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1.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(6): 73-80, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472050

RESUMO

Chitinases and N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase (NAG) are important in molting and growth of crustaceans. In ostracods, the genes encoding these enzymes have not been characterized. The aim of the present study was to clone the genes encoding chitinase (DsChi) and NAG (DsNAG) from the ostracod, Dolerocypris sinensis, elucidate the phylogenetic relationships between the cloned genes and known chitinolytic enzymes, and determine the expression patterns of these genes at different stages of growth in the presence of an environmental pollutant. The genes were amplified from the genomic DNA of the organism using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The products from PCR were cloned and characterized with bioinformatics tools, and their expression patterns at different growth stages were determined using real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). Nine and five introns were identified in DsChi and DsNAG genes, respectively. When compared with protein sequences available in GenBank, chitinase from D. sinensis was most closely related to that of Macrobrachium nipponense (61 % homology). The NAG of D. sinensis was most closely related to that of Limulus polyphemus (55.6 % homology). Based on phylogenetic analysis of known chitinases from crustaceans and insects, the D. sinensis chitinase tightly clustered in the same branch with chitinases from species within the Malacostraca class. In contrast, NAG of D. sinensis was clustered with NAG from F. candida.The level of expression of DsChi mRNA was significantly higher than that of DsNAG throughout the period of growth (p < 0.05). Treatment of D. sinensis cells with fenoxycarb significantly downregulated the expressions of DsChi and DsNAG throughout the period of growth (p < 0.05). These results show that the protein products of DsChi and DsNAG possess remarkable biochemical properties characteristic of a chitinase and NAG, respectively.


Assuntos
Quitinases/genética , Crustáceos/enzimologia , Crustáceos/genética , Hexosaminidases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Quitinases/química , Clonagem Molecular , Crustáceos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma , Funções Verossimilhança , Fenilcarbamatos/farmacologia , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 580-588, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398395

RESUMO

Enveloped virus usually utilizes the receptor-mediated multiple endocytic routes to enter permissive host cells for successful infection. Cellular receptors are cell surface molecules, either by helping viral attachment to cell surface followed by internalization or by triggering antiviral immunity, participate in the viral-host interaction. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the most lethally viral pathogen with envelope and double strand DNA genome in crustacean farming, including shrimp and crayfish, has been recently found to recruit various endocytic routes for cellular entry into host cells. Meanwhile, other than the typical pattern recognition receptors for recognition of WSSV, more and more putative cellular receptors have lately been characterized to facilitate or inhibit WSSV entry. In this review, recent findings on the endocytosis-dependent WSSV entry, viral entry mediated by putative cellular receptors, the molecular interplay between WSSV and cellular receptors, and the following anti-WSSV immunity are summarized and discussed, which may provide us a better understanding of the WSSV pathogenesis and further possible antiviral control of white spot disease in crustacean farming.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/genética , Crustáceos/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Internalização do Vírus
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 135: 734-744, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152835

RESUMO

The mt genome of T. granarius (15.121 bp), containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) and one control region, present the typical pattern of phyllopod mt genomes from the perspective of gene content and order. All PCGs initiate with standard start codon of ATN and share the complete stop codon of TAA or TAG, whereas nd1 initiates with GTG, nd2 terminates with AGA and nd4 terminates with a single T. The secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS comprise of 48 helices and 32 helices, respectively. The patterns of evolutionary rate heterogeneity were observed at different levels in Triops. Phylogenetic analyses were performed based on the nucleotide sequences and amino acid sequences showed that Asian T. granarius was a sister group to (T. longicaudatus + T. australiensis), and T. cancriformis was the basal clade of Triops. Furthermore, we investigated the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of different T. granarius s.l. populations. Ten phylogenetic lineages are separated on species level by mean maximum likelihood distance ≥ 12.2% in the cox1 gene. While the six populations occurring in Inner Mongolia of China, Mongolia and Russia, investigated for haplotypes belonged to the same haplotype networks.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Códon/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634154

