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1.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 45, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crossbreeding is widely used in pig production because of the benefits of heterosis effects and breed complementarity. Commonly, sire lines are bred for traits such as feed efficiency, growth and meat content, whereas maternal lines are also bred for reproduction and longevity traits, and the resulting three-way crossbred pigs are used for production of meat. The most important genetic basis for heterosis is dominance effects, e.g. removal of inbreeding depression. The aims of this study were to (1) present a modification of a previously developed model with additive, dominance and inbreeding depression genetic effects for analysis of data from a purebred sire line and three-way crossbred pigs; (2) based on this model, present equations for additive genetic variances, additive genetic covariance, and estimated breeding values (EBV) with associated accuracies for purebred and crossbred performances; (3) use the model to analyse four production traits, i.e. ultra-sound recorded backfat thickness (BF), conformation score (CONF), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR), recorded on Danbred Duroc and Danbred Duroc-Landrace-Yorkshire crossbred pigs reared in the same environment; and (4) obtain estimates of genetic parameters, additive genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performances, and EBV with associated accuracies for purebred and crossbred performances for this data set. RESULTS: Additive genetic correlations (with associated standard errors) between purebred and crossbred performances were equal to 0.96 (0.07), 0.83 (0.16), 0.75 (0.17), and 0.87 (0.18) for BF, CONF, ADG, and FCR, respectively. For BF, ADG, and FCR, the additive genetic variance was smaller for purebred performance than for crossbred performance, but for CONF the reverse was observed. EBV on Duroc boars were more accurate for purebred performance than for crossbred performance for BF, CONF and FCR, but not for ADG. CONCLUSIONS: Methodological developments led to equations for genetic (co)variances and EBV with associated accuracies for purebred and crossbred performances in a three-way crossbreeding system. As illustrated by the data analysis, these equations may be useful for implementation of genomic selection in this system.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Depressão por Endogamia , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Suínos/genética , Animais , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Hibridização Genética , Masculino
2.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 44, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental intercrosses between outbred founder populations are powerful resources for mapping loci that contribute to complex traits i.e. quantitative trait loci (QTL). Here, we present an approach and its accompanying software for high-resolution reconstruction of founder mosaic genotypes in the intercross offspring from such populations using whole-genome high-coverage sequence data on founder individuals (~ 30×) and very low-coverage sequence data on intercross individuals (< 0.5×). Sets of founder-line informative markers were selected for each full-sib family and used to infer the founder mosaic genotypes of the intercross individuals. The application of this approach and the quality of the estimated genome-wide genotypes are illustrated in a large F2 pedigree between two divergently selected lines of chickens. RESULTS: We describe how we obtained whole-genome genotype data for hundreds of individuals in a cost- and time-efficient manner by using a Tn5-based library preparation protocol and an imputation algorithm that was optimized for this application. In total, 7.6 million markers segregated in this pedigree and, within each full-sib family, between 10.0 and 13.7% of these were fully informative, i.e. fixed for alternative alleles in the founders from the divergent lines, and were used for reconstruction of the offspring mosaic genotypes. The genotypes that were estimated based on the low-coverage sequence data were highly consistent (> 95% agreement) with those obtained using individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. The estimated resolution of the inferred recombination breakpoints was relatively high, with 50% of them being defined on regions shorter than 10 kb. CONCLUSIONS: A method and software for inferring founder mosaic genotypes in intercross offspring from low-coverage whole-genome sequencing in pedigrees from heterozygous founders are described. They provide high-quality, high-resolution genotypes in a time- and cost-efficient manner. The software is freely available at https://github.com/CarlborgGenomics/Stripes .


