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2.
Infect Immun ; 58(10): 3217-24, 1990 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2169461

RESUMO

By using improved pulsed field gel conditions, the karyotypes of several strains of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi were analyzed and compared with those of Leishmania major and two other members of the genus Trypanosoma. There was no difference in chromosome migration patterns between different life cycle stages of the T. cruzi strains analyzed. However, the sizes and numbers of chromosomal bands varied considerably among T. cruzi strains. This karyotype variation among T. cruzi strains was analyzed further at the chromosomal level by using multicopy genes as probes in Southern hybridizations. The chromosomal location of the genes encoding alpha- and beta-tubulin, ubiquitin, rRNA, spliced leader RNA, and an 85-kilodalton protein remained stable during developmental conversion of the parasite. The sizes and numbers of chromosomes containing these sequences varied among the different strains analyzed, implying multiple rearrangements of these genes during evolution of the parasites. During continuous in vitro cultivation of T. cruzi Y, the chromosomal location of the spliced leader gene shifted spontaneously. The spliced leader gene encodes a 35-nucleotide RNA that is spliced in trans from a 105-nucleotide donor RNA onto all mRNAs in T. cruzi. The spliced leader sequences changed in their physical location in both the cloned and uncloned Y strains. Associated with the complex changes was an increase in the infectivity of the rearranged variant for tissue culture cells. Our results indicate that the spliced leader gene clusters in T. cruzi undergo high-frequency genomic rearrangements.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/análise , Variação Genética , Família Multigênica , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Southern Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar , Cariotipagem , Leishmania tropica/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Sondas RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Seleção Genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Ubiquitinas/genética
4.
Nature ; 347(6290): 301-3, 1990 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2205805

RESUMO

Many indirect methods have been developed to study the constitution and conformation of macromolecules inside the living cell. Direct analysis by Raman spectroscopy is an ideal complement to techniques using directly labelled fluorescent probes or of indirect labelling with mono- and polyclonal antibodies. The high information content of Raman spectra can characterize biological macromolecules both in solution and in crystals. The positions, intensities and linewidths of the Raman lines (corresponding to vibrational energy levels) in spectra of DNA-protein complexes yield information about the composition, secondary structure and interactions of these molecules, including the chemical microenvironment of molecular subgroups. The main drawback of the method is the low Raman scattering cross-section of biological macromolecules, which until now has prohibited studies at the level of the single cell with the exception of (salmon) sperm heads, in which the DNA is condensed to an exceptionally high degree. Ultraviolet-resonance Raman spectroscopy has been used to obtain single cell spectra (and F. Sureau and P. Y. Turpin, personal communication), but in this method absorption of laser light may impair the integrity of the sample. We have avoided this problem in developing a novel, highly sensitive confocal Raman microspectrometer for nonresonant Raman spectroscopy. Our instrument makes it possible to study single cells and chromosomes with a high spatial resolution (approximately less than 1 micron 3).


Assuntos
Cromossomos/análise , Microscopia/instrumentação , Análise Espectral Raman , Animais , Núcleo Celular/análise , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Chironomidae , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Cricetinae , Citoplasma/análise , DNA/análise , Imunofluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Proteínas/análise
5.
Rev. bras. genét ; 13(3): 539-49, Sept. 1990. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-94175

RESUMO

Três leiomiomas uterinos humanos foram cultivados e analisados citogeneticamente. Embora o número modal estivesse na regiäo diplóide, todas as neoplasias apresentaram hiperdiploidia. Um dos casos apresentou 27% das células na regiäo hipertriplóide-hipertraplóide. As alteraçöes numéricas mais frequentes foram monossomias envolvendo os cromossomos 20 (3 casos) e 2, 7, 18 (2 casos cada) e um caso apresentou polissomias de todos os cromossomos (variando de trissomia a pentassomia). Um caso apresentou um grande anel cromossômico semelhante ao cromossomo 1 e um marcador com o rearranjo: t(2;12) (2qter - 2q14-15 - 12 pter). O significado das alteraçöes citogenéticas em tumores benignos ainda está por ser determinada


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Cromossomos/análise , Citogenética , Leiomioma/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Monossomia
6.
Exp Parasitol ; 71(2): 189-98, 1990 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2197113

