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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1205-1212, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518078

RESUMO

Sustainability of poultry farming relies on the development of more efficient and autonomous production systems in terms of feed supply. This implies a better integration of adaptive traits in breeding programs, including digestive efficiency, to favor the use of a wider variety of feedstuffs. The objective of the study was to better characterize the kinetics of development of the digestive tract in broilers, in relationship with digestive efficiency by measuring various digestive parameters as well as serum color. Absolute and relative growth of gastrointestinal tract organs were compared between 2 divergent chicken lines selected on digestive efficiency (AMEn) during 7 wk of development. We show that as early as 7 d of age, these 2 lines differs for several organs developments and that these differences remain visible later on. In addition, the allometry of the gizzard and intestine segments is different between the 2 lines, with efficient birds putting more effort in the upper part of the digestive tract during postnatal development and less-efficient birds putting more effort in the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, we also showed that differences in serum pigmentation, which is a good biomarker for digestive capacity, could be a convenient diagnostic tool to discriminate between chickens with high or low digestive efficiency at early stages of development. In conclusion, this study showed that selection of chickens for AMEn had large impacts in gastrointestinal development including at early stages and is a valuable resource for further studies on the genetic and physiological control of the response of the animal to feed variations.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Cruzamento/normas , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 441-451, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518095

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide comparative analysis of 8 local Italian chicken breeds (Ermellinata di Rovigo, Millefiori di Lonigo [PML], Polverara Bianca, Polverara Nera, Padovana, Pepoi [PPP], Robusta Lionata, and Robusta Maculata), all under a conservation plan, to understand their genetic diversity and population structure. A total of 152 animals were analyzed using the Affymetrix Axiom 600 K Chicken Genotyping Array. The levels of genetic diversity were highest and lowest in PML and PPP, respectively. The results of genomic inbreeding based on runs of homozygosity (ROH; FROH) showed marked differences among breeds and ranged from 0.161 (PML) to 0.478 (PPP). Furthermore, in all breeds, short ROH (<4 Mb in length) were more frequent than long segments. Patterns of genetic differentiation, model-based clustering, and neighbor networks showed that most breeds formed nonoverlapping clusters and were clearly separate populations. The 2 Polverara breeds shared a similar genetic background and showed the lowest genetic differentiation in comparison with purebred lines; the local populations showed separated groups. PPP and PML were closer to the group of the purebred broiler lines (BRSA, BRSB, BRDA, and BRDB). Six genomic regions are presented as hotspots of autozygosity among the Italian chicken breeds, with candidate genes involved in multiple morphological phenotypes as breast muscle, muscle dry matter content, and body weight. This study is the first exhaustive genome-wide analysis of the diversity of these Italian local chickens from Veneto region. We conclude that breeds have conserved authentic genetic patterns. The results are of significant importance because they will help design and implement conservation strategies. In fact, the conservation of these breeds may also have positive impacts on the local economy, niche traditional markets, and offering a source of high-quality products to consumers. In this context, genomic information may play a crucial role in the management of local breeds.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Genoma , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Galinhas/classificação , Análise por Conglomerados , Homozigoto , Endogamia , Itália , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 659, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510156

RESUMO

Poultry is the most abundant livestock species with over 60 billion chickens raised globally per year. The majority of chicken are produced from commercial flocks, however many indigenous chicken breeds play an important role in rural economies as they are well adapted to local environmental and scavenging conditions. The ability to make precise genetic changes in chicken will permit the validation of genetic variants responsible for climate adaptation and disease resilience, and the transfer of beneficial alleles between breeds. Here, we generate a novel inducibly sterile surrogate host chicken. Introducing donor genome edited primordial germ cells into the sterile male and female host embryos produces adult chicken carrying only exogenous germ cells. Subsequent direct mating of the surrogate hosts, Sire Dam Surrogate (SDS) mating, recreates the donor chicken breed carrying the edited allele in a single generation. We demonstrate the introgression and validation of two feather trait alleles, Dominant white and Frizzle into two pure chicken breeds using the SDS surrogate hosts.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Galinhas/genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Reprodução/genética , Alelos , Animais , Plumas , Feminino , Infertilidade/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Gene ; 767: 145176, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002573