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Animais , Cruzamento , Custos e Análise de Custo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Técnicas de Genotipagem/economia , Masculino , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/economia
3.
Hum Genet ; 138(10): 1123-1142, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312899

RESUMO

The study of runs of homozygosity (ROH) can shed light on population demographic history and cultural practices. We present a fine-scale ROH analysis of 1679 individuals from 28 sub-Saharan African (SSA) populations along with 1384 individuals from 17 worldwide populations. Using high-density SNP coverage, we could accurately identify ROH > 300 kb using PLINK software. The genomic distribution of ROH was analysed through the identification of ROH islands and regions of heterozygosity (RHZ). The analyses showed a heterogeneous distribution of autozygosity across SSA, revealing complex demographic histories. They highlight differences between African groups and can differentiate the impact of consanguineous practices (e.g. among the Somali) from endogamy (e.g. among several Khoe and San groups). Homozygosity cold and hotspots were shown to harbour multiple protein coding genes. Studying ROH therefore not only sheds light on population history, but can also be used to study genetic variation related to adaptation and potentially to the health of extant populations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Genética Populacional , Homozigoto , África ao Sul do Saara , Consanguinidade , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Análise de Dados , Demografia , Variação Genética , Genômica/métodos , Geografia , Humanos
4.
Phytopathology ; 109(9): 1594-1604, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287366

RESUMO

The soilborne oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi-which causes root rot, trunk cankers, and stem lesions on an estimated 5,000 plant species worldwide-is a lethal pathogen of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) as well as many other woody plant species. P. cinnamomi is particularly damaging to chestnut and chinquapin trees (Castanea spp.) in the southern portion of its native range in the United States due to relatively mild climatic conditions that are conductive to disease development. Introduction of resistant genotypes is the most practical solution for disease management in forests because treatment with fungicides and eradication of the pathogen are neither practical nor economically feasible in natural ecosystems. Using backcross families derived from crosses of American chestnuts with two resistant Chinese chestnut cultivars Mahogany and Nanking, we constructed linkage maps and identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to P. cinnamomi that had been introgressed from these Chinese chestnut cultivars. In total, 957 plants representing five cohorts of three hybrid crosses were genotyped by sequencing and phenotyped by standardized inoculation and visual examination over a 6-year period from 2011 to 2016. Eight parental linkage maps comprising 7,715 markers were constructed, and 17 QTLs were identified on four linkage groups (LGs): LG_A, LG_C, LG_E, and LG_K. The most consistent QTLs were detected on LG_E in seedlings from crosses with both 'Mahogany' and 'Nanking' and LG_K in seedlings from 'Mahogany' crosses. Two consistent large and medium effect QTLs located ∼10 cM apart were present in the middle and at the lower end of LG_E; other QTLs were considered to have small effects. These results imply that the genetic architecture of resistance to P. cinnamomi in Chinese chestnut × American chestnut hybrid progeny may resemble the P. sojae-soybean pathosystem, with a few dominant QTLs along with quantitatively inherited partial resistance conferred by multiple small-effect QTLs.


Assuntos
Phytophthora , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Ecossistema , Genótipo , Phytophthora/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas
5.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 158(1): 46-54, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158836

RESUMO

Gonochoristic wild-type dojo loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) are diploid (2n = 50) and reproduce bisexually. However, sympatric clonal diploids generate unreduced diploid isogenic eggs that develop gynogenetically. Clone-origin triploidy arises following the incorporation of a haploid wild-type sperm nucleus into the diploid egg. Triploid females produce fertile haploid eggs by meiotic hybridogenesis, while triploid males are sterile. Clonal loaches arose from past hybridization event(s) between genetically diverse groups, A and B. Artificial hybrid females between the 2 groups produce unreduced and/or aneuploid eggs, but the hybrid males are sterile. In this study using FISH, we analyzed chromosome pairing in meiotic cells of clone-origin triploid and inter-group hybrid males to clarify the cytogenetic mechanisms underlying the male-specific sterility. We used a repetitive sequence probe to identify group B-derived chromosomes and a 5.8S + 28S rDNA probe to identify pairs of homologous chromosomes. We found that asynapsis and irregular synapsis occur in triploid and hybrid males containing 2 different genomes and that this may cause the formation of sterile germ cells. These results will help us to understand hybrid sterility from the viewpoint of synapsis behavior.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/veterinária , Animais , Cromossomos/genética , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Cruzamentos Genéticos , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Genoma , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Masculino , Meiose/genética , Teratozoospermia , Triploidia
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2870, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253773

