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1.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110268, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148324

RESUMO

Some of the microorganisms present in urban wastewater, which include intestinal protozoa and nematodes, can be pathogenic. Their (oo)cyst and egg transmissible stages are very resistant to environmental stresses and disinfectants and they are therefore difficult to remove. Thus, they can constitute a health risk if water or sludge obtained in the purification of wastewater is reused for agricultural purposes. In this context, the presence of intestinal protozoa and nematodes were studied in influents, effluents and sludge from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the north of Spain by optical microscopy and PCR techniques. The removal efficiency of different wastewater treatments was also compared. The presence of protozoa has increased among the population discharging waste to WWTPs in recent years. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba spp. and nematodes were detected in all of the WWTPs. Indeed, this is the first report of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba moshkovskii in Spanish WWTPs. The water treatments studied showed different removal efficiencies for each species of intestinal protozoa, with the aerated lagoons providing the best results. (Oo)cysts were also detected in sludge even after aerobic digestion and dehydration. To avoid risks, (oo)cyst viability should be analysed whenever the sludge is to be used as a fertilizer. This study reinforces the necessity of establishing legal limits on the presence of protozoa in WWTP effluents and sludges, especially if reuse is planned. Further studies are necessary for a better understanding of the presence and behaviour of intestinal parasites.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Nematoides , Animais , Giardia , Esgotos , Espanha , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(12): 335-338, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214081

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is an enteric pathogen that is transmitted through animal-to-person or person-to-person contact or through ingestion of contaminated water or food. In the United States, Cryptosporidium affects an estimated 750,000 persons each year; however, only approximately 11,000 cases are reported nationally (1,2). Persons infected with Cryptosporidium typically develop symptoms within 2 to 10 days after exposure. Common symptoms include watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, or fever, which can last 1 to 2 weeks. Cryptosporidiosis is a nationally notifiable disease in the United States. Nebraska presents a unique setting for the evaluation of this pathogen because, compared with other states, Nebraska has a greater reliance on agriculture and a higher proportion of the population residing and working in rural communities. Cryptosporidium species and subtypes are generally indistinguishable using conventional diagnostic methods. Using molecular characterization, Nebraska evaluated the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium and found a dichotomy in the distribution of cases of cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis among rural and urban settings. Characterizing clusters of C. hominis cases revealed that several child care facilities were affected by the same subtype, suggesting community-wide transmission and indicating a need for effective exclusion policies. Several cases of cryptosporidiosis caused by non-C. parvum or non-C. hominis species and genotypes indicated unique animal exposures that were previously unidentified. This study enhanced epidemiologic data by validating known Cryptosporidium sources, confirming outbreaks, and, through repeat interviews, providing additional information to inform cryptosporidiosis prevention and control efforts.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem Molecular , Nebraska/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 210: 107848, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004534

RESUMO

Marine bivalves are usually cultivated in shallow, estuarine waters where there is a high concentration of nutrients. Many micro-pollutants, including the protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which also occur in such environments, may be concentrated in shellfish tissues during their feeding process. Shellfish can thus be considered as vehicles for foodborne infections, as they are usually consumed lightly cooked or raw. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the presence of both parasites in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis that are cultivated in Thermaikos Gulf, North Greece, which is fed by four rivers that are contaminated with both protozoa. Moreover, the occurrence of these protozoa was monitored in treated wastewaters from 3 treatment plants that discharge into the gulf. In order to identify potential sources of contamination and to estimate the risk for human infection, an attempt was made to genotype Giardia and Cryptosporidium in positive samples. Immunofluorescence was used for detection and molecular techniques were used for both detection and genotyping of the parasites. In total, 120 mussel samples, coming from 10 farms, were examined for the presence of both protozoa over the 6-month farming period. None of them were found positive by immunofluorescence microscopy for the presence of parasites. Only in 3 mussel samples, PCR targeting the GP60 gene detected Cryptosporidium spp. DNA, but sequencing was not successful. Thirteen out of 18 monthly samples collected from the 3 wastewater treatment plants, revealed the presence of Giardia duodenalis cysts belonging to sub-assemblage AII, at relatively low counts (up to 11.2 cysts/L). Cryptosporidium oocysts (up to 0.9 oocysts/L) were also detected in 4 out of 8 samples, although sequencing was not successful at any of the target genes. At the studied location and under the sampling conditions described, mussels tested were not found to be harboring Giardia cysts and the presence of Cryptosporidium was found only in few cases (by PCR detection only). Our results suggest that the likelihood that mussels from these locations act as vehicles of human infection for Giardia and Cryptosporidium seems low.