RESUMO

To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the initial differentiation and formation of papillae in sea cucumbers, the transcriptomes of Apostichopus japonicus pentactulae (without papillae) were compared to those of A. japonicus juveniles (with papillae). From the RNA of the three pentactula libraries and the three juvenile libraries, we obtained 41-46 million raw reads, yielding 39-45 million clean reads. From these, we generated 599,673 transcripts and identified 230,604 unigenes. Across all six transcriptomes, we identified 246,207 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 80,455 single sequence repeats (SSRs). There were more transition SNPs (60.74%) than transversion SNPs (39.26%). The mononucleotide repeat was the most abundant SSR motif. We identified 7965 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) in the juveniles and the pentactulae; 2421 DEGs were expressed only in the juveniles, and 1238 were expressed only in the pentactulae. Of all DEGs, 5215 were significantly upregulated and 2750 were significantly downregulated in the juveniles as compared to the pentactulae. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses indicated that the DEGs were primarily enriched in ribosome synthesis, cell proliferation, tight junction formation, collagen fibrillogenesis, and neurogenesis.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Crustáceos/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Maturidade Sexual/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Crustáceos/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
6.
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal ; 30(1): 118-125, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671658

RESUMO

Ostracods (Crustacea, Ostracoda) are small bivalved crustaceans, contributing over 200 described species to the marine zooplankton community. They are widely distributed and are relatively abundant components of the mesozooplankton, playing an important role in the transport of organic matter to deep layers. However, identification of ostracods based on micro-morphological characters is extremely difficult and time-consuming. Previous fragmentary taxonomic studies of ostracods in the South China Sea (SCA), were based solely on morphology. Here, by analysing the mitochondrial COI gene, we explore the taxa across the SCA using molecular tools for the first time. Our results show that sequence divergence among species varies within a large range, from 12.93% to 35.82%. Sixteen of the taxonomic units recovered by DNA taxonomy agree well with morphology, but Paraconchoecia oblonga, Conchoecia magna and Halocypris brevirostris split into two clades each, each of which contains cryptic species.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Crustáceos/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Filogenia , Zooplâncton/genética , Animais , Crustáceos/classificação , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/normas , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Zooplâncton/classificação
7.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(1): e1800451, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394674

RESUMO

Omaezallene derivatives (nor-bromoallene, nor-bromodiene, and bromoenynes) were successfully synthesized. Their antifouling activity and toxicity to the cypris larvae of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite and ecotoxicity to the marine crustacean Tigriopus japonicus were studied. It was revealed that the two side chains of omaezallene were essential to its antifouling activity because the activities of nor-bromoallene and nor-bromodiene were significantly diminished. The bromoenyne was found to exhibit potent antifouling activities comparable to omaezallene with low toxicity and ecotoxicity. Preparation of bromoenyne framework is much easier than that of bromodiene moiety in omaezallene. Based on the antifouling activities of the bromoenynes, the synthesis of fluorescent probes and evaluation of their biological activities were also carried out.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/síntese química , Thoracica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Crustáceos/genética , Desenho de Drogas , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacologia , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/química , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Espectral/métodos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Thoracica/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 130: 406-415, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244151

RESUMO

Endosymbiotic bacteria are known from many metazoan taxa, where they manipulate host biology and reproduction. Here, we used classic PCR amplification and direct DNA sequencing with universal primers for four different endosymbionts to test for their presence in more than 300 specimens of three recent non-marine ostracod superfamilies from different geographic areas and aquatic habitats. We verified these results with "high throughput" amplicon sequencing of 16S of nine selected specimens and evolutionary placement algorithms. The phylogenetic position of endosymbionts detected in ostracod hosts was compared to known endosymbionts from other metazoans. While Wolbachia, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia are absent, we find evidence for the general presence of Cardinium bacteria in natural populations of various non-marine ostracod species. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on Cardinium 16S data and estimates of genetic distances both indicate that Cardinium from ostracods are distantly related to Cardinium from Diptera and Nematoda but represent novel strains with a monophyletic origin. Cardinium bacteria from different ostracod hosts have genetic distances of up to 3.8%, providing evidence against recent and frequent horizontal transmissions amongst the three ostracod superfamilies. High throughput sequencing reveals more than 400 different 16S amplicon sequence variants in the investigated ostracods as well as the presence of different Cardinium strains within individual Eucypris virens and Heterocypris hosts. These results call for future, more in-depth investigations. Mapping Cardinium infections on COI trees of non-marine ostracod hosts shows that the occurrence of these endosymbionts is not linked to genetic species identity or phylogenetic host groups and, except for one ostracod morphospecies, prevalence never reaches 100%.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/microbiologia , Bacteroidetes/fisiologia , Crustáceos/microbiologia , Animais , Bacteroidetes/genética , Sequência de Bases , Crustáceos/genética , Dípteros/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Simbiose
9.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 19(1): 235-244, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288922