RESUMO

An important channel of cell-to-cell communication is direct contact. The immune synapse is a paradigmatic example of such type of interaction: it forms upon engagement of antigen receptors in lymphocytes by antigen-presenting cells and allows the local exchange of molecules and information. Although mechanics has been shown to play an important role in this process, how forces organize and impact on synapse function is unknown. We find that mechanical forces are spatio-temporally patterned at the immune synapse: global pulsatile myosin II-driven tangential forces are observed at the synapse periphery while localised forces generated by invadosome-like F-actin protrusions are detected at its centre. Noticeably, we observe that these force-producing actin protrusions constitute the main site of antigen extraction and endocytosis and require myosin II contractility to form. The interplay between global and local forces dictated by the organization of the actomyosin cytoskeleton therefore controls endocytosis at the immune synapse.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina/fisiologia , Actomiosina/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Endocitose/fisiologia , Miosina Tipo II/metabolismo , Actomiosina/genética , Animais , Comunicação Celular , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Integrases/genética , Integrases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Miosina Tipo II/genética , Receptores de Complemento 3d
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083584

RESUMO

Metabolite composition and concentrations in seed grains are important traits of cereals. To identify the variation in the seed metabolotypes of a model grass, namely Brachypodium distachyon, we applied a widely targeted metabolome analysis to forty inbred lines of B. distachyon and examined the accumulation patterns of 183 compounds in the seeds. By comparing the metabolotypes with the population structure of these lines, we found signature metabolites that represent different accumulation patterns for each of the three B. distachyon subpopulations. Moreover, we found that thirty-seven metabolites exhibited significant differences in their accumulation between the lines Bd21 and Bd3-1. Using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from a cross between Bd3-1 and Bd21, we identified the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked with this variation in the accumulation of thirteen metabolites. Our metabolite QTL analysis illustrated that different genetic factors may presumably regulate the accumulation of 4-pyridoxate and pyridoxamine in vitamin B6 metabolism. Moreover, we found two QTLs on chromosomes 1 and 4 that affect the accumulation of an anthocyanin, chrysanthemin. These QTLs genetically interacted to regulate the accumulation of this compound. This study demonstrates the potential for metabolite QTL mapping in B. distachyon and provides new insights into the genetic dissection of metabolomic traits in temperate grasses.


Assuntos
Brachypodium/genética , Brachypodium/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Metaboloma/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Genótipo , Endogamia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Vitamina B 6/metabolismo
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(7): 6263-6275, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103297

RESUMO

Domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) and domestic Taurus cattle (Bos taurus) are closely related. An interesting phenomenon in interspecific crossings is male sterility in the F1 hybrid (yattle) and F2 backcross, with no late meiotic cells or spermatids in the seminiferous tubules. The mammalian Y chromosome is crucial for spermatogenesis and male fertility. This study investigated the copy number variations and mRNA of Y-transitional region genes TSPY2 (testis specific protein, Y-linked 2 and testis-specific Y-encoded protein 3-like) and PRAMEY (preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma, Y-linked), and Y-ampliconic region genes TSPY (testis-specific Y-encoded protein 1-like), ZNF280BY (zinc finger protein 280B, Y-linked) and HSFY (heat-shock transcription factor, Y-linked) in mature testes from Taurus cattle, yaks, and yattle. Phylogenetic trees divided 33 copies of TSPY into major 2 types (TSPY-T1 and TSPY-T2), 19 copies of TSPY2 into 2 types (TSPY2-T1 and T2), and 8 copies of PRAMEY into 4 types (PRAMEY-T1 to T4). Searching by the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool of the TSPY2 coding sequences in GenBank revealed that TSPY2 was conserved in Bovidae. The TSPY2-T2 sequences were absent, whereas PRAMEY-T2 and PRAMEY-T4 were amplified on the yak Y chromosome. The average copy numbers of TSPY-T2 and ZNF280BY were significantly different between cattle and yaks. The TSPY-T2, TSPY2, PRAMEY, ZNF280BY, and HSFY genes were uniquely or predominantly expressed in testes. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR showed that the TSPY-T2, PRAMEY-T2, HSFY, ZNF280BY, protamine 1 (PRM1), and protamine 2 (PRM2) genes were almost not expressed in yattle. The PRM1 and PRM2 genes are used as positive markers for spermatozoa. Thus, our results showed that the genomic structure of the Y-transitional and Y-ampliconic region differed between Taurus cattle and yaks. Dysregulated expression of Y-ampliconic region genes TSPY-T2, HSPY, ZNF280BY, and Y-transitional region gene PRAMEY-T2 may be associated with hybrid male sterility in yattle.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Bovinos/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Ligação Genética/genética , Hibridização Genética/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Espermatogênese/genética , Testículo/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130712

