genetic behaviors, interactions between the fertility restoration and other traits and specific molecular markers to the introgression in CLR6430 were also conducted in this study. These results should provide the evidence of nucleotide differences between CLR6430 and R2000, and the specific markers will be helpful for breeding new Ogura restore lines in future.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Brassica rapa/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , DNA de Plantas/química , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Raphanus/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236037, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701981

RESUMO

Soil salinity imposes an agricultural and economic burden that may be alleviated by identifying the components of salinity tolerance in barley, a major crop and the most salt tolerant cereal. To improve our understanding of these components, we evaluated a diversity panel of 377 two-row spring barley cultivars during both the vegetative, in a controlled environment, and the reproductive stages, in the field. In the controlled environment, a high-throughput phenotyping platform was used to assess the growth-related traits under both control and saline conditions. In the field, the agronomic traits were measured from plots irrigated with either fresh or saline water. Association mapping for the different components of salinity tolerance enabled us to detect previously known associations, such as HvHKT1;5. Using an "interaction model", which took into account the interaction between treatment (control and salt) and genetic markers, we identified several loci associated with yield components related to salinity tolerance. We also observed that the two developmental stages did not share genetic regions associated with the components of salinity tolerance, suggesting that different mechanisms play distinct roles throughout the barley life cycle. Our association analysis revealed that genetically defined regions containing known flowering genes (Vrn-H3, Vrn-H1, and HvNAM-1) were responsive to salt stress. We identified a salt-responsive locus (7H, 128.35 cM) that was associated with grain number per ear, and suggest a gene encoding a vacuolar H+-translocating pyrophosphatase, HVP1, as a candidate. We also found a new QTL on chromosome 3H (139.22 cM), which was significant for ear number per plant, and a locus on chromosome 2H (141.87 cM), previously identified using a nested association mapping population, which associated with a yield component and interacted with salinity stress. Our study is the first to evaluate a barley diversity panel for salinity stress under both controlled and field conditions, allowing us to identify contributions from new components of salinity tolerance which could be used for marker-assisted selection when breeding for marginal and saline regions.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Genótipo , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/metabolismo , Pirofosfatase Inorgânica/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Solo/química
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3670, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728126

RESUMO

Our understanding of polyploid genome evolution is constrained because we cannot know the exact founders of a particular polyploid. To differentiate between founder effects and post polyploidization evolution, we use a pan-genomic approach to study the allotetraploid Brachypodium hybridum and its diploid progenitors. Comparative analysis suggests that most B. hybridum whole gene presence/absence variation is part of the standing variation in its diploid progenitors. Analysis of nuclear single nucleotide variants, plastomes and k-mers associated with retrotransposons reveals two independent origins for B. hybridum, ~1.4 and ~0.14 million years ago. Examination of gene expression in the younger B. hybridum lineage reveals no bias in overall subgenome expression. Our results are consistent with a gradual accumulation of genomic changes after polyploidization and a lack of subgenome expression dominance. Significantly, if we did not use a pan-genomic approach, we would grossly overestimate the number of genomic changes attributable to post polyploidization evolution.


Assuntos
Brachypodium/genética , Diploide , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Poliploidia , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Genômica , Hibridização Genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Retroelementos/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235434, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649700

RESUMO

The genetic diversity of North American soybean cultivars has been largely influenced by a small number of ancestors. High yielding breeding lines that possess exotic pedigrees have been developed, but identifying beneficial exotic alleles has been difficult as a result of complex interactions of yield alleles with genetic backgrounds and environments as well as the highly quantitative nature of yield. PI 416937 has been utilized in the development of many high yielding lines that have been entered into the USDA Southern States Uniform Tests over the past ~20 years. The primary goal of this research was to identify genomic regions under breeding selection from PI 416937 and introduce a methodology for identifying and potentially utilizing beneficial diversity from lines prevalent in the ancestry of elite cultivars. Utilizing SoySNP50K Infinium BeadChips, 52 high yielding PI 416937-derived lines as well as their parents were genotyped to identify PI 416937 alleles under breeding selection. Nine genomic regions across three chromosomes and 17 genomic regions across seven chromosomes were identified where PI 416937 alleles were under positive or negative selection. Minimal significant associations between PI 416937 alleles and yield were observed in replicated yield trials of five RIL populations, highlighting the difficulty of consistently detecting yield associations.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Variação Genética/genética , Soja/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estados Unidos
10.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008900, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667955