RESUMO

Crustaceans of the order Notostraca (Branchiopoda) are distributed worldwide and are known for the remarkable morphological stasis between their extant and Permian fossil species. Moreover, these crustaceans show relevant ecological traits and a wide range of reproductive strategies. However, genomic studies on notostracans are fairly limited. Here, we present the genome sequences of two notostracan taxa, Lepidurus arcticus and Lepidurus apus lubbocki. Taking advantage of the small genome sizes (~0.11 pg) of these taxa, genomes were sequenced for one individual per species with one run on the Illumina HiSeq X platform. We finally assembled 73.2 Mbp (L. arcticus) and 90.3 Mbp (L. apus lubbocki) long genomes. Assemblies cover up to 84% of the estimated genome size, with a gene completeness >97% for both genomes. In total, 13%-16% of the assembled genomes consist of repeats, and based on read mapping, L. apus lubbocki shows a significantly lower transposable element content than L. arcticus. The analysis of 2,376 orthologous genes indicates an ~7% divergence between the two Lepidurus taxa, with a nucleotide substitution rate significantly lower than that of Daphnia taxa. Ka /Ks analysis suggests purifying selection in both branchiopod lineages, raising the question of whether the low substitution rate of Lepidurus is correlated with morphological conservation or is linked to specific biological traits. Our analysis demonstrates that, in these organisms, it is possible to obtain high-quality draft genomes from single individuals with a relatively low sequencing effort. This result makes Lepidurus and Notostraca interesting models for genomic studies at taxonomic, ecological and evolutionary levels.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/genética , Genoma , Larva/genética , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54(2): 199-206, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180292

RESUMO

Effect of long-term selection for improved growth on reproductive performance of giant freshwater prawn (GFP) Macrobrachium rosenbergii has not been reported in the literature. The present study aimed to measure correlated responses in reproductive traits and to estimate genetic parameters for these characters in a GFP population selected for high growth over ten generations from 2007 to 2016. A total of 959 breeding females (offspring of 515 sires and 810 dams) had measurements for seven reproductive traits (weight before spawn WBS; weight after spawn WAS; Fecundity FEC or number of larvae per female at hatching; first age to reach post-larvae PLAGE; zoea (e) weight ZOEAWT; larval survival during hatchery phase SURV1 and survival from PL to tagging SURV2. The restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and mixed model analysis were used to estimate genetic parameters and evaluate selection responses for the seven traits studied. Our REML analysis showed that heritability for these traits ranged from 0.04 to 0.42 (SE: 0.19-0.28). Female body weight either before or after spawning had strong positive phenotypic correlations with fecundity (0.52-0.98). By contrast, the phenotypic correlations of WBS/WAS with larval and fry survivals were not significant (-0.08-0.05). Genetic correlations among fecundity-related traits studied were not different from zero due to their high standard errors. Correlated responses in reproductive traits were measured by comparing least squares means of the selection line and control group. Females of the selected line for high growth had significantly greater weight before or after spawning than that of the control group. There were, however, no statistical differences between the two lines in the other traits. It is concluded that selection for high growth did not have detrimental impact on reproductive performance of breeding females in the present population of GFP.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Cruzamento/métodos , Crustáceos/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal , Crustáceos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Fertilidade , Água Doce , Reprodução/genética , Ganho de Peso
11.
Mol Ecol ; 28(5): 998-1008, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592346