RESUMO

Various studies had shown that the FecB gene (also known as BMPRIB, BMPR1B or ALK-6) was the major gene influencing sheep litter size, for which its SNPs' variations were reportedly linked. Yet, surprisingly, there was no published information on the insertion/deletion (indel) variation of this gene. Herein, using a population of Chinese Australian White sheep (n = 932), we identified five novel indels in the different introns of the FecB gene. Among them, the 12-bp indel was distinguished as a splicing region variation that was completely linked to the 17-bp indel. Analysis of variance revealed that only the 10-bp indel was significantly associated with sheep litter size (P = 0.010), for which the deletion/deletion (DD) genotype was the harmful one for fecundity. Nevertheless, the combined genotypes of these five indels were significantly (P = 0.033) correlated with the litter size. These findings would provide fresh insight into developing a sounder basis to accelerate molecular breeding in sheep via DNA markers in a marker-assisted selection strategy.


Assuntos
Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo I/genética , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo I/metabolismo , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/genética , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , China , Fertilidade/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Mutação INDEL/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ovinos/genética
5.
Gene ; 766: 145118, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896588

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a multifunctional cell proliferation regulator that plays a critical role in regulating animal growth and development. In this study, the expression level of IGF1 gene in different tissues of Dezhou donkey in different periods was investigated by RT-qPCR. Meanwhile, two mutation sites were identified within the IGF1 gene and its effect on body size traits of Dezhou donkey was analysed. The results showed that the expression level of the adult donkey IGF1 gene in heart, liver, spleen, lung, renal and gastric tissues is higher than that of the young donkeys, but the young donkeys are significantly higher in muscle tissues than the adult donkeys. The IGF1-1 and IGF1-2 loci showed a trend that the GG mutant was larger than other genotypes in the growth traits of both male and female donkeys, among which the IGF1-1 loci had a significant association with the chest circumference and chest depth of male donkeys (P < 0.05), and the IGF1-2 loci had a significant association with the chest circumference of female donkeys. Haplotype combination Hap1Hap1 (GG-GG) showed a greater tendency than Hap2Hap2 (AA-GG) combination in terms of growth traits, reflecting that the results were consistent with the analysis results of genotypes, which also proved the analysis results of genotypes and growth traits had certain reliability. In summary, the IGF1 gene is a candidate gene for growth and development, and its polymorphisms can be used as the molecular markers for Dezhou donkey breeding.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/genética , Equidae/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Feminino , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348635

RESUMO

Vegetable legumes are an essential source of carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals, along with health-promoting bioactive chemicals. The demand for the use of either fresh or processed vegetable legumes is continually expanding on account of the growing consumer awareness about their well-balanced diet. Therefore, sustaining optimum yields of vegetable legumes is extremely important. Here we seek to present d etails of prospects of underexploited vegetable legumes for food availability, accessibility, and improved livelihood utilization. So far research attention was mainly focused on pulse legumes' performance as compared to vegetable legumes. Wild and cultivated vegetable legumes vary morphologically across diverse habitats. This could make them less known, underutilized, and underexploited, and make them a promising potential nutritional source in developing nations where malnutrition still exists. Research efforts are required to promote underexploited vegetable legumes, for improving their use to feed the ever-increasing population in the future. In view of all the above points, here we have discussed underexploited vegetable legumes with tremendous potential; namely, vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), dolichos bean (Lablab purpureus), and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), thereby covering the progress related to various aspects such as pre-breeding, molecular markers, quantitative trait locus (QTLs), genomics, and genetic engineering. Overall, this review has summarized the information related to advancements in the breeding of vegetable legumes which will ultimately help in ensuring food and nutritional security in developing nations.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Grão Comestível/genética , Fabaceae/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genoma de Planta , Verduras/genética , Grão Comestível/classificação , Fabaceae/classificação , Genômica , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Verduras/classificação
7.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13477, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372383