Assuntos
Bivalves/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Giardia/genética , Giardíase/transmissão , Grécia , Humanos , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rios/parasitologia , Águas Residuárias/parasitologia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 16, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a genus of common intestinal protozoa, members of which cause diarrhea in a wide variety of hosts. Previous studies on Cryptosporidium in China have mainly focused on diarrhea sufferers, children, and immunodeficient individuals such as HIV/AIDS patients. However, the epidemiological characteristics of Cryptosporidium in the population in rural areas remain unclear. Herein, we investigated the prevalence of, and risk factors for, Cryptosporidium in rural areas of Binyang County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, and genetically characterized the Cryptosporidium isolates we obtained. METHODS: From August to December 2016, two villages in Binyang County, Guangxi, were sampled using a random cluster sampling method. Fresh fecal samples were collected from all eligible residents (residence time > 6 months). Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium was carried out based on its SSU rRNA, gp60, actin and hsp70 gene sequences. Fisher's exact test were conducted to assess the risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection. RESULTS: A total of 400 fecal samples were collected from 195 males (48.8%) and 205 females (51.2%). Two samples (0.5%) were positive for Cryptosporidium and were identified as C. viatorum and C. occultus respectively. Moreover, a new C. viatorum subtype XVaA3h was identified based on the sequence of the gp 60 gene. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. viatorum and C. occultus infections in humans in China and of C. viatorum subtype XVaA3h. The findings provide important information on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in the Chinese population, and expand the range of Cryptosporidium species known to infect people in China.


Assuntos
Sequência de Bases/genética , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Water Res ; 169: 115178, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670085

RESUMO

Pilot testing of direct potable reuse (DPR) using multi-stage ozone and biological filtration as an alternative treatment train without reverse osmosis (RO) was investigated. This study examined four blending ratios of advanced treated reclaimed water from the F. Wayne Hill Water Resources Center (FWH WRC) in Gwinnett County, Georgia, combined with the existing drinking water treatment plant raw water supply, Lake Lanier, for potable water production. Baseline testing with 100 percent (%) Lake Lanier water was initially conducted; followed by testing blends of 15, 25, 50, and 100% reclaimed water from FWH WRC. Finished water quality from the DPR pilot was compared to drinking water standards, and emerging microbial and chemical contaminants were also evaluated. Results were benchmarked against a parallel indirect potable reuse (IPR) pilot receiving 100% of the raw water from Lake Lanier. Finished water quality from the DPR pilot at the 15% blend complied with the United States primary and secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs and SMCLs, respectively). However, exceedances of one or more MCLs or SMCLs were observed at higher blends. Importantly, reclaimed water from FWH WRC was of equal or better quality for all microbiological targets tested compared to Lake Lanier, indicating that a DPR scenario could lower acute risks from microbial pathogens compared to current practices. Finished water from the DPR pilot had no detections of microorganisms, even at the 100% FWH WRC effluent blend. Microbiological targets tested included heterotrophic plate counts, total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, somatic and male-specific coliphage, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococci, Legionella, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia. There were water quality challenges, primarily associated with nitrate originating from incomplete denitrification and bromate formation from ozonation at the FWH WRC. These challenges highlight the importance of upstream process monitoring and control at the advanced wastewater treatment facility if DPR is considered. This research demonstrated that ozone with biological filtration could achieve potable water quality criteria, without the use of RO, in cases where nitrate is below the MCL of 10 mg nitrogen per liter and total dissolved solids are below the SMCL of 500 mg per liter.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Água Potável , Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Animais , Georgia , Osmose , Águas Residuárias
7.
Water Res ; 170: 115297, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756612

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium parvum, Toxoplasma gondii and Giardia duodenalis are worldwide pathogenic protozoa recognized as major causal agents of waterborne disease outbreaks. To overcome the normative process (ISO 15553/2006) limitations of protozoa detection in aquatic systems, we propose to use the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), a freshwater bivalve mollusc, as a tool for biomonitoring protozoan contamination. Mussels were exposed to three concentrations of C. parvum oocysts, G. duodenalis cysts or T. gondii oocysts for 21 days followed by 21 days of depuration in clear water. D. polymorpha accumulated protozoa in its tissues and haemolymph. Concerning T. gondii and G. duodenalis, the percentage of protozoa positive mussels reflected the contamination level in water bodies. As for C. parvum detection, oocysts did accumulate in mussel tissues and haemolymph, but in small quantities, and the limit of detection was high (between 50 and 100 oocysts). Low levels of T. gondii (1-5 oocysts/mussel) and G. duodenalis (less than 1 cyst/mussel) were quantified in D. polymorpha tissues. The ability of zebra mussels to reflect contamination by the three protozoa for weeks after the contamination event makes them a good integrative matrix for the biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Dreissena , Animais , Ecossistema , Água Doce
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135456, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837866

