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1.
Ann Saudi Med ; 41(5): 293-298, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp. is a protozoan parasite that infects many vertebrate animals, including humans. Since Cryptosporidium spp. can cause chronic life-threatening diarrhea and severe malabsorption in immunocompromised patients, we investigated the prevalence of this parasite among patients undergoing chemotherapy for malignant solid tumors. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in stool samples. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Tertiary care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Stool samples were collected from adult patients with malignant solid tumors receiving chemotherapy and diarrhea. Cryptosporidium spp. prevalence was determined using Ziehl-Neelsen staining, ELISA, and real-time PCR targeting of the COWP gene. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in patients undergoing chemotherapy for malignant solid tumors. SAMPLE SIZE: 94 RESULTS: The prevalence was 2.1% (2/94), 5.3% (5/94), and 5.3% (5/94) as detected by Ziehl-Neelsen staining, real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. The prevalence reached 8.5% (8/94) using all results obtained from the three methods. Among eight positive stool samples, four were positive by at least two different methods (Ziehl-Neelsen staining-ELISA or ELISA-real-time PCR) whereas the remaining four were positive by either ELISA or real-time PCR. CONCLUSION: These findings show the risk of cryptosporidiosis in cancer patients and the necessity to use at least two diagnostic methods during the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis to reach more accurate and trustworthy results. LIMITATIONS: Further studies with a larger sample size are recommended. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Neoplasias , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247181, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495161

RESUMO

The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , China , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia
3.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516365

RESUMO

Introduction. The identification of enteropathogens is critical for the clinical management of patients with suspected gastrointestinal infection. The FLOW multiplex PCR system (FMPS) is a semi-automated platform (FLOW System, Roche) for multiplex real-time PCR analysis.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. FMPS has greater sensitivity for the detection of enteric pathogens than standard methods such as culture, biochemical identification, immunochromatography or microscopic examination.Aim.The diagnostic performance of the FMPS was evaluated and compared to that of traditional microbiological procedures.Methodology. A total of 10 659 samples were collected and analysed over a period of 7 years. From 2013 to 2018 (every July to September), samples were processed using standard microbiological culture methods. In 2019, the FMPS was implemented using real-time PCR to detect the following enteropathogens: Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, Cryptosporidum spp., Dientamoeba fragilis, adenovirus, norovirus and rotavirus. Standard microbiological culture methods (2013-2018) included stool culture, microscopy and immunochromatography.Results. A total of 1078 stool samples were analysed prospectively using the FMPS from July to September (2019): bacterial, parasitic and viral pathogens were identified in 15.3, 9.71 and 5.29 % of cases, respectively. During the same period of 6 years (2013-2018), the proportion of positive identifications using standard microbiological methods from 2013 to 2018 was significantly lower. A major significant recovery improvement was observed for all bacteria species tested: Shigella spp./enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) (P <0.05), Salmonella spp. (P <0.05) and Campylobacter spp. (P <0.05). Marked differences were also observed for the parasites G. intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and D. fragilis.Conclusion. These results support the value of multiplex real-time PCR analysis for the detection of enteric pathogens in laboratory diagnosis with outstanding performance in identifying labile micro-organisms. The identification of unsuspected micro-organisms for less specific clinical presentations may also impact on clinical practice and help optimize patient management.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Blastocystis hominis/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Dientamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba histolytica/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/isolamento & purificação
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4983, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404783

RESUMO

Parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa cause important diseases including malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis. These intracellular pathogens inject the contents of an essential organelle, the rhoptry, into host cells to facilitate invasion and infection. However, the structure and mechanism of this eukaryotic secretion system remain elusive. Here, using cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging, we report the conserved architecture of the rhoptry secretion system in the invasive stages of two evolutionarily distant apicomplexans, Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii. In both species, we identify helical filaments, which appear to shape and compartmentalize the rhoptries, and an apical vesicle (AV), which facilitates docking of the rhoptry tip at the parasite's apical region with the help of an elaborate ultrastructure named the rhoptry secretory apparatus (RSA); the RSA anchors the AV at the parasite plasma membrane. Depletion of T. gondii Nd9, a protein required for rhoptry secretion, disrupts the RSA ultrastructure and AV-anchoring. Moreover, T. gondii contains a line of AV-like vesicles, which interact with a pair of microtubules and accumulate towards the AV, leading to a working model for AV-reloading and discharging of multiple rhoptries. Together, our analyses provide an ultrastructural framework to understand how these important parasites deliver effectors into host cells.


