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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15989, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994529

RESUMO

In many species, excitable cells preserve their physiological properties despite significant variation in physical size across time and in a population. For example, neurons in crustacean central pattern generators generate similar firing patterns despite several-fold increases in size between juveniles and adults. This presents a biophysical problem because the electrical properties of cells are highly sensitive to membrane area and channel density. It is not known whether specific mechanisms exist to sense membrane area and adjust channel expression to keep a consistent channel density, or whether regulation mechanisms that sense activity alone are capable of compensating cell size. We show that destabilising effects of growth can be specifically compensated by feedback mechanism that senses average calcium influx and jointly regulate multiple conductances. However, we further show that this class of growth-compensating regulation schemes is necessarily sensitive to perturbations that alter the expression of subsets of ion channel types. Targeted perturbations of specific ion channels can trigger a pathological response of the regulation mechanism and a failure of homeostasis. Our findings suggest that physiological regulation mechanisms that confer robustness to growth may be specifically vulnerable to deletions or mutations that affect subsets of ion channels.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/genética , Canais Iônicos/genética , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Tamanho Celular , Crustáceos/metabolismo , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Deleção de Genes , Homeostase , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos
2.
J Food Sci ; 85(10): 3638-3643, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856293

RESUMO

Shrimps cause a significant part of crustacea-related allergies. It is used in processed foods, including fermented Korean foods, such as kimchi. Even low amounts of shrimp allergens can provoke reactions in consumers allergic to shrimp. Accurate food labeling is the most effective means of preventing the consumption of allergenic ingredients. To validate labeling compliance and minimize the risk of cross-contaminations, the effectiveness of methodologies used for the detection of allergens in foods should be compared. Here, seven commercial kits, based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), were assessed for their ability to detect the presence of shrimp allergens in food. Our results showed that SureFood real-time PCR kit and Ridascreen ELISA kit had the highest recovery, whereas five other kits underperformed in the determination of allergen content of kimchi and its ingredients. The variation in recovery among the kits depended on the limit of detection and reactivity to the shrimp allergens, tropomyosin, and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research confirms the performance of commercial kits to detect the presence of shrimp allergens in kimchi, and demonstrates that the sensitivity of these kits depends on reactivity to the specific shrimp allergenic proteins. These results can be used to food allergy labeling and can be applied by the food industry to develop allergen test kits for fermented foods with improved performance.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Crustáceos/genética , DNA/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Frutos do Mar/prevenção & controle , Verduras/química , Alérgenos/genética , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Crustáceos/química , Crustáceos/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/economia , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/economia , Hipersensibilidade a Frutos do Mar/imunologia , Verduras/imunologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10990, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620832

RESUMO

Stomatopods (Crustacea, Stomatopoda) are well studied for their aggressive behavior and unique visual system as well as their commercial importance in Asian and European countries. Like many crustaceans, stomatopods undergo indirect development, passing though several larval stages before reaching maturity. Adult stomatopods can be difficult to catch due to their inaccessible habitats and cryptic coloration. By sampling larvae from the planktonic community, less effort is required to obtain accurate measures of species richness within a region. Stomatopod larvae were collected between 2006 and 2015 from the waters around the Lizard Island reef platform in Eastern Australia. Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated from each larval sample and compared to a database of COI sequences tied to adult specimens. Of the 20 species collected from Lizard Island as adults which have COI data available, 18 species were identified from larval sampling. One additional species identified from larval samples, Busquilla plantei, was previously unknown from Lizard Island. Nine larval OTUs were found not to match any published adult sequences. Sampling larval stomatopod populations provides a comparable picture of the adult population to benthic sampling methods and may include species richness beyond what is measurable by sampling adult populations.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/classificação , Crustáceos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Austrália , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Crustáceos/genética , Ilhas , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Zoolog Sci ; 37(3): 240-254, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549538