RESUMO

Salinity critically limits rice metabolism, growth, and productivity worldwide. Improvement of the salt resistance of locally grown high-yielding cultivars is a slow process. The objective of this study was to develop a new salt-tolerant rice germplasm using speed-breeding. Here, we precisely introgressed the hst1 gene, transferring salinity tolerance from "Kaijin" into high-yielding "Yukinko-mai" (WT) rice through single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker-assisted selection. Using a biotron speed-breeding technique, we developed a BC3F3 population, named "YNU31-2-4", in six generations and 17 months. High-resolution genotyping by whole-genome sequencing revealed that the BC3F2 genome had 93.5% similarity to the WT and fixed only 2.7% of donor parent alleles. Functional annotation of BC3F2 variants along with field assessment data indicated that "YNU31-2-4" plants carrying the hst1 gene had similar agronomic traits to the WT under normal growth condition. "YNU31-2-4" seedlings subjected to salt stress (125 mM NaCl) had a significantly higher survival rate and increased shoot and root biomasses than the WT. At the tissue level, quantitative and electron probe microanalyzer studies indicated that "YNU31-2-4" seedlings avoided Na+ accumulation in shoots under salt stress. The "YNU31-2-4" plants showed an improved phenotype with significantly higher net CO2 assimilation and lower yield decline than WT under salt stress at the reproductive stage. "YNU31-2-4" is a potential candidate for a new rice cultivar that is highly tolerant to salt stress at the seedling and reproductive stages, and which might maintain yields under a changing global climate.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Tolerância ao Sal , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Genes de Plantas , Oryza/fisiologia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
10.
J Plant Res ; 132(4): 461-471, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115709

RESUMO

Reproductive isolation, including prezygotic and postzygotic barriers, is a mechanism that separates species. Many species in the Nicotiana section Suaveolentes exhibit reproductive isolation in crosses with Nicotiana tabacum. In this study, we investigated whether the chromosome numbers and ploidy levels of eight Nicotiana suaveolens accessions are related to the reproductive isolation after crosses with N. tabacum by flow cytometry and chromosome analyses. Additionally, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the eight N. suaveolens accessions were sequenced and compared with the previously reported sequences of 22 Suaveolentes species to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships in the section Suaveolentes. We revealed that four N. suaveolens accessions comprised 64 chromosomes, while the other four accessions carried 32 chromosomes. Depending on the ploidy levels of N. suaveolens, several types of reproductive isolation were observed after crosses with N. tabacum, including decreases in the number of capsules and the germination rates of hybrid seeds, as well as hybrid lethality and abscission of enlarged ovaries at 12-17 days after pollination. A phylogenetic analysis involving ITS sequences divided the eight N. suaveolens accessions into three distinct clades. Based on the results, we confirmed that N. suaveolens accessions vary regarding ploidy levels and reproductive isolation mechanisms in crosses with N. tabacum. These accessions will be very useful for revealing and characterizing the reproductive isolation mechanisms in interspecific crosses and their relationships with ploidy levels.