RESUMO

In this study we performed a genotype-phenotype association analysis of meiotic stability in 10 autotetraploid Arabidopsis lyrata and A. lyrata/A. arenosa hybrid populations collected from the Wachau region and East Austrian Forealps. The aim was to determine the effect of eight meiosis genes under extreme selection upon adaptation to whole genome duplication. Individual plants were genotyped by high-throughput sequencing of the eight meiosis genes (ASY1, ASY3, PDS5b, PRD3, REC8, SMC3, ZYP1a/b) implicated in synaptonemal complex formation and phenotyped by assessing meiotic metaphase I chromosome configurations. Our results reveal that meiotic stability varied greatly (20-100%) between individual tetraploid plants and associated with segregation of a novel ASYNAPSIS3 (ASY3) allele derived from A. lyrata. The ASY3 allele that associates with meiotic stability possesses a putative in-frame tandem duplication (TD) of a serine-rich region upstream of the coiled-coil domain that appears to have arisen at sites of DNA microhomology. The frequency of multivalents observed in plants homozygous for the ASY3 TD haplotype was significantly lower than in plants heterozygous for ASY3 TD/ND (non-duplicated) haplotypes. The chiasma distribution was significantly altered in the stable plants compared to the unstable plants with a shift from proximal and interstitial to predominantly distal locations. The number of HEI10 foci at pachytene that mark class I crossovers was significantly reduced in a plant homozygous for ASY3 TD compared to a plant heterozygous for ASY3 ND/TD. Fifty-eight alleles of the 8 meiosis genes were identified from the 10 populations analysed, demonstrating dynamic population variability at these loci. Widespread chimerism between alleles originating from A. lyrata/A. arenosa and diploid/tetraploids indicates that this group of rapidly evolving genes may provide precise adaptive control over meiotic recombination in the tetraploids, the very process that gave rise to them.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Meiose/genética , Alelos , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pareamento Cromossômico/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Diploide , Tetraploidia
11.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 81-95, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621166

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Genome-wide identification of WD40-like genes reveals a duplication of COP1-like genes, one of the key players involved in regulation of flowering time and photomorphogenesis, with strong functional diversification in Rosaceae. WD40 proteins play crucial roles in a broad spectrum of developmental and physiological processes. Here, we conducted a systematic characterization of this family of genes in Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush' (OB), a founder genotype for modern rose domestication. We identified 187 rose WD40 genes and classified them into 5 clusters and 15 subfamilies with 11 of RcWD40s presumably generated via tandem duplication. We found RcWD40 genes were expressed differentially following stages of vegetative and reproductive development. We detected a duplication of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1-like genes in rose (RcCOP1 and RcCOP1L) and other Rosaceae plants. Featuring a distinct expression pattern and a different profile of cis-regulatory-elements in the transcriptional regulatory regions, RcCOP1 seemed being evolutionarily conserved while RcCOP1L did not dimerize with RcHY5 and RcSPA4. Our data thus reveals a functional diversification of COP1-like genes in Rosacaeae plants, and provides a valuable resource to explore the potential function and evolution of WD40-like genes in Rosaceae plants.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rosaceae/genética , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Domesticação , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Rosa/genética , Rosa/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
12.
J Genet ; 992020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529983