RESUMO

Diapause is a feature of the life cycle of many invertebrates by which unfavourable environmental conditions can be outlived. The seasonal timing of diapause allows organisms to adapt to seasonal changes in habitat suitability and thus is key to their fitness. In the planktonic crustacean Daphnia, various cues can induce the production of diapause stages that are resistant to heat, drought or freezing and contain one to two embryos in developmental arrest. Daphnia is a keystone species of many freshwater ecosystems, where it acts as the main link between phytoplankton and higher trophic levels. The correct seasonal timing of diapause termination is essential to maintain trophic interactions and is achieved via a genetically based interpretation of environmental cues like photoperiod and temperature. Field monitoring and modelling studies raised concerns on whether populations can advance their seasonal release from diapause to advances in spring phenology under global change, or if a failure to adapt will cause trophic mismatches negatively affecting ecosystem functioning. Our capacity to understand and predict the evolution of diapause timing requires information about the genetic architecture underlying this trait. In this study, we identified eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and four epistatic interactions that together explained 66.5% of the variation in diapause termination in Daphnia magna using QTL mapping. Our results suggest that the most significant QTL is modulating diapause termination dependent on photoperiod and is involved in three of the four detected epistatic interactions. Candidate genes at this QTL could be identified through the integration with genome data and included the presynaptic active zone protein bruchpilot. Our findings contribute to understanding the genomic control of seasonal diapause timing in an ecological relevant species.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/genética , Ecossistema , Plâncton/genética , Animais , Daphnia/genética , Daphnia/fisiologia , Diapausa/genética , Diapausa/fisiologia , Água Doce , Fotoperíodo , Fitoplâncton/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Estações do Ano
12.
J Therm Biol ; 78: 140-150, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509630

RESUMO

In intertidal marine crustaceans, phenotypic variation in physiological and life-history traits is pervasive along latitudinal clines. However, organisms have complex phenotypes, and their traits do not vary independently but rather interact differentially between them, effect that is caused by genetic and/or environmental forces. We evaluated the geographic variation in phenotypic integration of three marine crab species that inhabit different vertical thermal microhabitats of the intertidal zone. We studied seven populations of each species along a latitudinal gradient that spans more than 3000 km of the Chilean coast. Specifically we measured nine physiological traits that are highly related to thermal physiology. Of the nine traits, we selected four that contributed significantly to the observed geographical variation among populations; this variation was then evaluated using mixed linear models and an integrative approach employing machine learning. The results indicate that patterns of physiological variation depend on species vertical microhabitat, which may be subject to chronic or acute environmental variation. The species that inhabit the high- intertidal sites (i.e., exposed to chronic variation) better tolerated thermal stress compared with populations that inhabit the lower intertidal. While those in the low-intertidal only face conditions of acute thermal variation, using to a greater extent the plasticity to face these events. Our main results reflect that (1) species that inhabit the high-intertidal maintain a greater integration between their physiological traits and present lower plasticity than those that inhabit the low-intertidal. (2) Inverse relationship that exists between phenotypic plasticity and phenotypic integration of the physiological traits identified, which could help optimize energy resources. In general, the study of multiple physiological traits provides a more accurate picture of how the thermal traits of organisms vary along temperature gradients especially when exposed to conditions close to tolerance limits.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Temperatura Corporal , Crustáceos/fisiologia , Ecótipo , Animais , Crustáceos/genética , Aprendizado de Máquina
14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15225, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323236