Assuntos
Ploidias , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Tabaco/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , DNA Intergênico/genética , Citometria de Fluxo , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Germinação/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tabaco/anatomia & histologia , Tabaco/fisiologia
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 73-82, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132695

RESUMO

Polyploidy could increase the interactions of pollen sterility loci and Sb locus interaction cause higher pollen abortion than other loci. Therefore, we focused on the interaction at Sb pollen sterility locus in autotetraploid rice compared to diploid rice hybrid using the near-isogenic lines in the present study. Cytological observations indicated that interaction at Sb locus cause high pollen sterility (69.9%) and abnormal chromosome behavior (37.02%) at Metaphase II in autotetraploid rice hybrid. A total of 139 meiosis-related or meiosis stage-specific genes were detected in the autotetraploid rice hybrid harboring interaction at Sb locus and 27 of these meiosis-related or specific genes displayed significant down-regulation, including four pollen fertility related genes (Rad51, XRI1, PSS1 and MIL1). These results revealed a stronger interaction at Sb pollen sterility locus than other loci, which cause down-regulation of many important meiosis-related genes that were associated with higher pollen sterility in autotetraploid rice hybrids.


Assuntos
Cruzamentos Genéticos , Meiose/genética , Oryza/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Alelos , Biologia Celular , Cromossomos de Plantas , Regulação para Baixo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Tetraploidia , Transcriptoma
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 183, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triticum timopheevii (2n = 4x = 28; AtAtGG), is an important source for new genetic variation for wheat improvement with genes for potential disease resistance and salt tolerance. By generating a range of interspecific hybrid lines, T. timopheevii can contribute to wheat's narrow gene-pool and be practically utilised in wheat breeding programmes. Previous studies that have generated such introgression lines between wheat and its wild relatives have been unable to use high-throughput methods to detect the presence of wild relative segments in such lines. RESULTS: A whole genome introgression approach, exploiting homoeologous recombination in the absence of the Ph1 locus, has resulted in the transfer of different chromosome segments from both the At and G genomes of T. timopheevii into wheat. These introgressions have been detected and characterised using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers present on a high-throughput Axiom® Genotyping Array. The analysis of these interspecific hybrid lines has resulted in the detection of 276 putative unique introgressions from T. timopheevii, thereby allowing the generation of a genetic map of T. timopheevii containing 1582 SNP markers, spread across 14 linkage groups representing each of the seven chromosomes of the At and G genomes of T. timopheevii. The genotyping of the hybrid lines was validated through fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Comparative analysis of the genetic map of T. timopheevii and the physical map of the hexaploid wheat genome showed that synteny between the two species is highly conserved at the macro-level and confirmed the presence of inter- and intra-genomic translocations within the At and G genomes of T. timopheevii that have been previously only detected through cytological techniques. CONCLUSIONS: In this work, we report a set of SNP markers present on a high-throughput genotyping array, able to detect the presence of T. timopheevii in a hexaploid wheat background making it a potentially valuable tool for marker assisted selection (MAS) in wheat pre-breeding programs. These valuable resources of high-density molecular markers and wheat-T. timopheevii hybrid lines will greatly enhance the work being undertaken for wheat improvement through wild relative introgressions.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Hibridização Genética , Poliploidia , Triticum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Ecótipo , Ligação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Recombinação Genética/genética , Sementes/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2304, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127100