RESUMO

For the timed re-insemination at the minimal interbreeding interval, cows were treated with a progesterone (P4 )-releasing intravaginal device from Days 13-15 to 21 post-insemination (Day 0 = estrus), followed by plasma P4 assay on Day 23 and then subjected to the Experiments 1 and 2. In Experiment 1, of 18 cows, 6 cows were determined as luteolysis with low (<1 ng/ml) plasma P4 concentrations on Day 23 and ovulated on Days 24 (3 cows), 25 (1 cow), and 26 (1 cow) except a cow affected by ovarian quiescence. In Experiment 2, all cows were treated with GnRH on Day 23. Cows with low (<1 ng/ml) plasma P4 concentrations on Day 23 were diagnosed as non-pregnant and subjected to the re-insemination in the morning of Day 24 irrespective of estrous signs. Of 36 cows, 15 cows were diagnosed as being non-pregnant on Day 23. Fourteen cows of the non-pregnant animals were re-inseminated in the morning of Day 24 irrespective of estrous signs and the pregnancy rate of re-insemination was 36%. The conception rates of initial and re-inseminations were 50% (18/36) and 36% (5/14), respectively. The overall pregnancy rate by adding the rates of initial and re-inseminations was 64% (23/36).


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Taxa de Gravidez , Testes de Gravidez/veterinária , Prenhez , Animais , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/instrumentação , Luteólise , Ovário/fisiologia , Ovulação , Gravidez , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Progesterona/sangue , Fatores de Tempo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239763, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027258

RESUMO

Anthracnose, caused by the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, is one of the world's most destructive diseases of common bean. The use of resistant cultivars is the most cost-effective strategy to manage this disease; however, durable resistance is difficult to achieve due to the vast virulence diversity of the anthracnose pathogen. Finding new genes with broad-spectrum resistance increases the prospect of designing an effective anthracnose-management strategy. Genetic analysis confirmed the presence of a single, dominant anthracnose-resistance locus in AC, which we provisionally named Co-AC. Bulk segregant analysis and genetic mapping of two F2 populations from the crosses AC × PI207262 and AC × G 2333 were used to determine the position of the Co-AC locus in a 631 Kbp genomic region flanked by the SNP markers SS56 and SS92 on the lower arm of chromosome Pv01. By genotyping 77 F3 plants from the AC × PI207262 cross using nine additional markers, we fine-mapped the Co-AC locus to a significantly smaller genomic region (9.4 Kbp) flanked by the SNP markers SS102 and SS165. This 9.4 Kbp region harbors three predicted genes based on the common bean reference genome, notably including the gene model Phvul.001G244300, which encodes Clathrin heavy chain 1, a protein that supports specific stomatal regulation functions and might play a role in plant defense signaling. Because the Co-AC resistance locus is linked in cis, it can be selected with great efficiency using molecular markers. These results will be very useful for breeding programs aimed at developing bean cultivars with anthracnose resistance using marker-assisted selection. This study revealed the broad-spectrum resistance of AC to C. lindemuthianum and the existence of the Co-AC anthracnose-resistance locus. Fine mapping positioned this locus in a small genomic region on the lower end of chromosome Pv01 that contained three candidate genes for the Co-AC locus.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Phaseolus/genética , Cruzamento/métodos , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Colletotrichum/patogenicidade , Genes de Plantas/genética , Ligação Genética/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genótipo , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
9.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13476, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078458

RESUMO

We investigated the feasibility of piglet production by non-surgical embryo transfer (Ns-ET) of vitrified porcine blastocysts and expanded blastocysts transported to commercial farms and warmed on site (V/T/W embryos). Ns-ET was performed by depositing 11-20 vitrified and warmed embryos at a proximal site within the uterus via a catheter. In Experiment 1, the effect of donor-recipient estrous cycle asynchrony on the efficiency of Ns-ET of vitrified and ordinary warmed embryos was investigated at the experimental facility. With a 1-day delay recipients relative to that of donor, the farrowing rate was 50.0% and the survival rate to term was 21.1%. In Experiment 2, Ns-ET using recipients with a 1-day delay and vitrified embryos after one-step warming and dilution was evaluated at the experimental facility. Although the resulting farrowing rate was 42.9%, the survival rate was 6.4%. In Experiment 3, Ns-ET was conducted using V/T/W embryos at four commercial farms, where piglets derived from them were produced. When artificial insemination was conducted prior to Ns-ET, the farrowing and survival rates obtained using V/T/W embryos were 75.0%, and 21.3%, respectively. These results show that Ns-ET of V/T/W embryos using this protocol would be feasible for piglet production at farms.


