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1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124610, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450112

RESUMO

Antifouling paint particles (APPs) are residues generated primarily during maintenance of vessels and marine structures, and usually occur in boat maintenance areas that are adjacent to aquatic environments, such as estuaries. APPs end up in sediment layers after their release into aquatic systems and represent a threat to benthic invertebrates, which have different habitat and feeding modes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity of APPs-spiked sediment to the benthic microcrustaceans Monokalliapseudes schubarti (a tanaid) and Hyalella azteca (an amphipod), testing whole sediment and elutriate solutions under estuarine conditions. Whole sediment spiked with APPs was more toxic to these organisms than the elutriate solution. This toxicity was attributed to the high concentrations of Cu and Zn metals quantified in the APPs. During the whole sediment test, M. schubarti was more sensitive than H. azteca. M. schubarti is an infauna organism, and its interaction with sediments (e.g. by ingestion of sediment particles) makes it more susceptible to compounds released from APPs than H. azteca, which tends to interact with these compounds at the sediment-water interface. In addition, in tests with sediment elutriate and without sediment, M. schubarti was not affected, while elutriate with 1.50% APPs showed to be significantly toxic to H. azteca. Moreover, these results indicate that APPs act as continuous and localized sources of metals to benthic organisms, highlighting the importance of better APP management and disposal practices in boat maintenance areas to avoid local aquatic contamination.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Crustáceos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Pintura/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 50-58, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein hydrolysate powder was prepared from non-penaeid shrimp (Acetes indicus) by enzymatic hydrolysis using Alcalase enzyme. Extraction conditions such as pH (6.5, 7.5 and 8.5), enzyme to substrate ratio (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) and temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C) were optimized against the degree of hydrolysis using response surface methodology. RESULTS: Protein hydrolysate comprised of 740 g kg-1 protein, 150 g kg-1 ash and 90 g kg-1 fat contents. The amino acid score showed superior attributes with 56% essential amino acids. Furthermore, the functional properties of spray-dried protein hydrolysates were evaluated. Protein solubility was found to be the 90.20% at pH 2 and 96.92% at pH 12. Emulsifying properties were found to vary with the concentration of protein hydrolysates and the highest emulsifying capacity (26.67%) and emulsion stability (23.33%) were found at a concentration of 20 mg mL-1 . The highest and the lowest foaming capacity were observed at pH 6 and pH 10 with a concentration of 20 mg mL-1 . The water holding capacity of protein hydrolysate was found to increase with concentration, with a value of 5.4 mL g-1 at a concentration of 20 mg mL-1 . CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate that the use of A. indicus for the production of protein hydrolysate has good functional properties and nutritional value, rendering it suitable for broad industrial food applications. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/química , Proteínas de Frutos do Mar/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Biocatálise , Emulsões/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hidrólise , Valor Nutritivo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Solubilidade , Subtilisinas/química
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134993, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726336

RESUMO

Since the establishment of the whole-contact sediment toxicity test using Heterocypris incongruens in 2012, this user-friendly method has been widely used for the assessment of many kinds of solid samples, such as sediment, soil, compost, and sewage sludge. There are two endpoints for this method: mortality and growth inhibition. Currently, there is no standard toxicity threshold established for the endpoint of growth inhibition. However, there is evidence showing that the calcite saturation state of the overlying water, which might be different among various samples, influences the growth and survival of H. incongruens. Thus, it is necessary to characterize the influence of the calcite saturation state to ensure that the test results are reliable and comparable among different samples. In the present study, we created artificial sediments comprised of quartz sand and 0-20% calcite particulates to manipulate the calcite saturation state in the overlying water and performed the test using H. incongruens for 6 d. The results show that a low calcite saturation state inhibited the growth of H. incongruens but had no effect on survival rate. The growth of ostracods was linearly related to the calcite saturation index of the overlying water. Additionally, a formula for artificial sediment consisting of 10% calcite and 90% quartz sand for the H. incongruens toxicity test was proposed. This study helps to distinguish H. incongruens growth inhibition caused by calcite saturation from that caused by toxicity.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Crustáceos/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Fenômenos Biológicos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Esgotos , Solo , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
4.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 468-470, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833317