RESUMO

Ostracod genus Heterodesmus Brady, 1866 is known thus far to contain only three species: H. adamsii Brady, 1866; H. apriculus Hiruta, 1992; and H. naviformis (Poulsen, 1962). This genus has been recorded from the Sea of Japan, and the coastal areas of Thailand and Vietnam. The main generic character is the presence of antero-dorsal and postero-dorsal tube-like processes on the rostrum on both valves. The three species mostly differ in the shell lateral projections. Their relationship and the position of Heterodesmus within family Cypridinidae are poorly understood, partly due to the lack of publication of DNA data so far. We study Heterodesmus collected from several localities in the Northwest Pacific, namely Tsushima and Iki Islands in Japan and Maemul Island in Korea. Besides morphological characters, we also use two mitochondrial markers (16S rRNA and mtCOI) and three nuclear regions (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and internal transcribed spacer - ITS) in the samples to detect the biodiversity of this genus. Our phylogenetic tree based on molecular data coupled with morphology reveals the presence of two species, H. adamsii and H. apriculus. We report on their morphological variability, molecular diversity, and phylogenetic position within Cypridinidae based on 16S, 28S and 18S rRNAs, and provide a taxonomic key for all living genera of this family. For the first time, we give an overview of the intrageneric and intrafamily DNA distances of the above markers for the entire subclass Myodocopa.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/anatomia & histologia , Crustáceos/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/análise , Biodiversidade , Crustáceos/classificação , Crustáceos/enzimologia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise , República Democrática Popular da Coreia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Feminino , Japão , Masculino , Proteínas Mitocondriais/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 28S/análise
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10443, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591605

RESUMO

Bioluminescence, or the production of light by living organisms via chemical reaction, is widespread across Metazoa. Laboratory culture of bioluminescent organisms from diverse taxonomic groups is important for determining the biosynthetic pathways of bioluminescent substrates, which may lead to new tools for biotechnology and biomedicine. Some bioluminescent groups may be cultured, including some cnidarians, ctenophores, and brittle stars, but those use luminescent substrates (luciferins) obtained from their diets, and therefore are not informative for determination of the biosynthetic pathways of the luciferins. Other groups, including terrestrial fireflies, do synthesize their own luciferin, but culturing them is difficult and the biosynthetic pathway for firefly luciferin remains unclear. An additional independent origin of endogenous bioluminescence is found within ostracods from the family Cypridinidae, which use their luminescence for defense and, in Caribbean species, for courtship displays. Here, we report the first complete life cycle of a luminous ostracod (Vargula tsujii Kornicker & Baker, 1977, the California Sea Firefly) in the laboratory. We also describe the late-stage embryogenesis of Vargula tsujii and discuss the size classes of instar development. We find embryogenesis in V. tsujii ranges from 25-38 days, and this species appears to have five instar stages, consistent with ontogeny in other cypridinid lineages. We estimate a complete life cycle at 3-4 months. We also present the first complete mitochondrial genome for Vargula tsujii. Bringing a luminous ostracod into laboratory culture sets the stage for many potential avenues of study, including learning the biosynthetic pathway of cypridinid luciferin and genomic manipulation of an autogenic bioluminescent system.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Crustáceos/metabolismo , Luminescência , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , California , Crustáceos/embriologia , Crustáceos/genética , Crustáceos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Genoma/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 102: 169-176, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325214

RESUMO

Crustacean species are considered as a major sector in the aquaculture industry that plays a fundamental role in the world's economy. However, with a wide range of various epidemic diseases in the industry, studies of immune-related genes such as toll-like receptor genes are of great importance. Recently, the TLR in crustacean species has been described to perform a vital role in defense of crustacean against the pathogens. Meanwhile, many TLR genes from crustacean were characterized, and their contribution discovered in innate immunity against several pathogens. This review was aimed to present an overview of the crustacean TLRs including structural features that contained three major domains: a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, a transmembrane area (TM), and a conserved region called Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The tissue distribution patterns of TLR genes, which act as a guide for future research on which TLR gene or genes that can be expressed, at which tissue or tissues. We also described recent works on the expression of the TLR gene that evaluated the immune function after pathogen stimulation in shrimp, crab, and crayfish. Furthermore, we recommended a prospective for future investigation plan that might contribute to the development and management systems in the global crustacean aquaculture industry. Lastly, we assumed that a clear understanding of the expression pattern and biological function of crustacean TLR genes could serve as a baseline for future immunological studies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Crustáceos/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Crustáceos/genética , Crustáceos/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
7.
Subcell Biochem ; 94: 63-80, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189296