RESUMO

We have established improved conditions for separating the chromosomes of Plasmodium falciparum by pulsed field gradient gel electrophoresis (PFG) using a contour-clamped homogenous electric field (CHEF) apparatus. Thirteen clearly separable chromosomal bands were reproducibly isolated from the strain FCR3 and their sizes have been determined. Evidence that indicates one band may contain two chromosomes is presented. The relationship between the PFG separable DNA and the number of unique chromosomes in P. falciparum is considered. We have established a relationship between the maximum resolvable sizes of the chromosomes and the pulse times. The chromosomal location of twenty-seven P. falciparum DNA probes is also reported.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/análise , DNA/análise , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Animais , Southern Blotting , Sondas de DNA , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico
7.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 114(7): 676-8, 1990 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2363626

RESUMO

We present, to our knowledge, the first extensively studied case of lymphoid L2 blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia with a hand mirror cell (HMC) variant. Special stains revealed the leukemic cells to be terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase positive by immunofluorescence and cytochemically positive for alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase and acid phosphatase (diffuse granular). Immunophenotyping identified the major leukemic cell population as B-cells that expressed CD10+, CD19+, and HLA-DR+. It was not possible to separate the HMC and the non-HMC leukemic population by gating various cell populations, dual staining, cytochemistry, or by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Gene rearrangements were observed in both Ig heavy-chain alleles and one T-cell antigen receptor gamma-subunit allele. The rearrangements occupied all of the cells, indicating that the HMC and non-HMC were of a common clonal origin. The patient had a mosaic karyotype, with 90% of the cells having t(9;22), t(8;14), and t(9;15) translocations, an additional chromosome 8, and deleted chromosomes 9 and 15. Antibodies to simian sarcoma-associated virus and baboon endogenous virus were isolated in the patient's peripheral blood plasma.


Assuntos
Crise Blástica/patologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Crise Blástica/genética , Crise Blástica/imunologia , Western Blotting , Medula Óssea/patologia , Cromossomos/análise , Eritroblastos/imunologia , Eritroblastos/patologia , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
8.
Chromosoma ; 99(3): 161-8, 1990 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2168826

RESUMO

The distribution of Z-form DNA along the length of metaphase chromosomes of Indian muntjac was studied by indirect immunofluorescence procedures using an antibody specific to the Z-DNA conformation. Several fixation conditions were compared for reproducible detection of Z-DNA in isolated metaphase chromosomes. Fixation of chromosomes with 45% acetic acid alone gave reproducible reactivity with the antibody. When fixation was done either with Carnoy's solution (3:1 methanol:acetic acid) or with 75% alcohol alone, the antibody binding was at background level. Acetic acid-fixed chromosomes exhibited intense fluorescence both at C-band heterochromatin and at nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). The euchromatic regions had weakly, but clearly, stained bands, which were quite similar to the chromomycin A3 R-bands. After treatment with topoisomerase I, the immunofluorescence at NORs and R-bands disappeared, but only a slight decrease in immunofluorescence intensity was observed at C-band regions. We suggest that this difference in the immunoreactivity of NORs and R-bands from C-bands reflects a difference in gene activity among these regions. Possible molecular mechanisms involved in Z-DNA immunoreactivity are discussed, based on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of chromosomal proteins after extraction of metaphase chromosomes with different fixative solutions.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/análise , DNA/análise , Cervos/genética , Acetatos , Ácido Acético , Animais , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Clorofórmio , Bandeamento Cromossômico , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/metabolismo , Etanol , Fixadores , Imunofluorescência , Masculino , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico
9.
Exp Cell Res ; 189(1): 118-32, 1990 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2347372

RESUMO

When females of the newt Pleurodeles waltl, normally raised in our laboratory at 20 degrees C, were placed in 8 degrees C water for several days, striking modifications occurred in the structure of oocyte lampbrush chromosomes: numerous normal-type lateral loops were partially reduced in size and number, while hyperdeveloped loops of a new morphological type occurred at constant, reproducible loci. However, induction of these cold loops apparently was not accompanied by preferential RNA synthesis at their levels. Cold loops resulted from the decompaction of specific landmarks, the granular loops. Autoradiography revealed a significant drop in lampbrush chromosome transcriptional activity at 8 degrees C. Both structural and transcriptional modifications were fully reversible when oocytes were returned to normal temperature. These modifications are discussed in relation to processes which could determine the morphological appearance of landmark loops.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Temperatura Baixa , Transcrição Genética , Amanitinas/farmacologia , Animais , Autorradiografia , Cromossomos/análise , Cromossomos/metabolismo , Dactinomicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Oócitos , Pleurodeles , Ribonucleoproteínas/análise , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 68(6): 957-64, 1990 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2397099