RESUMO

Chromosomal behaviour during megasporogenesis and microsporogenesis has been studied in ornamental Delphinium ajacis L. Meiosis in female sex cell initiates later than male. The floral buds which carry egg mother cell (EMC) at diplotene stage has pollen mother cells (PMCs) at tetrad stage of meiosis suggesting protandry. Although the 16 chromosomes formed regular eight bivalents in both the sex cells, they differed in overall chiasma frequency which was 32.95% higher in EMCs and found to be 18.52 ± 2.12 per cell. In PMCs, the average chiasma frequency recorded was 13.93 ± 1.40 per cell. Interestingly, this variation in chiasma frequency was largely confined to the two large bivalents which shared 42.61% chiasma per EMC. The use of Q-Q plot, Box plot and Whisker plot showed departure in the chiasma frequency distributions in EMCs and PMCs from the normal distribution pattern. The difference in chiasma frequency in the two sex cells was significant at all levels as indicated by the low P values of 3.094 × 10-11 obtained from nonparametric test, i.e. Wilcoxon rank-sum test. It is suggested that the two different mechanisms of recombination are operational in the two sex cells, and the sex differences of chiasma frequency could have arisen due to differential epigenetic modifications of the chromatin which pattern the double-strand breaks, and the position and frequency of crossing over visible as chiasmata.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Delphinium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meiose , Troca Genética , Delphinium/genética , Epigênese Genética , Recombinação Genética , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13800-13809, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493747

RESUMO

While colocalization within a bacterial operon enables coexpression of the constituent genes, the mechanistic logic of clustering of nonhomologous monocistronic genes in eukaryotes is not immediately obvious. Biosynthetic gene clusters that encode pathways for specialized metabolites are an exception to the classical eukaryote rule of random gene location and provide paradigmatic exemplars with which to understand eukaryotic cluster dynamics and regulation. Here, using 3C, Hi-C, and Capture Hi-C (CHi-C) organ-specific chromosome conformation capture techniques along with high-resolution microscopy, we investigate how chromosome topology relates to transcriptional activity of clustered biosynthetic pathway genes in Arabidopsis thaliana Our analyses reveal that biosynthetic gene clusters are embedded in local hot spots of 3D contacts that segregate cluster regions from the surrounding chromosome environment. The spatial conformation of these cluster-associated domains differs between transcriptionally active and silenced clusters. We further show that silenced clusters associate with heterochromatic chromosomal domains toward the periphery of the nucleus, while transcriptionally active clusters relocate away from the nuclear periphery. Examination of chromosome structure at unrelated clusters in maize, rice, and tomato indicates that integration of clustered pathway genes into distinct topological domains is a common feature in plant genomes. Our results shed light on the potential mechanisms that constrain coexpression within clusters of nonhomologous eukaryotic genes and suggest that gene clustering in the one-dimensional chromosome is accompanied by compartmentalization of the 3D chromosome.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
14.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(5): 272-282, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516773

RESUMO

Saccharum spontaneum is a wild germplasm resource of the genus Saccharum that has many valuable traits. Ty1-copia retrotransposons constitute a large proportion of plant genomes and affect genome sequence organization and evolution. This study aims to analyze the sequence heterogeneity, phylogenetic diversity, copy number, and chromosomal dispersion patterns of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in S. spontaneum. A total of 44 Ty1-copia reverse transcriptase subclones isolated from S. spontaneum showed a range of heterogeneity, and all sequences were A-T rich, averaging approximately 54.59%. Phylogenetic analysis divided the 44 reverse transcriptase sequences into 5 distinct lineages (Retrofit/Ale, Sire/Maximus, Bianca, Tork/TAR, and Ty1-copia like). Dot-blot hybridization revealed that Ty1-copia retrotransposons consisted of a significant component of approximately 38,900 copies and 16,300 copies per genome in the accessions YN82-114 (2n = 10x = 80) and AP85-441 (2n = 4x = 32), respectively. The results of a local blast analysis showed that there are 15,069 Ty1-copia retrotransposon copies in the genome of AP85-441, of which the Retrofit/Ale lineage had the highest copy number, followed by the Tork/TAR, Sire/Maximus, and Bianca lineages. Furthermore, both FISH and the local blast analysis with AP85-441 genomic data demonstrated that the Ty1-copia retrotransposons were unevenly distributed throughout the chromosomes. Taken together, this study provides insights into the role of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in the evolution and organization of the S. spontaneum genome.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta/genética , Retroelementos/genética , Saccharum/genética , Filogenia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235317, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598401