Assuntos
Organelas/metabolismo , Organelas/ultraestrutura , Parasitos/metabolismo , Parasitos/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Cryptosporidium parvum/citologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptosporidium parvum/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Microtúbulos/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/citologia , Toxoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxoplasma/metabolismo , Toxoplasmose
5.
Water Res ; 203: 117553, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425437

RESUMO

Waterborne pathogens, such as Cryptosporidium parvum, pose a major threat to public health globally, and this requires screening of drinking and environmental water for low number of contaminating microbes. However, current detection approaches generally require trained experts with sophisticated instruments, and are not suitable for large-scale screening and rapid outbreak response. Recent advances in ultrasensitive CRISPR/Cas-based biosensing continue to expand the range of detectable molecular targets, however single microbes could not be directly detected so far, especially in environmental samples. Here, we report an ultrasensitive CRISPR/Cas12a-powered immunosensing method suitable for microbial detection which links antibody-based recognition with CRISPR/Cas12a-based fluorescent signal amplification through an antibody-DNA conjugate. This approach is shown here to detect whole 4 µm size Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts with a linear range from 6.25 - 1600 oocysts/mL, at a maximum sensitivity of single oocyst per sample. Its potential to apply to various complex sample matrices has also been demonstrated. After sample dilution by factor of 10, we were able to detect 10 oocysts from a back-wash mud samples from water treatment plate. This method uses the same experimental setup (plate reader) as a conventional ELISA assay thus reducing the need for microscopy-based identification of Cryptosporidium, which represents the gold-standard but requires high level expertise and time-consuming manual counting. This work highlights the potential of CRISPR/Cas-based biosensing for water quality assessment and ultrasensitive whole pathogen detection.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Cryptosporidium/genética , Imunoensaio , Oocistos
6.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(3)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies on gastroenteritis have focused on viral and bacterial infections, while gastroenteritis where intestinal protozoan parasites may have played a role has not been well studied. This study was therefore, designed to assess the frequency and several potential risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection among children suffering from acute gastroenteritis and presented to a tertiary hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Effectiveness of modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) for Cryptosporidium detection were evaluated as well. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed during the period from July 2018 to December 2018, where 100 human diarrheic stool samples were collected from children aged 3 months up to 12 years old presented to Ain Shams University Pediatrics Hospital, Cairo, Egypt with acute gastroenteritis. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the participants. Initial parasite screening was done using the MZN staining method, and microscopically examined for Cryptosporidium infection, while genotyping was based on molecular diagnostic assays using nPCR and sequencing for selected samples. RESULTS: The overall frequency of Cryptosporidium infection was 5% using light microscopy, while 19% of samples were positive by nPCR. Cryptosporidium hominis was the only detected genotype. Clinical picture among cases were not significant in comparison to patients with other causes of gastroenteritis. CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium infection is more common below 5 years of age; however, clinical data are not enough for suspicion of infection. Nucleic acid-based methods are more sensitive and specific despite the high cost in developing countries. However, real estimation of Cryptosporidium disease burden is of an outmost importance to achieve prevention and detection of the Cryptosporidium species genetic diversity. Lay summaryCryptosporidium is a protozoan, which causes gastroenteritis in humans. It is most common below 5 years of age; however, diarrhea and vomiting characteristics are not different from other causes of gastroenteritis. General diagnostic methods are inadequate for detection of these infections. Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and sequencing are accurate methods for pathogen detection and species verification. Our study included 100 Egyptian children with acute gastroenteritis. The overall frequency of Cryptosporidium infection was 5% using light microscopy, while 19% of samples were positive by nPCR. The clinical picture of the children presenting with this disease was not significantly different from those presenting with gastroenteritis due to other causes. This emphasizes the importance of proper diagnosis to know the true burden of the disease.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Gastroenterite , Criança , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia , Egito/epidemiologia , Fezes , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
7.
J Water Health ; 19(4): 545-562, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371493