RESUMO

The high frequency and intensity of urban floods caused by climate change, urbanisation and infrastructure failures increase public health risks when the flood water contaminated from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) or other sources of faecal contamination remains on urban surfaces. This study contributes to a better understanding of the effects of urban and recreational surfaces on the occurrence of waterborne pathogens. The inactivation of selected indicator organisms was studied under controlled exposure to artificial sunlight for 6 h followed by 18 h in dark conditions. Concrete, asphalt, pavement blocks and glass as control were inoculated with artificial floodwater containing, as indicator organisms, Escherichia coli bacteria, which are common faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) for water quality assessment, Bacillus subtilis spores chosen as surrogates for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia cysts, and bacteriophages MS2 as indicators for viral contamination. On practically all the surfaces in this study, E. coli had the highest inactivation under light conditions followed by MS2 and B. subtilis, except asphalt where MS2 was inactivated faster. The highest inactivation under light conditions was seen with E. coli on a concrete surface (pH 9.6) with an inactivation rate of 1.85 h-1. However, the pH of the surfaces (varying between 7.0 and 9.6) did not have any influence on inactivation rates under dark conditions. MS2 bacteriophage had the highest inactivation under light conditions on asphalt with a rate of 1.29 h-1. No die-off of B. subtilis spores was observed on any of the surfaces during the experiment, neither in light nor in dark conditions. This study underpins the need to use different indicator organisms to test their inactivation after flooding. It also suggests that given the sunlight conditions, concentration of indicator organisms and type of surface, the fate of waterborne pathogens after a flood could be estimated.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Inundações , Microbiologia da Água , Bactérias , Cidades , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Cryptosporidium parvum , Levivirus , Oocistos
9.
Environ Technol ; 41(2): 181-190, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932838

RESUMO

Forest catchments can produce high quality source water with a low turbidity. However, the combination of low turbidity, low organic carbon, and low temperature water conditions presents operating challenges in conventional water treatment processes. In this study, in-line filtration was tested using pilot-scale filter columns, and was found to be an appropriate option to treat a typical low turbidity water originating from the Rocky Mountains near Calgary, Alberta, Canada. When alum and cationic polymer were dosed simultaneously, in-line filtration produced high quality effluent with a turbidity and a particle count value of less than 0.1 NTU and 50 counts/mL, respectively. However, the alum and polymer doses and their ratios played important roles in the filtration efficiency. In general, short filter ripening times (i.e. <15 min) required an alum dose of at least 3 mg/L and an alum to polymer dose ratio of less than 180:1. A longer filter stable period was associated with lower alum and polymer doses, as long as their doses were at least 2 and 0.024 mg/L, respectively, and their dose ratio was maintained in the range of 30:1 to 130:1. The optimal alum and polymer doses were observed to be 3 and 0.072 mg/L, respectively. Filter performance was enhanced when higher alum and polymer doses were used for ripening, and lower doses were applied during the stable filtration period. In addition, in-line filtration resulted in the reduction of microspheres by 3.6 logs under the tested water conditions. Hence, a similar removal efficiency is anticipated for Cryptosporidium.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Purificação da Água , Animais , Canadá , Filtração , Água
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134447, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677419

RESUMO

Identification of Cryptosporidium oocyst is essential in ensuring water quality fit for human use, consumption, and recreation. This communication proposes the supplemental analysis of substrate-associated biofilms, in particular, freshwater sponges in improving case finding of waterborne-protozoan pathogens (WBPP) in environmental aquatic samples. In this study, a small portion of a mature freshwater sponge under the Genus Spongilla was subjected to microscopic and molecular analysis to identify the presence of Cryptosporidium. Microscopic screening with modified Kinyoun's staining (MK) and microscopic confirmation using direct antibody fluorescent testing (IFT) returned with Cryptosporidium spp. positive findings. Molecular investigation resulted in the confirmation of Cryptosporidium hominis upon sequencing of PCR products and phylogenetic analysis. This is the first report of a pathogenic protozoan, C. hominis isolated from a freshwater sponge. The results of this study provide evidence of the value of expanding water quality assessment strategies to the analysis of substrate-associated biofilms and sponges in improving case finding of WBPP in natural aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Água Doce/microbiologia , Poríferos/parasitologia , Animais , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Oocistos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
11.
Parasitol Int ; 74: 101979, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472267