RESUMO

Investigating genes and their transcription products in nuclear compartments corresponding to one mammalian chromosome, the ribosomal genes 18S-28S and 5S were localized in PtK1 micronucleated cells and rRNA was characterized in sorted micronuclei containing single identified chromosomes. In situ hybridization revealed the presence of 18S-28S rRNA genes in two micronuclei per cell and 5S rRNA genes in four micronuclei per cell. Flow cytometry histograms of isolated micronuclei stained with Hoechst 33342 exhibited five peaks (a-e) in which peaks b and c, respectively, corresponded to chromosomes 4 and X. Restricted genomic DNA from sorted peak c micronuclei showed the presence of 28S gene sequences. Direct sorting of the micronuclei from each peak on nitrocellulose and their hybridization with the 18S-28S rDNA probe revealed that the rRNA genes were exclusively located in micronuclei containing X chromosomes. Northern blotting showed the presence of 18S-28S and 5S rRNAs in peak c micronuclei and their absence from peak b micronuclei. Consequently, these procedures allowed us to show the presence of ribosomal genes and the corresponding rRNA in micronuclei containing single X chromosomes, and the absence of rRNA from micronuclei that do not contain the ribosomal genes. In regards to the transcription of these genes, the micronuclei from peak c can be considered as functional interphase X chromosomes.


Assuntos
DNA Ribossômico/análise , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Animais , Northern Blotting , Southern Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Cromossomos/análise , Citometria de Fluxo , Expressão Gênica , Metáfase , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 28S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 5S/análise , Cromossomo X/análise
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 87(9): 3599-603, 1990 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2185478

RESUMO

Human autoantibodies from a patient with scleroderma CREST (calcinosis, Raynaud phenomenon, esophageal dismotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia) were used to immunostain kinetochores on chromosomes in endosperm of the seed of the monocot Haemanthus katherinae Bak. Kinetochores of mitotic chromosomes and prekinetochores of interphase cells were specifically stained using conventional indirect immunofluorescence procedures as well as a nonfading immunogold-silver-enhanced technique and analyzed by fluorescence and video microscopy. In interphase, prekinetochores were either single or double structures depending on the stage of the cell cycle but became quadruple (two distinct stained dots on each chromatid) in mid-to-late prophase. In favorable preparations of prometaphase chromosomes, multiple subunits could be resolved within each sister kinetochore suggesting a compound organization. Western blot analysis demonstrated common epitopes in centromeric peptides of HeLa and Haemanthus cell extracts. Although the molecular mass of individual polypeptides differed in the two species, the presence of shared epitopes indicates striking conservation of centromere/kinetochore components throughout evolution.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Cromossomos/análise , Plantas/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia , Western Blotting , Ciclo Celular , Núcleo Celular/análise , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Imunofluorescência , Células HeLa/análise , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Proteínas Nucleares/análise , Proteínas Nucleares/imunologia , Proteínas Nucleares/isolamento & purificação , Células Vegetais , Plantas/imunologia
12.
Oncogene ; 5(5): 727-39, 1990 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2161098

RESUMO

Twelve different human keratinocyte strains were transformed with recombinant plasmid pSV6-1 which contained an origin defective SV40 genome. When injected into athymic nude mice lines produced either squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in all animals, SCC in some animals and epidermal cysts in others, or epidermal cysts only in all the animals. The tumourigenic capacity of the lines could be correlated with the chromosomal changes present initially in the transformed cells. Lines which produced SCC in all the animals within a short period of time all showed simultaneous loss of part of chromosomes 3p, 8p and 11p in one homologue. Lines which were not tumourigenic did not show these simultaneously appearing rearrangements. These specific rearrangements are acquired in vitro and the time taken for a recognisable tumour to appear is related to the proportion of such cells in the line. The rearrangement of the same chromosome regions in different tumourigenic cell lines suggests that genes in these regions are important in the development of squamous cell carcinoma, possibly by loss of heterozygosity, at particular loci.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Viral/genética , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Queratinócitos/patologia , Vírus 40 dos Símios/fisiologia , Animais , Síndrome do Nevo Basocelular/etiologia , Síndrome do Nevo Basocelular/genética , Síndrome do Nevo Basocelular/patologia , Southern Blotting , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos/análise , Sondas de DNA/análise , Sondas de DNA/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/análise , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Queratinócitos/microbiologia , Queratinócitos/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Vírus 40 dos Símios/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
13.
Exp Cell Res ; 188(1): 164-8, 1990 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2328775