RESUMO

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are a type of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) which show broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and viruses. In this chapter, we review the discovery and classification of this kind of antimicrobial peptide in crustaceans. The structure and function, as well as the mechanism of antibacterial and antiviral activities of ALFs will be summarized and discussed. We will then describe the expression and regulation of various ALF genes in different crustacean species. Finally, the application prospects of ALFs in drug development and disease-resistant genetic breeding will be pointed out and discussed. The review will also discuss several key questions such as the systematic classification and expression regulation of the ALF genes, as well as the future application of ALFs and ALF-derived peptides.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Artrópodes/farmacologia , Crustáceos , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Crustáceos/genética , Crustáceos/microbiologia , Crustáceos/virologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227587, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923275

RESUMO

Diffusing fluid at a deep-sea hydrothermal vent creates rapid, acute physico-chemical gradients that correlate strongly with the distribution of the vent fauna. Two alvinocaridid shrimps, Alvinocaris longirostris and Shinkaicaris leurokolos occupy distinct microhabitats around these vents and exhibit different thermal preferences. S. leurokolos inhabits the central area closer to the active chimney, while A. longirostris inhabits the peripheral area. In this study, we screened candidate genes that might be involved in niche separation and microhabitat adaptation through comparative transcriptomics. The results showed that among the top 20% of overexpressed genes, gene families related to protein synthesis and structural components were much more abundant in S. leurokolos compared to A. longirostris. Moreover, 15 out of 25 genes involved in cellular carbohydrate metabolism were related to trehalose biosynthesis, versus 1 out of 5 in A. longirostris. Trehalose, a non-reducing disaccharide, is a multifunctional molecule and has been proven to act as a protectant responsible for thermotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Putative positively selected genes involved in chitin metabolism and the immune system (lectin, serine protease and antimicrobial peptide) were enriched in S. leurokolos. In particular, one collagen and two serine proteases were found to have experienced strong positive selection. In addition, sulfotransferase-related genes were both overexpressed and positively selected in S. leurokolos. Finally, genes related to structural proteins, immune proteins and protectants were overexpressed or positively selected. These characteristics could represent adaptations of S. leurokolos to its microhabitat, which need to be confirmed by more evidence, such as data from large samples and different development stages of these alvinocaridid shrimps.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Decápodes/genética , Animais , Crustáceos/genética , Ecossistema , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Fontes Hidrotermais , Filogenia , Transcriptoma/genética
9.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 143: 106666, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669817

RESUMO

Since the 19th century, oceanic explorations have confirmed that the hadal zone (water depth > 6000 m) is not lifeless, but contains many fascinating organisms. Amongst them are the Mysida, which is a group of crustaceans found in many deep-sea trenches. Based on morphological observations and molecular phylogenetic analyses of an undescribed taxon within the subfamily Erythropinae, a new genus of deep-sea mysids, Xenomysis gen. n., is described from the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench. The new genus is not assigned to any of the tribes within the Erythropinae, as our analyses do not support the current classification scheme of Erythropinae. The result of a molecular-clock analysis with fossil calibration reveals that several groups of Mysida have independently colonized deep water habitats in different geological periods, from Triassic to Cretaceous. In addition, ancestral state reconstruction analyses indicate the degenerate eyes in both Mysidae and Petalophthalmidae is a result of parallel evolution, and the reduction of compound eyes to both "single fused eyeplate" and "two separate eyeplates" occurred multiple times independently in the evolution of Erythropinae.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/classificação , Animais , Crustáceos/anatomia & histologia , Crustáceos/genética , Ecossistema , Oceanos e Mares , Filogenia
10.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 142: 106643, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622741