RESUMO

The link between cryptosporidiosis and cancer has been suggested by some epidemiological studies. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to further understand this relationship. In the current study, six electronic databases were reviewed for Cryptosporidium infection in cancer patients. We used random effects model and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to determine the overall odds ratio (OR). Heterogeneity was calculated with Cochran's Q test and I2statistic. In total, 19 studies involving 3562 individuals with case-control (nine) and cross-sectional (ten) designs were included in our project. The pooled overall random effect favored a statistically significant increased risk of Cryptosporidium infection in cancer patients compared with non-cancer individuals [OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 2.18-4.98]. The overall heterogeneity was medium (χ2 = 25.77; I2 = 30.2%, P = .11). The pooled ORs in case-control and cross-sectional studies were [OR = 5.60; 95% CI: 3.43-9.13; χ2 = 5.51; I2 = 0.00%, P = .70] and [OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.18-3.67; χ2 = 13.69; I2 = 34.3, P = .13], respectively. T-value and P-value were 0.54 and 0.57 based on the results of Harbord's modified's regression test. In summary, this meta-analysis demonstrates that Cryptosporidium infection is associated with cancer. Also, it found that study design and year of publication are the specific sources of heterogeneity. Further studies should be carried out to investigate the impact of Cryptosporidium infection in the onset or development of cancer in the future.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/complicações , Neoplasias/parasitologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Cryptosporidium/patogenicidade , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
12.
Exp Parasitol ; 209: 107824, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870927

RESUMO

Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are recognized by the WHO as important emerging diseases of the 21st century. Symptoms are similar and include diarrhoea and vomiting, which may be severe, even life-threatening, for the immunocompromised and children under five years of age. Between 2013 and 2017, the Institute for Public Health in Serbia recorded 10 waterborne epidemics that manifested as gastrointestinal disease. Routine testing for enteropathogenic bacteria and viruses did not identify the aetiological agents of these outbreaks. As water is not examined for the presence of protozoa in Serbia, we performed a pilot study to analyse samples from four major rivers and their tributaries using a newly implemented methodology for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium, based on the ISO 15553:2006 standard. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, Giardia was detected in 10 out of the 31 samples, Cryptosporidium in five, while two samples were positive for both. Presence of G. duodenalis gDNA was confirmed by amplification of the ß-giardin gene in eight samples, of which one and two, respectively, were identified by RFLP as potentially zoonotic assemblages A and B. The results suggest that surface water in Serbia may be a potential source of infection and call for more in-depth studies using sophisticated molecular tools.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Rios/parasitologia , Animais , Cryptosporidium/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Giardia/classificação , Giardia/genética , Humanos , Complexo Mediador/genética , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Projetos Piloto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Sérvia
13.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 53(4): 464-471, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709944

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. is one of the leading causes of parasitic diarrhea. It is the most common parasite in humans all over the world with Giardia. Cryptosporidium is an important cause of chronic diarrhea in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. Patients with normal immune system may have an asymptomatic course or clinical presentation such as acute watery diarrhea without blood and persistent diarrhea. The severity and duration of the disease may be a reflection of the immune deficiency. Children under two years of age and children with malnutrition may have a risk of prolonged Cryptosporidium spp. infection, even if immunodeficiency work-up is normal, as they may have defects in the natural immune system and lymphocyte functions. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts contaminate water sources, swimming pools, vegetables and fruits because oocysts are partially resistant to chlorination. So it may be problem for public health. Pets, livestock and humans can be carriers of Cryptosporidium spp. Factors such as developmental level of the countries, immune system, nutritional status, living in crowded environments, contact with contaminated water, close contact with animals, working at a hospital and hot and humid climate affect the incidence of Cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidium spp. may cause asymptomatic infection, mild diarrheal disease or severe diarrhea with high volume, which may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever, following a 1-7 day incubation period. Diarrhea may be acute or chronic, transient, intermittent, or continuous; loss of fluid can be up to 25 L/day in severe diarrhea. Cryptosporidium spp. are mainly located in intestines, but non-intestinal (bile ducts, pancreas, stomach, respiratory system, kidney) involvement may occur in immunocompromised patients. Hepatobiliary system involvement occurs in 10-30% of patients with AIDS; stone-free cholecystitis can lead to sclerosing cholangitis and pancreatitis. Hepatobiliary involvement is not expected in patients without immunodeficiency. In this article, we present a case of Cryptosporodiosis with hepatobiliary system involvement who were admitted to the pediatric emergency clinic with the complaints of severe diarrhea and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in parasitological examination of the stool specimen. Immunodeficiency was not considered with her resume and laboratuary examinations. We would like to emphasize that Cryptosporodium spp. may be the cause of severe acute diarrhea in non-immunocompromised patients and may also involve hepatobiliary system involvement.