RESUMO

Gene expression profiling via RT-qPCR is a robust technique increasingly used in ecotoxicology. Determination and validation of optimal reference genes is a requirement for initiating RT-qPCR experiments. To our best knowledge, this study is the first attempt of identifying a set of reference genes for the freshwater crustacean Gammarus fossarum. Six candidate genes (Actin, TUB, UB, SDH, Clathrin and GAPDH) were tested in order to determine the most stable ones in different stress conditions and to increase the robustness of RT-qPCR data. SDH and Clathrin appeared as the most stable ones. A validation was performed using G. fossarum samples exposed for 15 days to AgNO3, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) 40 nm and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) 40 nm. Effects on HSP90 were evaluated and data normalized using Clathrin and SDH. A down-regulation of HSP90 was observed when G. fossarum were exposed to AuNPs 40 nm whereas no effects were observed when G. fossarum were exposed to AgNPs 40 nm. This study highlights the importance of the preliminary determination of suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR experiments. Additionally, this study allowed, for the first time, the determination of a set of valuable genes that can be used in other RT-qPCR studies using G. fossarum as model organism.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/genética , Ecotoxicologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , Crustáceos/efeitos dos fármacos , Água Doce , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Padrões de Referência , Prata/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Glycoconj J ; 35(6): 537-545, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324318

RESUMO

Acidic polysaccharides are attractive functional ingredients in shellfish which are consumed as delicious and nutritious foods world widely. In the present study, acidic polysaccharides from 21 species of edible shellfish were characterized and quantified by analyzing their repeated disaccharides using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode of triple quadrupole mass spectrometer upon acid degradation and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization. A total of 6 glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and 8 non-GAGs with repeated disaccharide units of a hexuronic acid linked to a hexosamine or a hexose were detected. Among them, chondroitin sulfate, heparin, →4)-ß-GlcA-(1 → 2)-α-Man-(1 → and →3)- ß-GlcA-(1 → 3)-α-Gal-(1 → were identified unambiguously by comparing with the references. The quantification results revealed that the contents of these polysaccharide varied greatly among shellfish species with a maximum over 100 mg/100 g. Furthermore, the dendrogram of hierarchical clustering analysis indicated that the composition of acidic polysaccharides in some shellfish species was related with the genetic relationship. Thus, the present study provides a more comprehensive knowledge about the distribution of acidic polysaccharides in various shellfish species.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/metabolismo , Hexosaminas/metabolismo , Hexoses/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Ácidos Urônicos/metabolismo , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Crustáceos/genética , Espectrometria de Massas , Filogenia
16.
Integr Comp Biol ; 58(3): 431-440, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107507

RESUMO

Euphilomedes carcharodonta ostracods exhibit sex-specific eye-loss, with females lacking image-forming compound eyes compared with males and related species. The standard assumption is that sexual dimorphism is driven by sexual selection. However, previous work in E. carcharodonta suggests that male eyes are used to evade predators in the male-specific ecological niche, and that male-eyes lack the resolution to search for females. In this study, we examine whether sexual selection or ecological selection drives the retention of male eyes. Ecological niche differentiation was hypothesized by Darwin (1871) to be an alternative selective force for sexual dimorphism either through food competition or through dimorphic sex-role behavior, the reproductive role hypothesis. As of yet, there is little experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis. Here, we experimentally blindfold male E. carcharodonta to mimic the female phenotype and examine the effects on sex-specific niches and behavior. Blindfolding does not appear to grossly change male behavior, nor do females behave differently when exposed to blindfolded males. This lead us to conclude that the development of complex eyes in male E. arises from ecological selection rather than sexual selection.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Crustáceos/fisiologia , Olho , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Animais , Crustáceos/embriologia , Crustáceos/genética , Crustáceos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Olho/embriologia , Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Seleção Genética , Caracteres Sexuais
17.
Genes Genomics ; 40(9): 1001-1009, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155712

RESUMO

The genetic relationships of mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria between the coastal waters of China and Japan were not well studied. To reveal the genetic differentiation and genetic structure among populations, we collected populations of mantis shrimp O. oratoria from the coastal waters of China and Japan to analyze the mtDNA control region variation. A total of 309 individuals of O. oratoria were collected from 13 localities (11 from China and 2 from Japan) and a segment of mitochondrial DNA control region was sequenced. Three hundred nine haplotypes were defined, yielding a very high haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity. Two lineages of O. oratoria were revealed and displayed strong differences in the geographical distribution. In the coastal waters of China, the geographic distribution of the two lineages was completely separated by the Yangtze River estuary; however, the lineages showed geographic sympatry in two populations from Japan. Based on the lineage distribution, three groups were defined. There was no significant genetic differentiation among the populations within the three groups, indicating high gene flow within each group. Significant and negative values for Tajima D and Fu's Fs tests, and mismatch distributions for two lineages indicated population expansion. The present result confirmed that the freshwater outflow from the Yangtze River formed a physical barrier and affected gene exchange. The different distribution patterns of the two lineages in coastal waters of China and Japan indicated that the larvae of O. oratoria were transferred from China to the coastal waters of Japan with a one-way gene flow.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/classificação , Crustáceos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição , Animais , China , Água Doce , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Japão , Filogeografia
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 285(1885)2018 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135168