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is an intracellular protozoan parasite, globally distributed and capable of infecting various vertebrate species, including humans as well as domestic and wild animals. Cryptosporidium is increasingly gaining attention as a human and an animal pathogen mainly due to its dominant involvement in worldwide waterborne outbreaks. The present paper reviews the current knowledge and understanding of Cryptosporidium spp. in terrestrial and water animals in Azerbaijan.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Azerbaijão/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Gado
8.
J Water Health ; 19(4): 629-641, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371499

RESUMO

In recent decades, natural swimming pools (NSPs) have gained popularity in Europe, especially in Germany and Austria. NSPs differ from swimming pools in that they utilize biological treatment processes based on wetland processes with no disinfection residual. However, data are missing on the specific log-reduction performance of NSPs to address enteric virus, bacteria, and parasitic protozoa removal considered necessary to meet the North American risk-based benchmark (<35 illnesses per 1,000 swimming events) set by the USEPA for voluntary swimming. In this study, we examined Canada's first NSP at Borden Park, Edmonton, Canada, to address the following three questions: (1) Given normal faecal shedding rates by bathers, what is the total log reduction (TLR) theoretically needed to meet the EPA benchmark? (2) what is the in-situ performance of the NSP based on spiking suitable microbial surrogates (MS2 coliphage, Enterococcus faecalis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Baker's yeast])? and (3) how much time is required to reach acceptable bather risk levels under different representative volume-turnover rates? A reverse-quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) revealed that of the four reference pathogens selected (Norovirus, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia), only Norovirus was estimated to exceed the risk benchmark at the 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles, while Campylobacter was the only other reference pathogen to exceed at the 95th percentile. Log-reduction values (LRVs) were similar to previous reports for bacterial indicators, and novel LRVs were estimated for the other two surrogates. A key finding was that more than 24 h treatment time would be necessary to provide acceptable bather protection following heavy bather use (378 bathers/day for main pool and 26 bathers/day for children's pool), due to the mixing dynamics of the treated water diluting out possible residual pool faecal contamination. The theoretical maximum number of people in the pool per day to be below USEPA's 35 gastro cases in 1,000 swimming events was 113, 47, and 8, at the 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles. Further, the use of ultra-violet disinfection to the pool return flow had little effect on reducing the treatment time required.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Piscinas , Criança , Objetivos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Microbiologia da Água
9.
Parasitol Res ; 120(9): 3035-3044, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34401942

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is one of the most important parasitic protozoa that can be transmitted through food and water contamination. With the increasing report of Cryptosporidium infections in wild birds, especially in herbivorous waterfowl, concerns have been raised for oocyst contamination of water and food supplies, which in turn can cause human and domestic animal infections in areas neighboring wild birds' habitats. This review discusses the epidemiology, species, and genotypes distribution of Cryptosporidium in wild birds around the world. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium in wild birds was calculated as 3.96% (1945/49129), with 6 Cryptosporidium species (C. andersoni, C. parvum, C. meleagridis, C. avium, C. baileyi, and C. galli) and 5 genotypes (Goose genotype I, Goose genotype II, Avian genotype I, Avian genotype III, and Avian genotype VI) reported. As wild birds mainly live in the wild, control method for the Cryptosporidium infection in wild birds is still lacking, which increases the probability of disease transmission from wild birds to humans. The main purpose of this review is to highlight the Cryptosporidium infection in wild birds and its transmission, associated risk factors, and their prevention, illustrating the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches toward screening and control of Cryptosporidium infections.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Saúde Única
10.
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105096, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273476