Assuntos
Doenças Biliares , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Diarreia , Hepatopatias , Doenças Biliares/etiologia , Doenças Biliares/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/complicações , Diarreia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/parasitologia
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 510, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium infect a wide range of animal species as well as humans. Cryptosporidium spp. can cause life threatening diarrhea especially in young animals, children, immunocompromised patients and malnourished individuals. Asymptomatic cryptosporidial infections in animals can also occur, making these animals potential reservoirs of infection. METHODS: In the present study, a molecular survey of Cryptosporidium spp. in ruminants that were slaughtered for human consumption in Yazd Province, located in central Iran was conducted. Faeces were collected per-rectum from 484 animals including 192 cattle, 192 sheep and 100 goats. DNA was extracted from all samples and screened for Cryptosporidium by PCR amplification of the 18S rRNA gene. Positives were Sanger sequenced and further subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) locus. RESULTS: In total, Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 22 animals: C. andersoni and C. bovis in seven and two cattle faecal samples, respectively, C. ubiquitum in five sheep, and C. xiaoi in six sheep and two goat samples, respectively. To our knowledge, this study provides for the first time, molecular information concerning Cryptosporidium species infecting goats in Iran, and is also the first report of C. ubiquitum and C. xiaoi from ruminants in Iran. CONCLUSION: The presence of potentially zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium in ruminants in this region may suggest that livestock could potentially contribute to human cryptosporidiosis, in particular among farmers and slaughterhouse workers, in the area. Further molecular studies on local human populations are required to more accurately understand the epidemiology and transmission dynamics of Cryptosporidium spp. in this region.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/enzimologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Fatores Etários , Animais , Bovinos , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Cabras , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/complicações , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Ovinos , Zoonoses/parasitologia
15.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3555-3559, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722067

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to survey the Cryptosporidium species in peafowls (Pavo cristatus) in Henan Province, China. A total of 143 fecal specimens collected from a breeding farm were tested for Cryptosporidium by nested PCR targeting the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), and actin genes of Cryptosporidium followed by sequence analysis. Only one isolate from an asymptomatic host was obtained, and the isolate differed from a new C. xiaoi-like genotype by one nucleotide and from C. xiaoi or C. bovis at the SSU rRNA locus by six nucleotides. Likewise, the actin gene shared 99% identity with the C. xiaoi-like genotype, accompanied by four nucleotide mutations. A complete sequence of the HSP70 gene was obtained, and exhibited 96% similarity with that from C. xiaoi and differed by one nucleotide from that with the C. xiaoi-like genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the current isolate revealed genetic relatedness to the C. xiaoi-like genotype and distinction from C. xiaoi and C. bovis. Therefore, our results provided the first documentation of avian infection with a C. xiaoi-like genotype in China and further insight into the diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in avians.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Galliformes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico/genética
16.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3195-3204, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724068