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to determine the kinetics of the replication of intrachromosomal versus extrachromosomal amplified dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) genes. Previous studies reported that the DHFR gene, when carried intrachromosomally on a homogeneously staining region, replicates (as a unit) within the first 2 h of the S phase of the cell cycle. We wished to determine if the extrachromosomal location of the amplified genes carried on double minute chromosomes effects the timing of their replication. Equilibrium cesium chloride ultracentrifugation was used to separate newly replicated (BUdR-labeled) DNA from bulk DNA in a synchronized cell population. Hybridization with the cDNA for the DHFR gene allowed us to determine the period of time within the cell cycle in which the DHFR DNA sequences were replicated. We found that, in contrast to intrachromosomal dihydrofolate reductase genes that uniformly replicate as a unit at the beginning of the S phase of the cell cycle, dihydrofolate reductase genes carried on double minute chromosomes (DMs) replicate throughout the S phase of the cell cycle. These results suggest that control of replication of extrachromosomal DNA sequences may differ from intrachromosomal sequences.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas/genética , DNA/genética , Genes/genética , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/genética , Animais , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Transtornos Cromossômicos , Cromossomos/análise , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , DNA/análise , DNA/ultraestrutura , Replicação do DNA/fisiologia , Interfase/fisiologia , Camundongos
14.
J Cell Biol ; 110(5): 1475-88, 1990 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2335558

RESUMO

The family of three structurally related autoantigens CENP-A (17 kD), CENP-B (80 kD), and CENP-C (140 kD) are the best characterized components of the human centromere, and they have been widely assumed to be components of the kinetochore. Kinetochore components are currently of great interest since this structure, which has long been known to be the site of microtubule attachment to the chromosome, is now believed to be a site of force production for anaphase chromosome movement. In the present study we have mapped the distribution of CENP-B in mitotic chromosomes by immunoelectron microscopy using two monospecific polyclonal antibodies together with a newly developed series of ultra-small 1-nm colloidal gold probes. We were surprised to find that greater than 95% of CENP-B is distributed throughout the centromeric heterochromatin beneath the kinetochore. This strongly supports other emerging evidence that CENP-B is specifically associated with alpha-satellite heterochromatin. Although in certain instances CENP-B can be seen to be concentrated immediately adjacent to the lower surface of the kinetochore, the outer plate remains virtually unlabeled. Similar analysis with a human autoimmune serum that recognizes all three CENP antigens reveals an additional unsuspected feature of kinetochore structure. In addition to recognizing antigens in the centromeric heterochromatin, the autoantiserum recognizes a concentration of antigens lateral to the kinetochore. This difference in staining pattern may reflect the presence of a "collar" of chromatin rich in CENP-C and/or CENP-A encircling the kinetochore plates.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos , Centrômero/análise , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/análise , Cromossomos/análise , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Autoanticorpos , Centrômero/imunologia , Centrômero/ultraestrutura , Proteína B de Centrômero , Células HeLa , Heterocromatina/análise , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interfase , Microscopia Eletrônica , Mitose/fisiologia , Permeabilidade
15.
Chromosoma ; 99(2): 131-7, 1990 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2357914

RESUMO

To study whether specific DNA sequences are associated with nuclear membranes, residual DNA was extracted from DNase-treated nuclear envelopes prepared from erythrocytes of adult chickens (Gallus domesticus). This DNA was then blunt-end ligated into a bacterial plasmid vector. DNA blot analysis and nucleotide sequence determination revealed that approximately 30% of the cloned fragments consisted of different multiples of a 41-42 bp tandemly repeated, partially symmetrical sequence. In situ hybridization to chicken chromosomes demonstrated that the sequence was located primarily on microchromosomes, although some hybridization was also observed to macrochromosomes 7 and 8. Digestion of chicken DNA with any of a number of restriction enzymes did not completely reduce the intensity of a high molecular weight band to which the repeated sequence hybridized. These results, along with those obtained from in situ hybridization, suggested that many copies of this sequence are organized into large tandem arrays, and are not dispersed in many shorter repetitive blocks throughout the chicken genome. Although the repetitive sequence constituted approximately 10% of the chicken genome, it did not hybridize to quail or turkey DNA.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/análise , DNA/análise , Eritrócitos/análise , Membrana Nuclear/análise , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Southern Blotting , Galinhas , Clonagem Molecular , Eritrócitos/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico
16.
Eur J Haematol ; 44(4): 227-33, 1990 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2344885