RESUMO

This study describes shell-exchange behavior in the hermit-crab-like tanaidacean Macrolabrum sp. (Pagurapseudidae: Pagurapseudinae) under captive conditions. I observed one shell exchange by Macrolabrum sp., the behavioral sequence of which was as follows: a shell-carrying tanaidacean 1) grasped the edge of the aperture of an empty gastropod shell with its right cheliped; 2) inspected the condition inside the shell four times by inserting the anterior portion of its body into the shell; and 3) moved into the shell, posterior end (pleotelson) first. The elapsed time from the initial grasping of the empty shell to completing the move into it was 2 min 20 sec. In contrast to a Pagurapseudes tanaidacean and hermit crabs, the individual of Macrolabrum sp. did not examine the external surface of the shell during the single shell exchange observed.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto , Comportamento Animal , Crustáceos/fisiologia , Animais
5.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 511-520, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833322

RESUMO

To gain a better understanding of the effect of reproductive modes and swimming ability on ostracod distribution, we visited 111 randomly selected aquatic sites in Kirsehir province. A total of 35 ostracods were newly reported for the area. The number of species with and without swimming setae was not statistically different, but numbers of sexual species was significantly lower than parthenogenetics. Species without setae did not show a significant difference between sexual and parthenogenetic forms. Numbers of species with (out) setae were not significant among different elevational ranges. Distribution of parthenogenetic species was common in all 11 habitat types when sexual species were only found from three different types located from 690 to ca. 1400 m of elevational ranges. Numbers of parthenogenetic species with or without setae did not show a difference among the ranges, but sexual species without setae exhibited wider distributional ranges (690-1289 m) than species with swimming setae (690-1089 m). Species' co-occurrence revealed two positive, five negative, and 44 random pairs of co-occurrences. Wards cluster analyses portrayed three main clustering groups. While group I includes parthenogenetic and sexual species, group II covers mostly parthenogenetic species with and without setae. Group III consists of species without setae. CCA results displayed three environmental variables (water temperature, pH and elevation) effective on species distribution. Species distributed in all elevational ranges tend to show lower optimum and wider ecological tolerances. Parthenogenetic species with swimming setae and with relatively higher tolerance ranges were dominant over sexual species. The present results suggest that swimming mode has a greater effect on species distribution among the habitats than reproductive modes.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Natação/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Reprodução/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Turquia
6.
Zootaxa ; 4609(3): zootaxa.4609.3.3, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717093

RESUMO

During a survey of the deep-water fauna off western Mexico a large series of specimens of Gnathophausiidae was collected in a benthic sledge operating between 296 and 2136 m. Five species known to occur in the area were collected: Gnathophausia scapularis Ortmann, 1906, G. zoea Willemoes-Suhm, 1873, Neognathophausia gigas (Willemoes-Suhm, 1873), N. ingens (Dohrn, 1870), and Fagegnathophausia gracilis (Willemoes-Suhm, 1875). Additional distribution data are provided for these species in the area. A sixth species, G. childressi Casanova, 1996, previously known only from the type locality, off California, was also collected in three localities. Several external morphological characters in F. gracilis are analyzed according to individual size. The general and regional (off western Mexico) distributions of these six species is analyzed.


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Animais , California , México
7.
Zootaxa ; 4604(1): zootaxa.4604.1.4, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717203

RESUMO

Elpidium ostracods are known by their very particular niche (water accumulated in tank-bromeliads), their relatively low dispersal ability and their dependency on amphibians for dispersal and colonization of new bromeliads. All these characteristics make the genus an interesting group for evolutionary, ecological and even taxonomic studies. However, the diversity of the group remains poorly studied. Here, we describe three new species of Elpidium, Elpidium littlei n. sp., Elpidium heberti n. sp. and Elpidium wolfi n. sp., and re-describe Elpidium laesslei, all from Jamaica. These species are characterized by a copulatory process with separated ejaculatory duct and distal glans, a feature so far unique within the genus. Each species can, in turn, be diagnosed by soft part and carapace morphology, most notably comparing hemipenis, valve ornamentation and degree of sexual dimorphism. The observed morphological diversity of Elpidium is discussed in relation to previous genetic estimates that suggested an even higher diversity in Jamaica. We point to intraspecific variation and lack of complete morphological descriptions as possible explanations. We also reaffirm the need of multidisciplinary studies in order to do more objective and secure taxonomic classifications in future studies.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Crustáceos , Animais , Ecologia , Jamaica , Caracteres Sexuais
8.
Zootaxa ; 4695(4): zootaxa.4695.4.5, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719343