Assuntos
Blastocisto , Cruzamento/métodos , Criopreservação/métodos , Criopreservação/veterinária , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Animais , Ciclo Estral , Fazendas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Suínos
10.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1008956, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911491

RESUMO

The genomic diversity of the domestic dog is an invaluable resource for advancing understanding of mammalian biology, evolutionary biology, morphologic variation, and behavior. There are approximately 350 recognized breeds in the world today, many established through hybridization and selection followed by intense breeding programs aimed at retaining or enhancing specific traits. As a result, many breeds suffer from an excess of particular diseases, one of many factors leading to the recent trend of "designer breed" development, i.e. crossing purebred dogs from existing breeds in the hope that offspring will be enriched for desired traits and characteristics of the parental breeds. We used a dense panel of 150,106 SNPs to analyze the population structure of the Australian labradoodle (ALBD), to understand how such breeds are developed. Haplotype and admixture analyses show that breeds other than the poodle (POOD) and Labrador retriever (LAB) contributed to ALBD formation, but that the breed is, at the genetic level, predominantly POOD, with all small and large varieties contributing to its construction. Allele frequency analysis reveals that the breed is enhanced for variants associated with a poodle-like coat, which is perceived by breeders to have an association with hypoallergenicity. We observed little enhancement for LAB-specific alleles. This study provides a blueprint for understanding how dog breeds are formed, highlighting the limited scope of desired traits in defining new breeds.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/genética , Cães/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Alelos , Animais , Austrália , Cruzamento/métodos , Frequência do Gene/genética , Testes Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Fenótipo , Filogenia
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4408, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879311

RESUMO

Understanding extreme weather impacts on staple crops such as wheat is vital for creating adaptation strategies and increasing food security, especially in dryland cropping systems across Southern Africa. This study analyses heat impacts on wheat using daily weather information and a dryland wheat dataset for 71 cultivars across 17 locations in South Africa from 1998 to 2014. We estimate temperature impacts on yields in extensive regression models, finding that extreme heat drives wheat yield losses, with an additional 24 h of exposure to temperatures above 30 °C associated with a 12.5% yield reduction. Results from a uniform warming scenario of +1 °C show an average wheat yield reduction of 8.5%, which increases to 18.4% and 28.5% under +2 and +3 °C scenarios. We also find evidence of differences in heat effects across cultivars, which suggests warming impacts may be reduced through the sharing of gene pools amongst wheat breeding programs.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Produtos Agrícolas , Triticum , Cruzamento/métodos , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Genótipo , Aquecimento Global , Temperatura Alta , África do Sul , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/fisiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238849, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898177

RESUMO

Investigation into the genetic diversity of certain endangered native breeds of domestic animals has been in common practice for several decades. The primary objective of these investigations has been to reveal the exceptional genetic value of such breeds, both for their conservation and also to gain insight into their current genetic status, as they have been undergoing a progressive decrease in population size and general diversity; this has been compounded by the general lack of an optimal breeding scheme. In this study, we have investigated changes in the genetic diversity of six Hungarian local chicken breeds based on 29 microsatellite loci over a period of 15 years. In terms of the basic diversity measures, populations sampled in 2017 generally exhibited a lower heterozygosity and mean number of alleles and thus, experienced a higher degree of inbreeding. Although the effective population size increased, the estimates of populations sampled over different periods indicated comparatively low values, suggesting overall lower genetic variance. Pairwise FST estimates were higher in the populations sampled in 2017, showing a larger genetic distance between them. Considerable differences exist between the populations of the same breeds, which can most likely be attributed to genetic drift. STRUCTURE results have shown a clear separation between the Hungarian populations, which is in agreement with the principal coordinate analysis. The most likely clustering was found at K = 6, classifying the populations of the same breed as one group. No considerable allele loss was found in the Hungarian indigenous chicken breeds after 15 years of conservation. In general terms, after 15 years, the level of inbreeding within the populations was, in fact, higher, although this could be effectively reduced through the use of an improved mating system. Consequently, the breed management applied in the case of Hungarian local chicken breeds was found to be effective at adequately conserving their genetic variability.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Galinhas/genética , Conversão Gênica , Deriva Genética , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Animais , Feminino , Hungria , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Fatores de Tempo
13.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1008780, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925905