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis is an important zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium. This disease causes a global public health problem. The cat is considered to be one of the potential hosts for transmitting Cryptosporidium to humans. In this study, a global meta-analysis for Cryptosporidium infection in cats was performed. The articles related to Cryptosporidium infection in cats were systematically searched in databases China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang data, VIP Chinese Journal Database, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. Finally, 92 articles published from 1988 to 2021, which met the criteria of systematic review and meta-analysis, were collected. During the selected period, the overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium among cats was identified to be 6.0%. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium detected by microscopy, coproantigens, and molecular biology methods were 4.2%, 8.2%, and 5.0%, respectively. Among 9 species/genotypes (C. felis, C. parvum, C. muris, Cryptosporidium rat genotype IV, C. baileyi, C. ryanae, C. hominis, Cryptosporidium sp. rat genotype III and most closely related to Cryptosporidium sp. rat genotype III), the prevalence of C. parvum (4.2%) was significantly higher than that of other species/genotypes. Among five continents, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in Africa (30.5%) was significantly higher than in other continents. We also analyzed the effects of different geographical factors (longitude, latitude, altitude, mean temperature, precipitation, and humidity) on Cryptosporidium infection among cats. The results showed that cryptosporidiosis was common in cats all over the world. This systematic review and meta-analysis has systematically introduced the global epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in cats and correlated risk factors. Health authorities, doctors, veterinarians and cat owners' awareness of the prevalence, risk factors and complications of Cryptosporidium are important for the development of effective prevention strategies for cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
11.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(6): 493-498, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284858

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the risks of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections associated with drinking water for local residents, based on a quantitative microbial risk assessment, in three densely populated regions of China. In total, 45 source water samples and 45 treated water samples were collected from June to December 2014. Five Cryptosporidium-positive samples and 5 Giardia-positive samples were found. The annual probability of infection for individuals in Jintan (6.27 × 10 -4-2.05 × 10 -3 for Cryptosporidium and 7.18 × 10 -4-2.32 × 10 -3 for Giardia), Ezhou (6.27 × 10 -4-1.10 × 10 -2 for Cryptosporidium and 3.65 × 10 -4-1.20 × 10 -3 for Giardia), and Binyang (3.79 × 10 -4-1.25 × 10 -3 for Cryptosporidium) exceeded the tolerable risk of infection of 10 -4 set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Moreover, the corresponding disease burdens of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, due to direct drinking and residual water in these regions, exceeded the threshold of 10 -6 disability-adjusted life years per person per year set by the World Health Organization. These results provide insights into strategies to improve the safety of drinking water.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Criptosporidiose/microbiologia , Giardíase/microbiologia , Humanos , Medição de Risco
12.
Parasitol Res ; 120(8): 2887-2895, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331137

RESUMO

Few data are available on the genetic identity of enteric protists Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in humans in Thailand. In this study, 254 stool samples were collected from primary school children from Ratchaburi Province at the Thai-Myanmar border and examined for Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, E. bieneusi and Cyclospora cayetanensis using PCR techniques. The genotype identity of the pathogens was determined by DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products. Cryptosporidium felis was found in 1 stool sample, G. duodenalis in 19 stool samples, and E. bieneusi in 4 stool samples. For G. duodenalis, sub-assemblage AII was the dominant genotype, but one infection with assemblage F was found. The E. bieneusi genotypes found included known genotypes D and J, and one novel genotype (HPTM1). Cyclospora cayetanensis was not detected in any samples. Results of the preliminary study indicate that children at the Thai-Myanmar border from Ratchaburi Province, Thailand are infected with diverse zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Enterocytozoon , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Microsporidiose , Criança , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fezes , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Mianmar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tailândia
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 496, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282498

RESUMO

The objectives of this research are to evaluate Giardia and Cryptosporidium contamination in surface water supply in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State in South Brazil in the years 2016 to 2020, assess seasonality, and to infer the population that may have been exposed to these protozoa through drinking water based on drinking water treatment efficiency. Data were obtained through the drinking water surveillance national information system. From 204 DWT plants in the state, 66 have been analyzed for protozoa. A total of 2304 analyses of protozoa in raw water were evaluated, of which 223 had both Giardia spp. cysts and/or Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in concentrations that varied from 0.1 to 21.5/L. A total of 2,712,125 people from 48 cities were at risk of having the presence of pathogenic protozoa in their drinking water. The probability of finding these protozoa was higher in winter. Giardia cysts were more likely to be found in a period without rain, suggesting that sewage was the main source of contamination. It is concluded that the springs of Rio Grande do Sul are impacted and the circulation of pathogenic protozoa through the territory is endemic with a probable source of contamination to sewage and livestock activity.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Brasil , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Giardia , Humanos , Oocistos , Abastecimento de Água
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(8): 2201-2204, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287125