RESUMO

A central problem in speciation is the origin and mechanisms of reproductive barriers that block gene flow between sympatric populations. Wind-pollinated plant species that flower in synchrony with one another rely on post-pollination interactions to maintain reproductive isolation. In some locations in Mexico, sympatric populations of domesticated maize and annual teosinte grow in intimate associate and flower synchronously, but rarely produce hybrids. This trait is typically conferred by a single haplotype, Teosinte crossing barrier1-s. Here, we show that the Teosinte crossing barrier1-s haplotype contains a pistil-expressed, potential speciation gene, encoding a pectin methylesterase homolog. The modification of the pollen tube cell wall by the pistil, then, is likely a key mechanism for pollen rejection in Zea and may represent a general mechanism for reproductive isolation in grasses.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Zea mays/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Especiação Genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Tubo Polínico/genética , Tubo Polínico/metabolismo , Simpatria/genética
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 175, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DUOII is a multi-ovary wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) line with two or three pistils and three stamens in each floret. The multi-ovary trait of DUOII is controlled by a dominant gene, whose expression can be suppressed by the heterogeneous cytoplasm of TeZhiI (TZI), a line with the nucleus of common wheat and the cytoplasm of Aegilops. Crosses between female DUOII plants and male TZI plants resulted in multi-ovary F1s; whereas, the reciprocal crosses resulted in mono-ovary F1s. Although the multi-ovary trait is inherited as single trait controlled by a dominant allele in lines with a Triticum cytoplasm, the mechanism by which the special heterogeneous cytoplasm suppresses the expression of multi-ovary is not well understood. RESULTS: Observing the developmental process, we found that the critical stage of additional pistil primordium development was when the young spikes were 2-6 mm long. Then, we compared the quantitative proteomic profiles of 2-6 mm long young spikes obtained from the reciprocal crosses between DUOII and TZI. A total of 90 differentially expressed proteins were identified and analyzed based on their biological functions. These proteins had obvious functional pathways mainly implicated in chloroplast metabolism, nuclear and cell division, plant respiration, protein metabolism, and flower development. Importantly, we identified two key proteins, Flowering Locus K Homology Domain and PEPPER, which are known to play an essential role in the specification of pistil organ identity. By drawing relationships between the 90 differentially expressed proteins, we found that these proteins revealed a complex network which is associated with multi-ovary gene expression under heterogeneous cytoplasmic suppression. CONCLUSIONS: Our proteomic analysis has identified certain differentially expressed proteins in 2-6 mm long young spikes, which was the critical stage of additional primordium development. This paper provided a universal proteomic profiling involved in the cytoplasmic suppression of wheat floral meristems; and our findings have laid a solid foundation for further mechanistic studies on the underlying mechanisms that control the heterogeneous cytoplasm-induced suppression of the nuclear multi-ovary gene in wheat.


Assuntos
Citoplasma/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteômica , Triticum/anatomia & histologia , Triticum/genética
16.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 83(8): 1570-1582, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021711

RESUMO

In sake brewing, the steamed rice is used in two ways, added to sake-mash (as kake-mai) and making koji. The rice is an important determinant for the quality of sake, as the metabolites in sake affect its taste/aroma. The sake rice Koshitanrei (KOS) was developed in Niigata Prefecture by genetically crossing two sake rice, Gohyakumangoku and Yamadanishiki. However, the metabolites in sake from KOS have not been analyzed. Here, to investigate the characteristic metabolites in sake from KOS, we performed two types of small-scale sake-fermentation tests changing only the rice used for kake-mai or total rice (both kake-mai and koji) by these three rice cultivars and examined the effect of KOS on sake metabolites by the metabolome analysis method using UPLC-QTOF-MS. We identified the peaks/metabolites, whose intensity in sake from KOS was higher/lower than those from the other cultivars. The brewing properties of KOS were partially characterized by this analysis.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Oryza/metabolismo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Fermentação , Genes de Plantas , Japão , Metabolômica , Odorantes , Oryza/genética , Paladar
17.
J Genet ; 982019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945678

RESUMO

Creation of genetic variability and development of varieties having higher yield potential depends on information about nature of gene action. The present investigation was undertaken to decipher the nature of gene action and allied genetic parameters involved in the inheritance of yield and yield-related component traits in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). The biparental inbreeding progenies derived from four segregating base populations of crosses NB-1Kr40-3/3×NB-1Kr30+0.2-2/1, NB-5Kr40-7/2×58/1, NB-1Kr30+0.2-2/1×58/1 and NB-Kr40-3/3×NB-5Kr40-7/2 of opium poppy were analysed to study the gene actions involved in the inheritance of yield and component traits. Additive component of variance played a predominant role in North Carolina design (NCD)-I, while both additive and dominance genetic components were found important in NCD-III design. The presence of additive as well as nonadditive components of variance suggested that one or two generations of intermating in further generations followed by selection may lead to development of novel genotypes.