RESUMO

Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) in large human cohorts have identified thousands of loci associated with complex traits and diseases. For identifying the genes and gene-associated variants that underlie complex traits in livestock, especially where sample sizes are limiting, it may help to integrate the results of GWAS for equivalent traits in humans as prior information. In this study, we sought to investigate the usefulness of results from a GWAS on human height as prior information for identifying the genes and gene-associated variants that affect stature in cattle, using GWAS summary data on samples sizes of 700,000 and 58,265 for humans and cattle, respectively. Using Fisher's exact test, we observed a significant proportion of cattle stature-associated genes (30/77) that are also associated with human height (odds ratio = 5.1, p = 3.1e-10). Result of randomized sampling tests showed that cattle orthologs of human height-associated genes, hereafter referred to as candidate genes (C-genes), were more enriched for cattle stature GWAS signals than random samples of genes in the cattle genome (p = 0.01). Randomly sampled SNPs within the C-genes also tend to explain more genetic variance for cattle stature (up to 13.2%) than randomly sampled SNPs within random cattle genes (p = 0.09). The most significant SNPs from a cattle GWAS for stature within the C-genes did not explain more genetic variance for cattle stature than the most significant SNPs within random cattle genes (p = 0.87). Altogether, our findings support previous studies that suggest a similarity in the genetic regulation of height across mammalian species. However, with the availability of a powerful GWAS for stature that combined data from 8 cattle breeds, prior information from human-height GWAS does not seem to provide any additional benefit with respect to the identification of genes and gene-associated variants that affect stature in cattle.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Bovinos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Gado/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
14.
Gene ; 761: 145046, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781192

RESUMO

Many studies have shown that the LDB2 gene plays a regulatory role in retinal development and the cell cycle, but its biological role remains unclear. In this study, a 31-bp indel in the LDB2 gene was found for the first time on the basis of 2797 individuals from 10 different breeds, which led to different genotypes among individuals (II, ID and DD). Among these genotypes, DD was the most dominant. Association analysis of an F2 resource population crossed with the Gushi (GS) chicken and Anka chicken showed that the DD genotype conferred a significantly greater semi-evisceration weight (SEW, 1108.665 g ± 6.263), evisceration weight (EW, 927.455 g ± 5.424), carcass weight (CW, 1197.306 g ± 6.443), breast muscle weight (BMW, 71.05 g ± 0.574), and leg muscle weight (LMW, 100.303 g ± 0.677) than the ID genotype (SEW, 1059.079 g ± 16.86; EW, 879.459 g ± 14.446; CW, 1141.821 g ± 17.176; BMW, 67.164 g ± 1.523; and LMW, 96.163 g ± 1.823). In addition, LDB2 gene expression in different breeds was significantly higher in the breast muscles and leg muscles than in other tissues. The expression level in the breast muscle differed significantly among stages of GS chicken development, with the highest expression observed at 6 weeks. The expression levels in the pectoral muscles differed significantly among Ross 308 genotypes. In summary, we studied the relationships between a 31-bp indel in the LDB2 gene and economic traits in chickens. The indel was significantly correlated with multiple growth and carcass traits in the F2 resource population and affected the expression of the LDB2 gene in muscle tissue. In short, our study revealed that the LDB2 gene 31-bp indel can be used as a potential genetic marker for molecular breeding.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Cruzamento/métodos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Mutação INDEL , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Carne , Músculos Peitorais , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Produtos Avícolas
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236290, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785214