RESUMO

Surveillance for soil-transmitted helminths, strongyloidiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and giardiasis was conducted in Mississippi, USA. PCR performed on 224 fecal samples for all soil-transmitted helminths and on 370 samples for only Necator americanus and Strongyloides stercoralis identified 1 S. stercoralis infection. Seroprevalences were 8.8% for Toxocara, 27.4% for Cryptosporidium, 5.7% for Giardia, and 0.2% for Strongyloides parasites.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Giardíase , Doenças Parasitárias , Fezes , Humanos , Mississippi/epidemiologia
15.
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105025, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090984

RESUMO

Yunling cattle is an unique cattle breed distributed in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. It is yet to know whether Yunling cattle are infected with Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp.. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence and characterize the assemblages of G. duodenalis and species of Cryptosporidium spp. in Yunling cattle in Yunnan province. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were 10.49% (41/391) and 0.77% (3/391), respectively. The age was considered as the risk factor for Yunling cattle infection with G. duodenalis (χ2 = 8.082, OR = 2.56, P = 0.004). Two assemblages of G. duodenalis, assemblage A (n = 1) and assemblage E (n = 40), were identified by amplification of the ß-giardin (bg) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene loci using the nested PCR methods. Furthermore, Cryptosporidium andersoni (n = 1) and Cryptosporidium ryanae (n = 2) were detected by nested PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. This is the first report of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in Yunling cattle in China, which provided baseline date for further studies of the prevalence, genetic identity, and public health potential of these parasites in Yunling cattle.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Giardia lamblia , Giardíase , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Prevalência
16.
Parasitology ; 148(11): 1288-1292, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120663

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (Covid-19) nonpharmaceutical interventions have proven effective control measures for a range of respiratory illnesses throughout the world. These measures, which include isolation, stringent border controls, physical distancing and improved hygiene also have effects on other human pathogens, including parasitic enteric diseases such as cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidium infections in humans are almost entirely caused by two species: C. hominis, which is primarily transmitted from human to human, and Cryptosporidium parvum, which is mainly zoonotic. By monitoring Cryptosporidium species and subtype families in human cases of cryptosporidiosis before and after the introduction of Covid-19 control measures in New Zealand, we found C. hominis was completely absent after the first months of 2020 and has remained so until the beginning of 2021. Nevertheless, C. parvum has followed its typical transmission pattern and continues to be widely reported. We conclude that ~7 weeks of isolation during level 3 and 4 lockdown period interrupted the human to human transmission of C. hominis leaving only the primarily zoonotic transmission pathway used by C. parvum. Secondary anthroponotic transmission of C. parvum remains possible among close contacts of zoonotic cases. Ongoing 14-day quarantine measures for new arrivals to New Zealand have likely suppressed new incursions of C. hominis from overseas. Our findings suggest that C. hominis may be controlled or even eradicated through nonpharmaceutical interventions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
17.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(7): 4397-4403, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120199

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is a water-borne zoonotic parasite worldwide, usually found in lakes and rivers contaminated with sewage and animal wastes, causing outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis. In this study, 300 water samples were collected from four designated places of flood-affected district Nowshera consist of different water sources to find out the prevalence of Cryptosporidium via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 30.33% (91/300) with more prevalent 44% in drain water and low 5% in bore/tube well water. The prevalence in open well and tap water was recorded 33% and 20%, respectively. The highest prevalence was recorded in summer (June-September). The result of this study ensures enormous contamination of drinking water that requires appropriate treatment, cleaning and filtration to provide safe drinking water. Preventing water-borne disease and proper treatment of water supplies is essential to public health.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium , Monitoramento Ambiental , Inundações , Água , Cryptosporidium/genética , Paquistão , Água/parasitologia
18.
J Water Health ; 19(3): 436-447, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152296