RESUMO

The article deals with the report of 5 suctorians viz. Lecanophryella satyanandani (Santhakumari, 1986), Paracineta karunakarani Santhakumari, 1986, Ephelota gemmipara (Hertwig, 1876), Acineta foetida Maupas, 1881 and Pelagacineta sp. on marine pelagic ostracods Cypridina dentata (Müller, 1906) from new localities of the Arabian Sea. Diagnostic characters of Paracineta karunakarani are emended. Ephelota gemmipara (Hertwig, 1876) and Acineta foetida Maupas, 1881 are reported here for the first time on planktonic marine ostracods. Pelagacineta sp. is reported for the first time as epibiont on ostracods and from the Indian Ocean.


Assuntos
Cilióforos , Crustáceos , Animais , Oceano Índico , Plâncton
9.
Zootaxa ; 4691(2): zootaxa.4691.2.2, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719401

RESUMO

The invasive species of the genus Bythotrephes introduced in the North American lakes in 1970s-early 1980s was named variously either B. cederstroemi or B. longimanus. The investigation of individuals of the genus from 15 Canadian lakes has allowed us to identify all of them as B. cederströmii Schödler, based on the detailed taxonomic redescription of the Eurasian representatives of the species. The available documented data (figures and photographs) on Bythotrephes from other North American lakes, made it possible to recognize their identity with this species as well. The possible introduction of interspecific hybrids of the genus Bythotrephes in the North American lakes has not been confirmed.


Assuntos
Cladóceros , Animais , Canadá , Crustáceos , Espécies Introduzidas , Lagos , Estados Unidos
10.
Zootaxa ; 4688(3): zootaxa.4688.3.11, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719445

RESUMO

The Andaman and Nicobar group of islands (11.7401°N, 92.6586°E) are surrounded by the Bay of Bengal to the west and Andaman Sea to the east. The species reported in this paper belongs to the superfamily Gonodactyloidea, which are generally "smashers", i.e. the dactylus of their raptorial appendage is greatly inflated at the base and used to break open hard-bodied prey (Ahyong 1997). Most smashers live in rock and coral cavities and have a heavily armoured telson for defensive and offensive purposes (Caldwell Dingle 1975). Studies on the family Gonodactylidae from these islands have been limited and few have been reported so far (Jayabarathi et al. 2013; Kumaralingam Raghunathan 2016; Kumaralingam et al. 2017). Recent field studies in the Andaman Islands collected a specimen of the Gonodactylus smithii, reported herein.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Crustáceos , Animais , Índia , Ilhas
11.
Zootaxa ; 4629(3): zootaxa.4629.3.9, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712514

RESUMO

This study describes a new genus and new species of Tanaidacea that was collected from inside the tests of dead Tetraclita barnacles in Singapore. Xenosinelobus n. gen. is most similar to Sinelobus but can be distinguished by the (1) unusually short antennal fifth article, (2) tooth-like lacinia mobilis on right mandible, (3) long terminal seta on epignath, (4) plumose inner seta near dactylus insertion on cheliped propodus, (5) spiniform seta on pereopod 1 coxa, (6) presence of setae on inner margins of pereopod 1 propodus and dactylus, (7) claw-like terminal articles on pereopods 2 and 3, (8) row of setulose and flattened denticulate setae along distal margin of pereopod 6 propodus, (9) dorsal seta on claws of pereopods 4-6, (10) complete row of dorso-transverse setae on pleonites 1 and 2, (11) one seta on pleopod basis outer margin, (12) two or three setae on pleopod endopod inner margin and (13) three-articled uropod with final article 1.6 times as long as preceding article. A new diagnosis and key to genera is provided for the subfamily Sinelobinae.