RESUMO

High and variable pre-weaning mortality is a persistent problem in laboratory mouse breeding. Assuming a modest 15% mortality rate across mouse strains, means that approximately 1 million more pups are produced yearly in the EU to compensate for those which die. This paper presents the first large study under practical husbandry conditions to determine the risk factors associated with mouse pre-weaning mortality. We analysed historical records from 219,975 pups from two breeding facilities, collected as part of their management routine and including information on number of pups born and weaned per litter, parents' age and identification, and dates of birth and death of all animals. Pups were counted once in their first week of life and at weaning, and once every one or two weeks, depending on the need for cage cleaning. Dead pups were recorded as soon as these were found during the daily cage screening (without opening the cage). It was hypothesized that litter overlap (i.e. the presence of older siblings in the cage when new pups are born), a recurrent social configuration in trio-housed mice, is associated with increased newborn mortality, along with advanced dam age, large litter size, and a high number and age of older siblings in the cage. The estimated probability of pup death was two to seven percentage points higher in cages with litter overlap compared to those without. Litter overlap was associated with an increase in death of the entire litter of five and six percentage points, which represent an increase of 19% and 103% compared to non-overlapped litters in the two breeding facilities, respectively. Increased number and age of older siblings, advanced dam age, small litter size (less than four pups born) and large litter size (over 11 pups born) were associated with increased probability of pup death.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório/fisiologia , Cruzamento/métodos , Ciência dos Animais de Laboratório/métodos , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Idade Materna , Camundongos , Gravidez , Reprodução/fisiologia , Desmame
16.
Nat Genet ; 52(9): 950-957, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719517

RESUMO

The diversity of maize (Zea mays) is the backbone of modern heterotic patterns and hybrid breeding. Historically, US farmers exploited this variability to establish today's highly productive Corn Belt inbred lines from blends of dent and flint germplasm pools. Here, we report de novo genome sequences of four European flint lines assembled to pseudomolecules with scaffold N50 ranging from 6.1 to 10.4 Mb. Comparative analyses with two US Corn Belt lines explains the pronounced differences between both germplasms. While overall syntenic order and consolidated gene annotations reveal only moderate pangenomic differences, whole-genome alignments delineating the core and dispensable genome, and the analysis of heterochromatic knobs and orthologous long terminal repeat retrotransposons unveil the dynamics of the maize genome. The high-quality genome sequences of the flint pool complement the maize pangenome and provide an important tool to study maize improvement at a genome scale and to enhance modern hybrid breeding.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Zea mays/genética , Cruzamento/métodos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genótipo , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Fenótipo
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12231, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699370

RESUMO

To increase the yield potential while limiting the environmental impact of N management practices is an important issue in rice cultivation. The large-grain rice cultivar Akita 63 showed higher N-use efficiency for grain production. To elucidate this, we analyzed yield characteristics of Akita 63 in comparison with those of a maternal cultivar, Oochikara with a large grain, a paternal cultivar, Akita 39 with a normal grain, and a Japanese leading cultivar, Akitakomachi. The yields of Akita 63 were 20% higher than those of Oochikara and Akita 39, and 50% higher than those of Akitakomachi for the same N application. Akita 63 showed superior N uptake capacity. Whereas a trade-off between single grain weight and grain number was found for Oochikara, Akita 63 did not show such a relationship. The success in Akita 63 breeding was due to overcoming such a trade-off. Akita 63 had the large-grain alleles of GS3 and qSW5. Thus, an enlargement of grain size can have a great impact on an increase in yield with improved N-use efficiency. However, an enlargement of sink capacity led to source limitation. Thus, both sink and source improvements are essential for a further increase in the yield of today's high-yielding cultivars.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Oryza/genética , Alelos , Cruzamento/métodos , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sementes/genética
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9412, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523018