RESUMO

Like other crustacean families, the Parabathynellidae is a poorly studied subterranean and aquatic (stygobiontic) group in Australia, with many regions of available habitat having not yet been surveyed. Here we used a combined approach of molecular species delimitation methods, applied to mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data, to identify putative new species from material obtained from remote subterranean habitats in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Based on collections from these new localities, we delineated a minimum of eight and up to 24 putative new species using a consensus from a range of molecular delineation methods and additional evidence. When we placed our new putative species into the broader phylogenetic framework of Australian Parabathynellidae, they grouped with two known genera and also within one new and distinct Pilbara-only clade. These new species significantly expand the known diversity of Parabathynellidae in that they represent a 22% increase to the 109 currently recognised species globally. Our investigations showed that sampling at new localities can yield extraordinary levels of new species diversity, with the majority of species showing likely restricted endemic geographical ranges. These findings represent only a small sample from a region comprising less than 2.5% of the Australian continent.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/classificação , Animais , Biodiversidade , Crustáceos/genética , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Austrália Ocidental
11.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226527, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841568

RESUMO

DNA-based identification through the use of metabarcoding has been proposed as the next step in the monitoring of biological communities, such as those assessed under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Advances have been made in the field of metabarcoding, but challenges remain when using complex samples. Uneven biomass distributions, preferential amplification and reference database deficiencies can all lead to discrepancies between morphological and DNA-based taxa lists. The effects of different taxonomic groups on these issues remain understudied. By metabarcoding WFD monitoring samples, we analyzed six different taxonomic groups of freshwater organisms, both separately and combined. Identifications based on metabarcoding data were compared directly to morphological assessments performed under the WFD. The diversity of taxa for both morphological and DNA-based assessments was similar, although large differences were observed in some samples. The overlap between the two taxon lists was 56.8% on average across all taxa, and was highest for Crustacea, Heteroptera, and Coleoptera, and lowest for Annelida and Mollusca. Taxonomic sorting in six basic groups before DNA extraction and amplification improved taxon recovery by 46.5%. The impact on ecological quality ratio (EQR) scoring was considerable when replacing morphology with DNA-based identifications, but there was a high correlation when only replacing a single taxonomic group with molecular data. Different taxonomic groups provide their own challenges and benefits. Some groups might benefit from a more consistent and robust method of identification. Others present difficulties in molecular processing, due to uneven biomass distributions, large genetic diversity or shortcomings of the reference database. Sorting samples into basic taxonomic groups that require little taxonomic knowledge greatly improves the recovery of taxa with metabarcoding. Current standards for EQR monitoring may not be easily replaced completely with molecular strategies, but the effectiveness of molecular methods opens up the way for a paradigm shift in biomonitoring.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos , Invertebrados/classificação , Invertebrados/genética , Animais , Anelídeos/classificação , Anelídeos/genética , Biodiversidade , Biota/genética , Crustáceos/classificação , Crustáceos/genética , DNA/análise , Bases de Dados Factuais , Água Doce/química , Moluscos/classificação , Moluscos/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Qualidade da Água/normas
12.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223624, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596891

RESUMO

Calibration of the molecular rate is one of the major challenges in marine population genetics. Although the use of an appropriate evolutionary rate is crucial in exploring population histories, calibration of the rate is always difficult because fossil records and geological events are rarely applicable for rate calibration. The acceleration of the evolutionary rate for recent coalescent events (or more simply, the time dependency of the molecular clock) is also a problem that can lead to overestimation of population parameters. Calibration of demographic transition (CDT) is a rate calibration technique that assumes a post-glacial demographic expansion, representing one of the most promising approaches for dealing with these potential problems in the rate calibration. Here, we demonstrate the importance of using an appropriate evolutionary rate, and the power of CDT, by using populations of the sandy beach amphipod Haustorioides japonicus along the Japanese coast of the northwestern Pacific Ocean. Analysis of mitochondrial sequences found that the most peripheral population in the Pacific coast of northeastern Honshu Island (Tohoku region) is genetically distinct from the other northwestern Pacific populations. By using the two-epoch demographic model and rate of temperature change, the evolutionary rate was modeled as a log-normal distribution with a median rate of 2.2%/My. The split-time of the Tohoku population was subsequently estimated to be during the previous interglacial period by using the rate distribution, which enables us to infer potential causes of the divergence between local populations along the continuous Pacific coast of Japan.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Fósseis , Genética Populacional/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Calibragem , Crustáceos/fisiologia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genética Populacional/normas
13.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(6): 73-80, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472050