RESUMO

Understanding the evolution of Tetraconata or Pancrustacea-the clade that includes crustaceans and insects-requires a well-resolved hypothesis regarding the relationships within and among its constituent taxa. Here, we assembled a taxon-rich phylogenomic dataset focusing on crustacean lineages based solely on genomes and new-generation Illumina-generated transcriptomes, including 89 representatives of Tetraconata. This constitutes, to our knowledge, the first phylogenomic study specifically addressing internal relationships of Malacostraca (with 26 species included) and Branchiopoda (36 species). Seven matrices comprising 81-684 orthogroups and 17 690-242 530 amino acid positions were assembled and analysed under five different analytical approaches. To maximize gene occupancy and to improve resolution, taxon-specific matrices were designed for Malacostraca and Branchiopoda. Key tetraconatan taxa (i.e. Oligostraca, Multicrustacea, Branchiopoda, Malacostraca, Thecostraca, Copepoda and Hexapoda) were monophyletic and well supported. Within Branchiopoda, Phyllopoda, Diplostraca, Cladoceromorpha and Cladocera were monophyletic. Within Malacostraca, the clades Eumalacostraca, Decapoda and Reptantia were well supported. Recovery of Caridoida or Peracarida was highly dependent on the analysis for the complete matrix, but it was consistently monophyletic in the malacostracan-specific matrices. From such examples, we demonstrate that taxon-specific matrices and particular evolutionary models and analytical methods, namely CAT-GTR and Dayhoff recoding, outperform other approaches in resolving certain recalcitrant nodes in phylogenomic analyses.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/análise , Crustáceos/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
19.
Results Probl Cell Differ ; 65: 91-101, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30083917

RESUMO

Monosex refers to the culture of either all-male or all-female populations, a sought after approach in aquaculture. This chapter reviews the advantages of monosex population culture and details the mechanisms to achieve it based on different modes of sex determination and sexual differentiation. A recent case study for an aquaculture biotechnology based on sexual manipulation in crustaceans serves in this chapter to identify the key elements for a successful application. This application which makes use of RNA interference with a key regulating hormone opens the pathway toward environmentally friendly applications in fish and additional aquacultured species. This chapter portrays the state of the art in sexual manipulations in aquacultured species, starting with vertebrate species, followed by the case study of the crustacean species and discussion on how the techniques used in this study are applicable for other species.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/métodos , Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Crustáceos/genética , Crustáceos/fisiologia , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Masculino , Interferência de RNA , Diferenciação Sexual/genética
20.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 268: 34-39, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055146

RESUMO

The Insulin-like Receptors (IRs) are an important protein family, represented by three members in vertebrates, two of which are well-known for their implication in metabolism (Insulin Receptor) and growth (IGF Receptor). In contrast, little is known about these receptors in invertebrates, in which a single gene generally exists except for a part of insects and other occasional species-specific duplications. In this study, we used publicly available sequences as well as de novo assembled transcriptomes to investigate the IR evolution in malacostracan crustaceans, animals in which the Insulin/IGF pathway is known to be implicated in sexual development through the androgenic gland hormone. We described the evolutionary divergence of malacostracan IRs compared to all the other metazoan sequences, including other pancrustaceans. We also demonstrated two well conserved duplications of IRs: one specific to the whole malacostracan class, another one specific to the decapod order. The potential implications for malacostracan biology are discussed.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Receptor de Insulina/genética , Vertebrados/genética , Animais , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Sexual
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