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are two of the most prominent aetiological agents of waterborne diseases. Therefore, efficient and affordable methodologies for identifying and quantifying these parasites in water are increasingly necessary. USEPA Method 1623.1 is a widely used and validated protocol for detecting these parasites in water samples. It consists of a concentration step, followed by parasite purification and visualization by immunofluorescence microscopy. Although efficient, this method has a high cost particularly due to the immunomagnetic separation (IMS) step, which is most needed with complex and highly contaminated samples. Based on this, the present study aimed to determine whether it is possible to maintain the efficiency of Method 1623.1 while reducing the amount of beads per reaction, using as a matrix the challenge water recommended by the World Health Organization. As for Giardia cysts, a satisfactory recovery efficiency (RE) was obtained using 50% less IMS beads. This was evaluated both with a commercial cyst suspension (56.1% recovery) and an analytical quality assessment (47.5% recovery). Although RE rates obtained for Cryptosporidium parvum did not meet Method 1623.1 criteria in any of the experimental conditions tested, results presented in this paper indicated the relevance of the described adaptations, even in challenge water.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Separação Imunomagnética , Oocistos , Água
19.
J Water Health ; 19(3): 534-544, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152304

RESUMO

Water quality deterioration in source waters poses increased health, environmental, and economic risks. Here, we genotyped Cryptosporidium spp. obtained from water samples of Laguna Lake, Philippines, and its tributaries for the purpose of source-tracking fecal contamination. A total of 104 surface water samples were collected over a 1-year period (March 2018 to April 2019). Detection of Cryptosporidium was carried out using genus-specific primers targeting a fragment of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The study revealed 8 (14%) tributary samples and 1 (2.77%) lake sample positive for contamination. The species were determined to be C. parvum (n = 4), C. muris (n = 2), C. hominis (n = 1), C. galli (n = 1), C. baileyi (n = 1), C. suis (n = 1), as well as rat genotype IV (n = 1). Two species were detected in duck (C. baileyi) and cattle (C. parvum) fecal samples. The data presented suggest that Cryptosporidium contamination is likely to come from sewage or human feces as well as various agricultural sources (i.e. cattle, swine, and poultry). This information reveals the importance of mitigating fecal pollution in the lake system and minimizing health risks due to exposure to zoonotic Cryptosporidium species.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Bovinos , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Lagos , Filipinas , Ratos , Suínos
20.
Water Res ; 200: 117296, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098267

RESUMO

A monitoring strategy was implemented at two drinking water treatment plants in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate microbial reduction performances of full-scale treatment processes under different source water conditions. ß-D-glucuronidase activity in source water was automatically monitored in near-real-time to establish baseline and event conditions at each location. High-volume water samples (50-1,500 L) were collected at the inflow and the outflow of coagulation/flocculation, filtration, and UV disinfection processes and were analysed for two naturally occurring surrogate organisms: Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens. Source water Cryptosporidium data and full-scale C. perfringens reduction data were entered into a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model to estimate daily infection risks associated with exposures to Cryptosporidium via consumption of treated drinking water. Daily mean E. coli and Cryptosporidium concentrations in source water under event conditions were in the top 5% (agricultural site) or in the top 15% (urban site) of what occurs through the year at these drinking water treatment plants. Reduction performances of up to 6.0-log for E. coli and 5.6-log for C. perfringens were measured by concentrating high-volume water samples throughout the treatment train. For both drinking water treatment plants, removal performances by coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation processes were at the high end of the range of those reported in the literature for bacteria and bacterial spores. Reductions of E. coli and C. perfringens by floc blanket clarification, ballasted clarification and rapid sand filtration did not deteriorate during two snowmelt/rainfall events. QMRA results suggested that daily infection risks were similar during two rainfall/snowmelt events than during baseline conditions. Additional studies investigating full-scale reductions would be desirable to improve the evaluation of differences in treatment performances under various source water conditions.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Água Potável , Purificação da Água , Canadá , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Quebeque , Microbiologia da Água
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