RESUMO

Whole genomic sequencing (WGS) and comparative genomics are increasingly used in the characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. They are facilitated by the establishment of procedures for WGS analysis of clinical specimens without laboratory propagation of pathogens. Results of recent comparative genomics analysis suggest that gene duplication might be associated with broad host ranges of some zoonotic Cryptosporidium species and subtypes, while genetic recombination could be involved in the emergence of virulent subtypes. The availability of WGS data has further facilitated the development of advanced molecular typing tools. The use of these tools together with comparative genomics analyses has begun to improve the investigations of outbreaks in industrialized nations. More WGS data, however, are needed from both industrialized nations and developing countries before we can have in-depth understanding of the population genetics and evolution of Cryptosporidium spp. and genetic determinants of various phenotypic traits in human-pathogenic subtypes.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Genômica , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/patogenicidade , Genoma de Protozoário/genética , Genótipo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Virulência/genética
17.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 474-478, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and molecular features of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats from Anhui Province and neighboring provinces. METHODS: A total 832 and 781 fresh fecal samples were collected from seven large-scale sheep farms and ten large-scale goat farms in Anhui Province and neighboring provinces of Henan, Jiangsu and Shandong. The prevalence and species of Cryptosporidium were investigated in the fecal samples from the sheep and goats in the study areas using nested PCR assay based on the Cryptosporidium-specific SSU rDNA gene, and the subgenotypes of C. parvum and C. ubiquitum were characterized by amplification and sequencing of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 5.8% (48/832) in sheep and 8.7% (68/781) in goats in Anhui Province and neighboring provinces, respectively. The SSU rDNA gene-based PCR assay identified C. xiaoi and C. ubiquitum in sheep and C. parvum in goats, and subtyping revealed that all C. ubiquitum subgenotypes belonged to XIIa subtype 2 and C. parvum subgenotypes belonged to IIdA19G1. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of zoonotic C. ubiquitum XIIa subtype 2 and C. parvum subtype IIdA19G1 suggests that sheep and goats may serve as a potential source for human Cryptosporidium infections.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
18.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3409-3418, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729572

RESUMO

The arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), an apex predator with an omnipresent distribution in the Arctic, is a potential source of intestinal parasites that may endanger people and pet animals such as dogs, thus posing a health risk. Non-invasive methods, such as coprology, are often the only option when studying wildlife parasitic fauna. However, the detection and identification of parasites are significantly enhanced when used in combination with methods of molecular biology. Using both approaches, we identified unicellular and multicellular parasites in faeces of arctic foxes and carcasses of sibling voles (Microtus levis) in Svalbard, where molecular methods are used for the first time. Six new species were detected in the arctic fox in Svalbard, Eucoleus aerophilus, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Eimeria spp., and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the latter never found in the arctic fox species before. In addition, only one parasite was found in the sibling vole in Svalbard, the Cryptosporidium alticolis, which has never been detected in Svalbard before.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/parasitologia , Raposas/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Regiões Árticas , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cães , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Svalbard , Toxocara canis/isolamento & purificação , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação
19.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 691-700, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638021

RESUMO

A survey was conducted in the Czech Republic to determine whether serological responses to the 15/17-kDa and 27-kDa Cryptosporidium antigens had changed since the end of the communist era and if these responses were associated with drinking water sources. Sera from 301 blood donors residing in six areas served by various sources of drinking water were analysed by Western Blot (mini-immunoblots) to measure the IgG response. The intensity of response and percentage of persons with a strong response to the 27-kDa, but not the 15/17-kDa, antigen were higher than found 20 years earlier. A strong response to both the 15/17- and 27-kDa-antigens was higher than reported in other countries, and the probability of persons having a strong response was greater in areas with surface water sources than river-bank infiltration. Few cases of cryptosporidiosis were reported in spite of these high responses to Cryptosporidium antigens. These responses suggest a chronic low-level exposure from several sources that may be affording protection against symptoms and illness. Although strong serological responses were associated with surface water sources, drinking water is not likely to be the most important exposure for Cryptosporidium in the Czech Republic.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Água Potável/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , República Tcheca , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
20.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 701-716, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638022

RESUMO

The variability of fecal microorganisms and wastewater micropollutants (WWMPs) loads in relation to influent flow rates was evaluated for a water resource recovery facility (WRRF) in support of a vulnerability assessment of a drinking water source. Incomplete treatment and bypass discharges often occur following intense precipitation events that represent conditions that deviate from normal operation. Parasites, fecal indicator bacteria, and WWMPs concentrations and flow rate were measured at the WRRF influent and effluent during dry and wet weather periods. Influent concentrations were measured to characterize potential bypass concentrations that occur during wet weather. Maximum influent Giardia and C. perfringens loads and maximum effluent Escherichia coli and C. perfringens loads were observed during wet weather. Influent median loads of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 6.8 log oocysts/day and 7.9 log cysts/day per 1,000 people. Effluent median loads were 3.9 log oocysts/day and 6.3 log cysts/day per 1,000 people. High loads of microbial contaminants can occur during WRRF bypasses following wet weather and increase with increasing flow rates; thus, short-term infrequent events such as bypasses should be considered in vulnerability assessments of drinking water sources in addition to the increased effluent loads during normal operation following wet weather.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água , Animais , Bactérias , Cryptosporidium , Giardia , Parasitos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/parasitologia , Recursos Hídricos
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