RESUMO

During the last 10 years, we have cytogenetically analyzed at diagnosis bone marrow cells from a total of 94 children with acute leukemia. Of the 78 children with acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL), 53 (68%) had clonal acquired chromosome abnormalities; in the group with acute nonlymphatic leukemia (ANLL), the corresponding proportion was 13 out of 16 (81%). Among the cytogenetically abnormal ALL patients, the most numerous subset was the hyperdiploid cases with stemlines containing 51 or more chromosomes (26 of 53 abnormal cases; 49%). This is a clearly higher proportion than has been reported in large series from other centers. Deletions of 6q were present in 8 cases and rearrangements of 12p in 5. Of the 7 T-cell ALLs, 3 had translocations of the distal part of 7q, i.e., of the region where the beta T-cell receptor is encoded. Only 2 of 26 (8%) patients with leukemic stemlines with more than 50 chromosomes have relapsed; the remainder are still in first remission (mean observation time 42 months). This may be contrasted with 6 of 25 (24%) relapses among the cytogenetically normal (observation time 41 months), and 8 of 27 (30%) relapses among ALL patients with aberrations but with less than 51 chromosomes (observation time 26 months). Our results support the conclusion that the finding of a markedly hyperdiploid leukemia karyotype is indicative of good prognosis in ALL.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Adolescente , Medula Óssea/análise , Medula Óssea/ultraestrutura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos/análise , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , DNA/análise , DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Cariotipagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Prognóstico
17.
Chromosoma ; 99(2): 152-60, 1990 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2192841

RESUMO

Several nucleolar antigens are defined by human autoantibodies. These antigens can therefore be used to follow the fate of nucleolar components through mitosis when this major nuclear structure disintegrates and becomes reassembled in G1-phase. We found that fibrillarin leaves the nucleolus before complete breakdown of this structure and attaches to chromosomes before nuclear envelope breakdown. In mouse, fibrillarin attaches over the chromosomal surface except for the excluded centromeric region. The antigen is transported to the new nucleus via the chromosomes and is last seen on chromosomal surfaces facing the cytoplasm during nuclear envelope reformation. Lamin B reappears on the same chromosomal surfaces before the nucleolar antigen is removed and aggregates for new nucleolar reformation in G1-phase cells. From our observations, we postulate that the antigen acts in concert with other proteins as a nuclear envelope equivalent by forming a protective sheath around the chromosome, that it excludes larger molecules, and helps to separate the chromosomes, in addition to segregation of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) back to the nucleus for nucleolar reconstruction. We also suggest that the selective retention of these antigens from certain areas on individual chromosomes together with specific lamin B attachment over these chromosomal surfaces allows for a nonrandom positioning of chromosomes in the nucleus.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/análise , Ciclo Celular , Nucléolo Celular/imunologia , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/análise , Cromossomos/análise , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/imunologia , Cromossomos/imunologia , Fibroblastos , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Microscopia Eletrônica , Mitose
18.
Chromosoma ; 99(1): 11-7, 1990 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1971208

RESUMO

We compared the organization of satellite DNA (stDNA) and its chromosomal allocation in Mus domesticus and in Mus musculus. The two stDNAs show similar restriction fragment profiles after digestion (probed with M. domesticus stDNA) with some endonucleases of which restriction sequences are present in the 230-240 bp repetitive unit of the M. domesticus stDNA. In contrast, EcoRI digestion reveals that M. musculus stDNA lacks most of the GAATTC restriction sites, particularly at the level of the half-monomer. The chromosome distribution of stDNA (revealed by an M. domesticus stDNA probe) shows different patterns in the M. domesticus and M. musculus karyotypes, with about 60% of M. domesticus stDNA retained in the M. musculus genome. It is particularly noteworthy that the pericentromeric regions of M. musculus chromosomes 1 and X are totally devoid of M. domesticus stDNA sequences. In both groups, the differences in energy transfer between the stDNA-bound fluorochromes Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide suggest that AT-rich repeated sequences have a much more clustered array in the M. domesticus stDNA, as if they are organized in tandem repeats longer than those of M. musculus. Considering the data as a whole, it seems likely that the evolutionary paths of the two stDNAs diverged after the generation of the ancestral 230-240 bp stDNA repetitive unit through the amplification, in the M. domesticus genome, of a family repeat which included the EcoRI GAATTC restriction sequence.