RESUMO

The Dof (DNA-binding one zinc finger) transcription factor family is a representative of plant-specific classes of transcription factors. In this study, we performed a genome-wide screening and characterization of the Dof gene family within two tetraploid species Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium hirsutum, and two diploid species Gossypium arboreum, Gossypium raimondii. 115, 116, 55 and 56 Dof genes were identified respectively and all of the genes contain a sequence encoding the Dof DNA-binding domain. Those genes were unevenly distributed across 13/26 chromosomes of the cotton. Genome comparison revealed that segmental duplication may have played crucial roles in the expansion of the cotton Dof gene family, and tandem duplication also played a minor role. Analysis of RNA-Seq data indicated that cotton Dof gene expression levels varied across different tissues and in response to different abiotic stress. Overall, our results could provide valuable information for better understanding the evolution of cotton Dof genes, and lays a foundation for future investigation in cotton.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Diploide , Genoma de Planta , Gossypium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tetraploidia , Dedos de Zinco/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gossypium/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
16.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008894, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598340

RESUMO

Meiotic crossovers (COs) are important for reshuffling genetic information between homologous chromosomes and they are essential for their correct segregation. COs are unevenly distributed along chromosomes and the underlying mechanisms controlling CO localization are not well understood. We previously showed that meiotic COs are mis-localized in the absence of AXR1, an enzyme involved in the neddylation/rubylation protein modification pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we report that in axr1-/-, male meiocytes show a strong defect in chromosome pairing whereas the formation of the telomere bouquet is not affected. COs are also redistributed towards subtelomeric chromosomal ends where they frequently form clusters, in contrast to large central regions depleted in recombination. The CO suppressed regions correlate with DNA hypermethylation of transposable elements (TEs) in the CHH context in axr1-/- meiocytes. Through examining somatic methylomes, we found axr1-/- affects DNA methylation in a plant, causing hypermethylation in all sequence contexts (CG, CHG and CHH) in TEs. Impairment of the main pathways involved in DNA methylation is epistatic over axr1-/- for DNA methylation in somatic cells but does not restore regular chromosome segregation during meiosis. Collectively, our findings reveal that the neddylation pathway not only regulates hormonal perception and CO distribution but is also, directly or indirectly, a major limiting pathway of TE DNA methylation in somatic cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Metilação de DNA , Meiose/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Pareamento Cromossômico , Segregação de Cromossomos , Troca Genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14561-14571, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518116

RESUMO

Recombination between homeologous chromosomes, also known as homeologous exchange (HE), plays a significant role in shaping genome structure and gene expression in interspecific hybrids and allopolyploids of several plant species. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern HEs are not well understood. Here, we studied HE events in the progeny of a nascent allotetraploid (genome AADD) derived from two diploid progenitors of hexaploid bread wheat using cytological and whole-genome sequence analyses. In total, 37 HEs were identified and HE junctions were mapped precisely. HEs exhibit typical patterns of homologous recombination hotspots, being biased toward low-copy, subtelomeric regions of chromosome arms and showing association with known recombination hotspot motifs. But, strikingly, while homologous recombination preferentially takes place upstream and downstream of coding regions, HEs are highly enriched within gene bodies, giving rise to novel recombinant transcripts, which in turn are predicted to generate new protein fusion variants. To test whether this is a widespread phenomenon, a dataset of high-resolution HE junctions was analyzed for allopolyploid Brassica, rice, Arabidopsis suecica, banana, and peanut. Intragenic recombination and formation of chimeric genes was detected in HEs of all species and was prominent in most of them. HE thus provides a mechanism for evolutionary novelty in transcript and protein sequences in nascent allopolyploids.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poliploidia , Recombinação Genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arachis/genética , Brassica/genética , Biologia Computacional , Evolução Molecular , Fusão Gênica , Cariotipagem , Musa/genética , Oryza/genética , Transcrição Genética , Triticum/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233800, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497070