Assuntos
Cruzamentos Genéticos , Variação Genética , Ópio/análise , Papaver/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Genótipo , Endogamia , North Carolina , Papaver/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo
18.
Theor Appl Genet ; 132(7): 2155-2166, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016346

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Common wheat landrace Kaixian-luohanmai carries a gene(s) that promotes homoeologous chromosome pairing. A major QTL responsible for this effect was mapped to chromosome arm 3AL. Polyhaploid hybrids of a Chinese common wheat landrace Kaixian-luohanmai (KL) and related species show increased levels of chromosome pairing. Over 90% of that pairing is between homoeologous arms of wheat chromosomes, with a very strong preference for pairing between homoeologs from genomes A and D. Wheat-rye pairing was also observed at low frequency. Two mapping populations were created from the hybrids of KL with two wheat genotypes top crossed to rye. Mean chiasmata numbers per plant were used as phenotypic data. Wheat 660 K and 15 K SNP arrays, DArT markers and SSR markers were used for genotyping of the top-cross ABDR hybrids. One major QTL, named QPh.sicau-3A, for increased homoeologous pairing was detected on chromosome arm 3AL, and it was responsible for ca. 16% of the total variation. This QTL was located in the interval 696-725 Mb in the Chinese Spring reference genome. SNP markers closely linked with QPh.sicau-3A were converted to KASP markers and validated for marker-assisted selection.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Pareamento Cromossômico , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Anim Genet ; 50(3): 287-292, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994195

RESUMO

Plasma cholinesterase (PCHE) activity is an important auxiliary test in human clinical medicine. It can distinguish liver diseases from non-liver diseases and help detect organophosphorus poisoning. Animal experiments have confirmed that PCHE activity is associated with obesity and hypertension and changes with physiological changes in an animal's body. The objective of this study was to locate the genetic loci responsible for PCHE activity variation in ducks. PCHE activity of Pekin duck × mallard F2 ducks at 3 and 8 weeks of age were analyzed, and genome-wide association studies were conducted. A region of about 1.5 Mb (21.8-23.3 Mb) on duck chromosome 9 was found to be associated with PCHE activity at both 3 and 8 weeks of age. The top SNP, g.22643979C>T in the butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) gene, was most highly associated with PCHE activity at 3 weeks (-logP = 21.45) and 8 weeks (-logP = 27.60) of age. For the top SNP, the strong associations of CC and CT genotypes with low PCHE activity and the TT genotype with high PCHE activity indicates the dominant inheritance of low PCHE activity. Problems with block inheritance or linkage exist in this region. This study supports that BCHE is a functional gene for determining PCHE levels in ducks and that the genetic variations around this gene can cause phenotypic variations of PCHE activity.


Assuntos
Colinesterases/genética , Patos/genética , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/sangue , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Butirilcolinesterase/genética , Colinesterases/sangue , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Patos/sangue , Patos/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(4): 552-560, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930415

RESUMO

Field surveys of Ephedra plants were conducted in the Zaravshan Mountains of Tajikistan. E. equisetina, E. intermedia, and their putative hybrids were collected. They were identified based on their phenotypes and their sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region. Sequencing and species-specific PCR analyses of their ITS1 sequences revealed six putative hybrids of E. equisetina and E. intermedia. The total ephedrine and pseudoephedrine content of most of the Ephedra samples collected in Tajikistan were higher than the 0.7% lower limit prescribed by the Japanese pharmacopoeia, 17th edition (JP17), and varied from 0.34 to 3.21% by dry weight. The total alkaloid level of E. intermedia (11E08-1) cultivated in Japan varied from 1.77 to 2.30% by dry weight, which was much higher than the 0.7% lower limit prescribed by JP17.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Ephedra , Altitude , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Ephedra/química , Ephedra/genética , Efedrina/análise , Hibridização Genética , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/genética , Pseudoefedrina/análise , Tadjiquistão
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