RESUMO

Chitinases and N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase (NAG) are important in molting and growth of crustaceans. In ostracods, the genes encoding these enzymes have not been characterized. The aim of the present study was to clone the genes encoding chitinase (DsChi) and NAG (DsNAG) from the ostracod, Dolerocypris sinensis, elucidate the phylogenetic relationships between the cloned genes and known chitinolytic enzymes, and determine the expression patterns of these genes at different stages of growth in the presence of an environmental pollutant. The genes were amplified from the genomic DNA of the organism using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The products from PCR were cloned and characterized with bioinformatics tools, and their expression patterns at different growth stages were determined using real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). Nine and five introns were identified in DsChi and DsNAG genes, respectively. When compared with protein sequences available in GenBank, chitinase from D. sinensis was most closely related to that of Macrobrachium nipponense (61 % homology). The NAG of D. sinensis was most closely related to that of Limulus polyphemus (55.6 % homology). Based on phylogenetic analysis of known chitinases from crustaceans and insects, the D. sinensis chitinase tightly clustered in the same branch with chitinases from species within the Malacostraca class. In contrast, NAG of D. sinensis was clustered with NAG from F. candida.The level of expression of DsChi mRNA was significantly higher than that of DsNAG throughout the period of growth (p < 0.05). Treatment of D. sinensis cells with fenoxycarb significantly downregulated the expressions of DsChi and DsNAG throughout the period of growth (p < 0.05). These results show that the protein products of DsChi and DsNAG possess remarkable biochemical properties characteristic of a chitinase and NAG, respectively.


Assuntos
Quitinases/genética , Crustáceos/enzimologia , Crustáceos/genética , Hexosaminidases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Quitinases/química , Clonagem Molecular , Crustáceos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma , Funções Verossimilhança , Fenilcarbamatos/farmacologia , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222047, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525221

RESUMO

Globally, crustaceans represent one of the most taxonomically diverse and economically important invertebrate group. Notwithstanding, the diversity within this group is poorly known because most crustaceans are often associated with varied habits, forms, sizes and habitats; making species identification by conventional methods extremely challenging. In addition, progress towards understanding the diversity within this group especially in southern Africa has been severely hampered by the declining number of trained taxonomists, the presence of invasive alien species, over exploitation, etc. However, the advent of molecular techniques such as "DNA barcoding and Metabarcoding" can accelerate species identification and the discovery of new species. To contribute to the growing body of knowledge on crustacean diversity, we collected data from five southern African countries and used a DNA barcoding approach to build the first DNA barcode reference library for southern African crustaceans. We tested the reliability of this DNA barcode reference library to facilitate species identification using two approaches. We recovered high efficacy of specimen identification/discrimination; supported by both barcode gap and tree-base species identification methods. In addition, we identified alien invasive species and specimens with 'no ID" in our DNA barcode reference library. The later; highlighting specimens requiring (i) further investigation and/or (ii) the potential presence of cryptic diversity or (iii) misidentifications. This unique data set although with some sampling gaps presents many opportunities for exploring the effect and extent of invasive alien species, the role of the pet trade as a pathway for crustacean species introduction into novel environments, sea food authentication, phylogenetic relationships within the larger crustacean groupings and the discovery of new species.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/normas , Espécies Introduzidas , Filogenia , África Austral , Animais , Biodiversidade , Crustáceos/classificação , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419604