Assuntos
Thoracica , Animais , Crustáceos , Mandíbula , Singapura
12.
Zootaxa ; 4577(2): zootaxa.4577.2.9, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715728

RESUMO

Neognathophausia ingens (Dohrn, 1870) is a bathypelagic crustacean distributed worldwide. In the western Atlantic it has been recorded off the La Plata region, Argentina, and off the coast of Brazil, from the state of Bahia to Rio de Janeiro. We provide new records of N. ingens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, about 1188 km south of its previous distribution limit off Brazil, filling the gap between the central West Atlantic and Argentina. Five specimens were analyzed and drawings for all body regions and appendages are presented. Mandible, thoracopods 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8 and pleopods are illustrated and described for the first time. An updated synonym list and a distribution map for this species in Brazil are provided.


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Gambás , Animais , Argentina , Brasil
13.
Zootaxa ; 4573(1): zootaxa.4573.1.1, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715787

RESUMO

Ostracods from the Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene Pirabas Formation, Northeastern Amazonia, Pará State, Brazil were examined from one subsurface and four outcrop sections. A total of 119 species were recognized and are illustrated; another 53 species were left in open nomenclature. Twenty-seven of the species are common to the Neogene of Caribbean, another two species are known from areas other than the Caribbean, and one species was already described from the studied unit. This study provides a robust taxonomic database for paleoenvironmental, biostratigraphic and paleogeographic studies and contributes to the knowledge of the paleodiversity of Neogene Ostracods from the Southwestern Atlantic.


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Animais , Brasil , Região do Caribe
14.
Zootaxa ; 4572(1): zootaxa.4572.1.1, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715788

RESUMO

In total 36 species were identified, from the abyssal of the Vema Fracture Zone in the tropical northern Atlantic and the Puerto Rico Trench, including ten new species. The new species are Chalarostylis erebos n. sp., Chalarostylis nyx n. sp. (Lampropidae), Bathycuma sonneae n. sp. (Bodotriidae), Leucon (Crymoleucn) fracturensis n. sp., Leucon (Crymoleucon) marinae n. sp., Leucon (Macrauloleucon) longiserratus n. sp., Leucon (Macrauloleucon) breviserratus n. sp. (Leuconidae), Atlantistylis paraborealis n.sp., Leptostylis abyssalis n. sp. and Leptostylis danieli n. sp. (Diastylidae).


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Porto Rico
15.
Zootaxa ; 4679(3): zootaxa.4679.3.2, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715945

RESUMO

Herein, two new bairdiid ostracod species in the western Pacific Coast of Japan, namely Neonesidea kamiyai sp. nov. and Bairdoppilata japonica sp. nov. are described. They are the fourth and first species described in their respective genus in Japan within the Recent Bairdiidae. The description of the two new species is based on scanning electron microscopic investigation of carapaces and on the analysis of anatomy and chaetotaxy of appendages. Scanning electron microscopy of the carapace and soft-part anatomy of appendages of the two new species provided the complete species description. An asymmetric brush-shaped organ, with the right part considerably larger than the left part, is found in both species; this characteristic is suggested to be synapomorphic for some taxa in the family Bairdiidae.


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Japão
16.
Zootaxa ; 4624(4): zootaxa.4624.4.4, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716198

RESUMO

Chelonocytherois omutai gen. et sp. nov., is found on the back of female loggerhead sea turtles on the nesting beach of the Yakushima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The present study provides the first species-level identification and description of Ostracoda as sea turtle epibionts. The new genus and species, which belongs to the family Paradoxostomatidae Brady and Norman, 1889, can clearly be distinguished from other genera by the morphology of the carapace and the appendages. Especially, the quite large sieve structure on the pore system of the carapace is characteristic to this genus. Although a similar structure is also found in the commensal ostracod genus Redekea de Vos, 1953, the new genus has distinctive mandibular and maxillular morphologies. From examination of the appendages, C. omutai gen. et sp. nov. seems to be an epibiotic species associated with sea turtles, but not a strictly commensal species. Additionally, the nearly complete 18S rRNA gene sequence is determined for C. omutai gen. et sp. nov. for future molecular phylogenetic studies. Since the sea turtles migrate across the oceans in their ontogenetic stages, they may play a role as a long-distance dispersal vector for C. omutai gen. et sp. nov.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Crustáceos , Feminino , Ilhas , Japão , Oceanos e Mares , Filogenia
17.
Zootaxa ; 4622(1): zootaxa.4622.1.1, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716284