RESUMO

Several studies suggest the relation of DNA methylation to diseases in humans and important phenotypes in plants drawing attention to this epigenetic mark as an important source of variability. In the last decades, several methodologies were developed to assess the methylation state of a genome. However, there is still a lack of affordable and precise methods for genome wide analysis in large sample size studies. Methyl sensitive double digestion MS-DArT sequencing method emerges as a promising alternative for methylation profiling. We developed a computational pipeline for the identification of DNA methylation using MS-DArT-seq data and carried out a pilot study using the Eucalyptus grandis tree sequenced for the species reference genome. Using a statistic framework as in differential expression analysis, 72,515 genomic sites were investigated and 5,846 methylated sites identified, several tissue specific, distributed along the species 11 chromosomes. We highlight a bias towards identification of DNA methylation in genic regions and the identification of 2,783 genes and 842 transposons containing methylated sites. Comparison with WGBS, DNA sequencing after treatment with bisulfite, data demonstrated a precision rate higher than 95% for our approach. The availability of a reference genome is useful for determining the genomic context of methylated sites but not imperative, making this approach suitable for any species. Our approach provides a cost effective, broad and reliable examination of DNA methylation profile on MspI/HpaII restriction sites, is fully reproducible and the source code is available on GitHub (https://github.com/wendelljpereira/ms-dart-seq).


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Metilação de DNA/genética , Eucalyptus/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Árvores/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Enzimas de Restrição do DNA/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/economia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/economia , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Mapeamento por Restrição , Análise de Sequência de DNA/economia , Sulfitos/farmacologia
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2764, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488019

RESUMO

Not necessarily all cells of an organism contain the same genome. Some eukaryotes exhibit dramatic differences between cells of different organs, resulting from programmed elimination of chromosomes or their fragments. Here, we present a detailed analysis of programmed B chromosome elimination in plants. Using goatgrass Aegilops speltoides as a model, we demonstrate that the elimination of B chromosomes is a strictly controlled and highly efficient root-specific process. At the onset of embryo differentiation B chromosomes undergo elimination in proto-root cells. Independent of centromere activity, B chromosomes demonstrate nondisjunction of chromatids and lagging in anaphase, leading to micronucleation. Chromatin structure and DNA replication differ between micronuclei and primary nuclei and degradation of micronucleated DNA is the final step of B chromosome elimination. This process might allow root tissues to survive the detrimental expression, or overexpression of B chromosome-located root-specific genes with paralogs located on standard chromosomes.


Assuntos
Aegilops/embriologia , Aegilops/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/embriologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anáfase , Centrômero , Cromatina , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Replicação do DNA , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Histonas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(5): 1187-1195, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476049

RESUMO

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculate (L.) Walp.) is a worldwide important multifunctional legume crop for food grain, vegetable, fodder, and cover crop. Nevertheless, only limited research has been conducted on agronomic traits. Here, we report quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of the days to flowering (DTF) and plant height (PH) using a dense SNP linkage map recently developed from a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Golden Eye Cream and IT98K-476-8. The population was phenotyped for DTF and PH through field and greenhouse trials under two environments. The QTLs controlling these traits were mapped using multiple-environment combined and individual trial phenotypic data. The combined data analysis identified one major QTL (qDTF9.1) for DTF, and one major QTL (qPH9.1) and a minor QTL (qPH4.1) for PH. qDTF9.1 and qPH9.1 were adjacent to each other on Chromosome 9 and each explained 29.3% and 29.5% of the phenotypic variation (PVE), respectively. The individual trial data analysis identified a minor QTL (qDTF2.1) on Chromosome 2 for DTF and two minor QTLs (qPH4.1 and qPH4.2) on Chromosome 4 for PH, while the major QTLs, qDTF9.1 and qPH9.1, were consistently identified in all trials conducted. Epistasis analysis revealed that qDTF9.1 interacted with one locus on Chromosome 4, contributed 50% of the PVE, and qPH9.1 interacted with one locus on each of Chromosomes 4 and 6, contributing 30% and 23% of the PVE, respectively, suggesting that epistasis plays an important role in the trait performance. These results, therefore, provide a deeper understanding of the genetic architecture of plant DTF and PH, and molecular tools necessary for cloning the genes and for enhanced cowpea breeding.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Vigna/fisiologia , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Epistasia Genética , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigna/anatomia & histologia , Vigna/genética
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