RESUMO

Low temperature reduction is thought to cause widespread effects on the physical and behavioral traits of marine organisms, which include metabolic processes, immune responses, and reproductive behavior. Crustaceans are generally considered sensitive to temperature reduction due to the lack of efficient regulators. To better understand the molecular regulatory mechanisms of crustacean exposure to cold stress, Japanese mantis shrimp (Oratosquilla oratoria) was chosen as a representative crustacean. Transcriptomic responses in O. oratoria from five temperatures (25 °C, 22 °C, 19 °C, 16 °C, and 13 °C) were studied using RNA-seq. A total of 64.91 Gb of clean transcriptomic data were generated in 10 libraries and then spliced into 52,107 unigenes with an average length of 1089 bp and an N50 length of 1872 bp. A total of 14,841 unigenes was annotated in at least one database using Blastx alignment. Compared with the control temperature (25 °C), 7, 21, 58, and 236 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed at 22 °C, 19 °C, 16 °C, and 13 °C, respectively. GO analysis showed that 6, 20, 27, and 35 terms were significantly enriched at 22 °C, 19 °C, 16 °C, and 13 °C, respectively. In addition, 2, 5, 2, and 10 significant pathways were presented at 22 °C, 19 °C, 16 °C, and 13 °C, respectively. Combining NR, GO, and KEGG annotation information, many genes significantly differentially expressed at low temperatures may be associated with metabolic processes, immune response, and reproductive behavior. Additionally, we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationship based on 366 orthologous genes and the predicted differentiation time of O. oratoria and P. vannamei range from 212.82 to 365.30 Mya. Furthermore, 16 orthologous genes were identified as PSGs and 30 orthologous genes were identified as FEGs and these adaptive genes were associated with energy metabolism, stress response and immunity, and multiple cellular processing. These results provide fundamental information about molecular mechanisms regulating cold stress response of O. oratoria.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Crustáceos/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Músculos/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Crustáceos/genética , Crustáceos/imunologia , Crustáceos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Filogenia , Reprodução
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 580-588, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398395

RESUMO

Enveloped virus usually utilizes the receptor-mediated multiple endocytic routes to enter permissive host cells for successful infection. Cellular receptors are cell surface molecules, either by helping viral attachment to cell surface followed by internalization or by triggering antiviral immunity, participate in the viral-host interaction. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the most lethally viral pathogen with envelope and double strand DNA genome in crustacean farming, including shrimp and crayfish, has been recently found to recruit various endocytic routes for cellular entry into host cells. Meanwhile, other than the typical pattern recognition receptors for recognition of WSSV, more and more putative cellular receptors have lately been characterized to facilitate or inhibit WSSV entry. In this review, recent findings on the endocytosis-dependent WSSV entry, viral entry mediated by putative cellular receptors, the molecular interplay between WSSV and cellular receptors, and the following anti-WSSV immunity are summarized and discussed, which may provide us a better understanding of the WSSV pathogenesis and further possible antiviral control of white spot disease in crustacean farming.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/genética , Crustáceos/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Internalização do Vírus
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 140: 1202-1213, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470058

RESUMO

Salinity fluctuation may detrimentally affect the composition and biological processes of crustaceans. As a euryhaline crustacean, Oratosquilla oratoria can survive at salinities ranging from 20 psu to 40 psu. Therefore, we designed five salinity gradients (20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 psu) and 66.39 Gb clean transcriptome data were obtained after O. oratorias were exposed to each gradient for 24 h. All clean data were spliced into 50,482 unigenes and 17,035 unigenes were annotated in at least one database. Compared with 30 psu, 1010, 851, 1733 and 2188 differentially expressed genes were obtained at 20, 25, 35 and 40 psu, respectively. Results also showed that the osmoregulation of O. oratoria is primarily regulated by lipid and amino acid metabolism, amongst others. No significant up-regulated pathways were enriched at 25 psu and 35 psu, although more significant down-regulated pathways were obtained at 35 psu. Therefore, we assumed that the optimum survival salinity of O. oratoria may range from 25 psu to 35 psu. However, 35 psu may be more suitable for O. oratoria. In addition, 55 unigenes that encode putative inorganic ion exchanges were identified. This study aims to provide fundamental information for understanding the osmoregulation mechanisms of crustaceans.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/genética , Salinidade , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Troca Iônica , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(8): 2055-2070, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270537