RESUMO

The parasitic isopod family Cymothoidae Leach, 1818 of the India exclusive economic zone is reviewed. A total of 56 nominal species corresponding to 48 valid species belonging to sixteen genera are reviewed from 73 host species belonging to 35 families. Mothocya plagulophora (Haller, 1880), Nerocila depressa Milne Edwards, 1840, Nerocila loveni Bovallius, 1887, Nerocila trichiura (Miers, 1877), Norileca triangulata (Richardson, 1910) and Ryukyua globosa Williams Bunkley-Williams, 1994 are redescribed. Indusa pustulosa Pillai, 1954 is synonymised with Agarna malayi Tiwari, 1952; Cymothoa krishnai Jayadev Babu Sanjeeva Raj, 1984 is synonymised with Cymothoa eremita (Brünnich, 1783) and Nerocila priacanthusi Kumari, Rao Shyamasundari, 1987 is synonymised with Nerocila arres Bowman Tareen, 1983. Ourozeuktes bopyroides (Lesueur, 1814) is revised and excluded from the Indian fauna. The Indian cymothoid species Agarna bengalensis Kumari, Rao Shaymasundari, 1990, Cymothoa asymmetrica Pillai, 1954 and Nerocila hemirhamphusi Shyamasundari, Rao Kumari, 1990 are regarded here as species inquirenda. A key to the Indian genera of the family Cymothoidae and keys to the Indian species of the genera Cymothoa, Joryma, Mothocya, and Nerocila are presented. A checklist of the valid Cymothoidae species until now reported from Indian marine fishes are compiled. Host preferences, morphological variability and distribution are discussed.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Parasitos , Animais , Crustáceos , Peixes , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Índia
18.
Zootaxa ; 4565(3): zootaxa.4565.3.2, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716462

RESUMO

Indobathynella socrates n. sp. is described from Karaiguda Cave in the Visakhapatnam District of Andhra Pradesh state, south-eastern India. This is the first cavernicolous species of Indobathynella, which is incidentally the most reduced genus in the family Bathynellidae as a whole. The type species of this genus, Indobathynella prehensilis, is from a farm bore. The new species fulfils all the principal generic criteria of Indobathynella, but is distinctly different from I. prehensilis in several essential features: absence of subapical seta on antennary exopod; 4 claws on distal maxillulary endite; 6 teeth on mandibular gnathobase, and uropodal exopod without ventro-medial seta. These and all other salient differences between the two species are tabulated. Besides providing brief notes on conservation and biogeography of the new species, a key to all the known Indian taxa of Bathynellidae is given for the first time.


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Animais , Índia
19.
Zootaxa ; 4565(2): zootaxa.4565.2.10, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716483

RESUMO

Entocythere cambaria was described by William S. Marshall in 1903 as the first species in what would later become family Entocytheridae. Designated as the type species of Entocythere both by original designation and monotypy, E. cambaria is integral to understanding relationships within the genus. Yet, a type series for E. cambaria was not designated, and specimens used by Marshall to describe the species have since been deemed no longer extant. C.W. Hart Jr. and Dabney Hart assigned a neotype for E. cambaria in 1974, but this specimen was not catalogued into the Invertebrate Zoology Collection at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, and subsequently disappeared. A specimen, which we believe to be Hart and Hart's intended neotype, was recently discovered, giving us the opportunity to clarify the neotype designation of E. cambaria, and provide a complete description based on modern standards for podocopid ostracods. In addition, based on careful scrutiny of numerous specimens, including the types, we synonymize Entocythere illinoisensis with E. cambaria, and describe in full for the time the adult female of the species.


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Animais , Feminino , Museus
20.
Zootaxa ; 4564(1): zootaxa.4564.1.8, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716521

RESUMO

Previous information on the taxonomy and distribution of the crustacean order Tanaidacea occurring within the widely-dispersed Polynesian Archipelago has been limited to four nominal species, Apseudes rikiteanus Nobili, Apseudes seurati Nobili, Zeuxo seurati (Nobili) and Tanzanapseudes polynesiensis Müller. Based on specimens collected between 2009 and 2011 from coastal waters of Mo'orea Island (Society Islands, French Polynesia), two new metapseudid tanaidaceans, Apseudomorpha drummi and Cryptapseudes mamua, are described. Keys to the identification of species currently placed within the genera Apseudomorpha Gutu and Cryptapseudes Bacescu are provided.


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Animais , Ilhas , Polinésia
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