Assuntos
Cromossomos/análise , DNA Satélite , Camundongos/genética , Muridae/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Southern Blotting , Bandeamento Cromossômico , DNA Satélite/análise , Heterocromatina/análise , Cariotipagem , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Especificidade da Espécie , Análise Espectral
19.
Cancer ; 65(8): 1771-81, 1990 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2156602

RESUMO

A new cell line was established from a "neuroectodermal tumor of bone" affecting the right scapula of an 18-year-old man. The original neoplasm had dense proliferation of small round cells with abundant glycogen content and numerous Homer-Wright rosettes. The culture showed proliferation of small spindle cells with uniform oval nuclei and slender cytoplasmic processes. When the culture reached maximum density, rosette-like structures similar to those in the original tumor were formed. Under the influence of N6,O2'-dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphoric acid (dibutyryl cAMP), the cultured cells expressed these rosette-like structures even in the lower cell concentration. Electron microscopy revealed that the cultured cells treated with dibutyryl cAMP contained high-density granules, well-developed microtubules, and abundant 10-nm filaments. By immunocytochemistry, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and N-myc oncogene product were detected in the cultured cells as well as the original tumor. These results indicated the neuroectodermal origin of some of the small round cell tumors of bone.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/patologia , Adolescente , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Colina O-Acetiltransferase/análise , Cromossomos/análise , Meios de Cultura , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neurônios/patologia , Proteínas Oncogênicas/análise , Oncogenes , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/análise , Formação de Roseta , Proteínas S100/análise , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
20.
Chromosoma ; 99(1): 24-35, 1990 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2340756

RESUMO

Drosophila nasutoides has an extraordinary genome since 62% of its DNA resides in chromosome 4. This element mainly consists of constitutive heterochromatin which does not polytenize. Earlier studies of heterochromatin attributed little attention to the fact that "condensed" chromosomes often vary in condensation. This paper reports that chromosomes of the same complement display different degrees and kinetics of condensation. In D. nasutoides, even sex specific differences can be observed. The results of a comparative microphotometric study on neuroblast metaphases in both sexes revealed the following picture. The process of chromosome condensation is not restricted to mitotic prophase but continues into the metaphase. The mean condensation is not equal for all chromosomes. In the metaphase of the female, Feulgen density increases from the X chromosome, via 3 and 2, to chromosome 4. In the male, the order is X, 2, 3, Y, and 4. During the metaphase of the male, chromosomes condense with similar kinetics. In contrast, chromosomes of the female display asynchrony as monitored by area and length determinations. The X chromosomes of the female probably have enhanced shortening during prophase. This would explain the metaphase of the female where the X chromosomes shorten less than the autosomes, and why each of the X chromosomes is 15% shorter than the X chromosome in the metaphase of the male. Further differences were observed in the longitudinal and lateral compaction of the chromosomes in males and females. The sex chromosomes and chromosome 3 condense by shortening, while chromosome 2 and 4 preferentially reduce their diameter. The large amount of DNA engaged in heteropycnosis and the isochromosome nature allow the identification of chromosome 4 during interphase. At this stage, a new category of extreme DNA packaging was detected. The interphase density of chromosome 4 can exceed that of metaphase by a factor of up to 8. Two events account for this high degree of condensation: (1) the homologues are particularly associated due to somatic pairing and (2) the arms are further tightened as a result of pericentric folding. The features of the isochromosome suggest that the interaction of chromatids during interphase is essentially caused by specific DNA sequences. The data confirm that heteropycnosis not only interferes with gene expression but also strongly inhibits DNA synthesis in endocycles.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular , Cromossomos/metabolismo , Drosophila/genética , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cromossomos/análise , DNA/análise , Feminino , Heterocromatina/análise , Interfase , Cariotipagem , Larva/genética , Masculino , Metáfase , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo
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