RESUMO

The relationships of crustaceans and hexapods (Pancrustacea) have been much discussed and partially elucidated following the emergence of phylogenomic data sets. However, major uncertainties still remain regarding the position of iconic taxa such as Branchiopoda, Copepoda, Remipedia, and Cephalocarida, and the sister group relationship of hexapods. We assembled the most taxon-rich phylogenomic pancrustacean data set to date and analyzed it using a variety of methodological approaches. We prioritized low levels of missing data and found that some clades were consistently recovered independently of the analytical approach used. These include, for example, Oligostraca and Altocrustacea. Substantial support was also found for Allotriocarida, with Remipedia as the sister of Hexapoda (i.e., Labiocarida), and Branchiopoda as the sister of Labiocarida, a clade that we name Athalassocarida (="nonmarine shrimps"). Within Allotriocarida, Cephalocarida was found as the sister of Athalassocarida. Finally, moderate support was found for Hexanauplia (Copepoda as sister to Thecostraca) in alliance with Malacostraca. Mapping key crustacean tagmosis patterns and developmental characters across the revised phylogeny suggests that the ancestral pancrustacean was relatively short-bodied, with extreme body elongation and anamorphic development emerging later in pancrustacean evolution.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/classificação , Crustáceos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Inseto , Genômica/métodos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Transcriptoma
19.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(5): 5185-5195, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309452

RESUMO

Internal Transcribed Spacer structures are important in preserving accessibility to specific enzymes for the maturation of rRNAs. ITS1 sequences reported in the literature in Crustaceans range between 182 and 820 bp and are characterized by the absence of repeats or the presence of only a limited number of microsatellites. Here, we sequenced ITS1 for a range of shrimp families (infraorder Caridea) and show that most taxa have much larger ITS1 sequences. We find a high number of microsatellites in Alpheus hebes and Crangon crangon and we report repeat units in Pandalidae, Palaemonidae and mainly in Alpheidae species. Up to four repeats were found in A. vanderbilti (1915 bp), A. rostratus (1635 bp) and A. lottini (1625 bp). In general, four helices were found in ITS1. Repeat units led to extra hairpins and loops. No conserved positions occurred except in helix 4. Three clades were defined in A. lottini for the first time. We estimated the ITS1 divergence rate for the three clades of A. lottini collected in French Polynesia using existing calibrations of substitution rates. Rates of sequence evolution are largely influenced by repeat units, which likely evolve separately. By comparison with COI marker, we estimated the divergence rate of the whole ITS1 sequence to range from 0.5 to 1.4% Pmy and between 0.12 and 0.5% for the 3' end of ITS1 located outside the repeat units. Given the degree of identity between repeats, we suggest that a duplication event recently occurred in A. floridanus (98% identity) whereas an ancient duplication happened in A. sulcatus (50% identity) early at the origination of the group Alpheidae, approximately 50 mya ago. In conclusion, our results highlight an over representation of shorter ITS1 sequences in public repositories, and underlines the importance to further understand patterns of molecular evolution of this functionally important gene.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Animais , Crustáceos/classificação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , Polinésia , RNA Ribossômico/química , RNA Ribossômico/genética
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 135: 734-744, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152835

RESUMO

The mt genome of T. granarius (15.121 bp), containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) and one control region, present the typical pattern of phyllopod mt genomes from the perspective of gene content and order. All PCGs initiate with standard start codon of ATN and share the complete stop codon of TAA or TAG, whereas nd1 initiates with GTG, nd2 terminates with AGA and nd4 terminates with a single T. The secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS comprise of 48 helices and 32 helices, respectively. The patterns of evolutionary rate heterogeneity were observed at different levels in Triops. Phylogenetic analyses were performed based on the nucleotide sequences and amino acid sequences showed that Asian T. granarius was a sister group to (T. longicaudatus + T. australiensis), and T. cancriformis was the basal clade of Triops. Furthermore, we investigated the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of different T. granarius s.l. populations. Ten phylogenetic lineages are separated on species level by mean maximum likelihood distance ≥ 12.2% in the cox1 gene. While the six populations occurring in Inner Mongolia of China, Mongolia and Russia, investigated for haplotypes belonged to the same haplotype networks.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Códon/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética
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