RESUMO

Most of the knowledge about genetic variants at the sequence level in cattle is for Bos primigenius taurus populations. Here, we presented a complete genomic characterization of 52 Nellore (Bos primigenius indicus) bulls, revealing specific zebu DNA variants with putative impact in tropical adaptation and productive traits. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletion (INDELs) mutations were identified using the newest bovine reference genome ARS_UCD1.2, and variant functional consequences were predicted using the Ensembl VEP software. A total of 35,753,707 SNPs and 4,492,636 INDELs were detected and annotated to their functional effects. We identified 400 genes that comprised both, a SNP and an INDEL, of high functional impact on proteins (i.e. variants that cause protein truncation, loss of function or triggering nonsense-mediated decay). Among these, we highlight the following genes: BoLA, associated with cattle immune response to infections and reproduction aspects; HSPA8, DNAJC27, and DNAJC28, involved with thermoregulatory protective mechanisms in mammals; and many olfactory signaling pathway related genes that are important genetic factors in the evolution of mammalian species. All these functional aspects are directly related to cattle adaptability to tropical environments.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Genoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Bovinos , Genômica/métodos , Mutação INDEL , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15724-15730, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571952

RESUMO

Inbreeding is often avoided in natural populations by passive processes such as sex-biased dispersal. But, in many social animals, opposite-sexed adult relatives are spatially clustered, generating a risk of incest and hence selection for active inbreeding avoidance. Here we show that, in long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus), a cooperative breeder that risks inbreeding by living alongside opposite-sex relatives, inbreeding carries fitness costs and is avoided by active kin discrimination during mate choice. First, we identified a positive association between heterozygosity and fitness, indicating that inbreeding is costly. We then compared relatedness within breeding pairs to that expected under multiple mate-choice models, finding that pair relatedness is consistent with avoidance of first-order kin as partners. Finally, we show that the similarity of vocal cues offers a plausible mechanism for discrimination against first-order kin during mate choice. Long-tailed tits are known to discriminate between the calls of close kin and nonkin, and they favor first-order kin in cooperative contexts, so we conclude that long-tailed tits use the same kin discrimination rule to avoid inbreeding as they do to direct help toward kin.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Passeriformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução/genética , Aves Canoras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Endogamia , Masculino , Passeriformes/genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Aves Canoras/genética
20.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 34, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pasteurellosis (Pasteurella infection) is one of the most common bacterial infections in rabbits on commercial farms and in laboratory facilities. Curative treatments using antibiotics are only partly efficient, with frequent relapses. Breeding rabbits for improved genetic resistance to pasteurellosis is a sustainable alternative approach. In this study, we infected 964 crossbred rabbits from six sire lines experimentally with Pasteurella multocida. After post-mortem examination and bacteriological analyses, abscess, bacteria, and resistance scores were derived for each rabbit based on the extent of lesions and bacterial dissemination in the body. This is the first study to use such an experimental design and response traits to measure resistance to pasteurellosis in a rabbit population. We investigated the genetic variation of these traits in order to identify potential selection criteria. We also estimated genetic correlations of resistance to pasteurellosis in the experimental population with traits that are under selection in the breeding populations (number of kits born alive and weaning weight). RESULTS: Heritability estimates for the novel response traits, abscess, bacteria, and resistance scores, ranged from 0.08 (± 0.05) to 0.16 (± 0.06). The resistance score showed very strong negative genetic correlation estimates with abscess (- 0.99 ± 0.05) and bacteria scores (- 0.98 ± 0.07). A very high positive genetic correlation of 0.99 ± 0.16 was estimated between abscess and bacteria scores. Estimates of genetic correlations of the resistance score with average daily gain traits for the first and second week after inoculation were 0.98 (± 0.06) and 0.70 (± 0.14), respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations of the disease-related traits with average daily gain pre-inoculation were favorable but with high standard errors. Estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations of the disease-related traits with commercial selection traits were not significantly different from zero. CONCLUSIONS: Disease response traits are heritable and are highly correlated with each other, but do not show any significant genetic correlations with commercial selection traits. Thus, the prevalence of pasteurellosis could be decreased by selecting more resistant rabbits on any one of the disease response traits with a limited impact on the selection traits, which would allow implementation of a breeding program to improve resistance to pasteurellosis in rabbits.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Resistência à Doença/genética , Infecções por Pasteurella/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Pasteurella/genética , Pasteurella/patogenicidade , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Coelhos , Desmame
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