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2.
Public Health ; 173: 126-129, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cuba is a tobacco-producing country that has been economically isolated as a consequence of an embargo imposed by the USA. It has also experienced a severe economic depression in the 1990s after the withdrawal of support by the former Soviet Union. These characteristics provide a unique opportunity to study the relation between large changes in economic activity, cigarette price and demand for cigarettes in a relatively isolated socialist economy. STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational epidemiological study. METHODS: Data were obtained on the annual price of a packet of cigarettes and the mean number of cigarettes consumed per adult living in Cuba from 1980 to 2014. Descriptive and regression analysis were used to explore the relationship between cigarette consumption and price in Cuba. RESULTS: In 1980, the mean price of a packet of cigarettes was 1.53 Cuban peso (CUP) in 1997 prices and the mean annual per capita consumption was 2237 cigarettes. In 2014, the mean price had increased to 5.57 CUP (1997 prices) per packet of cigarettes, and consumption had fallen to 1527 cigarettes per capita. There were significant negative associations between annual cigarette consumption and both price and living through an economic depression. The elasticity was approximately -0.31 with price, and living through an economic depression was also associated with lower consumption of cigarettes (a reduction of 9%, 95% confidence intervals -0.18 to -0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Higher cigarette pricing, along with other public health interventions, are required to protect the national population from the adverse effects of tobacco smoke exposure.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/economia , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Recessão Econômica , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Cuba/epidemiologia , Humanos
3.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 29, 2019 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of hypertension treatment and control among hypertensive patients in the Cuban municipalities of Cardenas and Santiago and to explore the main associated predictors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, with multistage cluster sampling, conducted between February 2012 and January 2013 in two Cuban municipalities. We interviewed and measured blood pressure in 1333 hypertensive patients aged 18 years or older. Hypertension control was defined as blood pressure lower than 140/90 mmHg. RESULTS: The mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of participants was 59.8 ± 14 years, the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure ± SD was 130.0 ± 14.4 and 83.1 ± 9.0 mmHg respectively. The majority of patients (91, 95%CI 90-93) were on pharmacological treatment, 49% with a combination of 2 or more classes of drugs. Among diagnosed hypertensive patients 58% (95%CI 55-61) had controlled hypertension. There was no association between hypertension control and gender, age and socio-economic condition. Levels of hypertension control depended on health area and control furthermore was positively associated with post-primary education, not being obese and white ethnicity: adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) 1.71 (1.26-2.34), 1.43 (1.09-1.88) and 1.41 (1.09-1.81) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The observed figures are outstanding at the international level and illustrate that hypertension treatment and control are achievable in a resource-constrained setting such as Cuba. The country's primary health care approach and social equity in access to health care can be seen as key determinants of this success. Nevertheless, there is still room for improvement, as over a third of patients did not have controlled hypertension.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Cuba/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 78, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemotropic mycoplasmas (aka hemoplasmas) are small bacteria which cause infectious anemia in several mammalian species including humans. Information on hemoplasma infections in Cuban bovines remains scarce and no studies applying molecular methods have been performed so far. The aim of the present study was to utilize real-time PCR and sequence analysis to investigate dairy cattle and buffalo from Cuba for the presence of bovine hemoplasma species. RESULTS: A total of 80 blood samples from 39 buffalo and 41 dairy cattle were investigated for the presence of Mycoplasma wenyonii and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" using two species-specific real-time TaqMan PCR assays. PCR results revealed overall 53 (66.2%; 95% CI: 55.3-75.7%) positive animals for M. wenyonii and 33 (41.2%; 95% CI: 31.1-52.2%) for "Ca. M. haemobos"; the latter were all co-infections with M. wenyonii. The sample prevalences were similar in cattle and buffalo. Based on the sequence analysis of the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene from two cattle and two buffalo, the presence of M. wenyonii and "Ca. M. haemobos" was confirmed. Statistical analysis revealed that buffalo and cattle one year of age or older were more frequently infected with M. wenyonii or "Ca. M. haemobos" than younger animals. PCR-positivity was not associated with anemia; however, the infection stage was unknown (acute infection versus chronic carriers). CONCLUSIONS: The high occurrence of bovine hemoplasma infections in buffalo and dairy cattle may have a significant impact on Cuban livestock production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular evidence of bovine hemoplasma species infection in dairy cattle and buffalo from Cuba and the Caribbean.


Assuntos
Búfalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/genética , Animais , Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Cuba/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Gado , Masculino , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/sangue , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Parasitol Res ; 118(3): 955-967, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693380

RESUMO

Water buffalo is important livestock in several countries in the Latin American and Caribbean regions. This buffalo species can be infected by tick-borne hemoparasites and remains a carrier of these pathogens which represent a risk of infection for more susceptible species like cattle. Therefore, studies on the epidemiology of tick-borne hemoparasites in buffaloes are required. In this study, the prevalence of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, and Anaplasma marginale were determined in water buffalo herds of western Cuba. To this aim, a cross-sectional study covering farms with large buffalo populations in the region was performed. Eight buffalo herds were randomly selected, and blood samples were collected from 328 animals, including 63 calves (3-14 months), 75 young animals (3-5 years), and 190 adult animals (> 5 years). Species-specific nested PCR and indirect ELISA assays were used to determine the molecular and serological prevalences of each hemoparasite, respectively. The molecular and serological prevalence was greater than 50% for the three hemoparasites. Differences were found in infection prevalence among buffalo herds, suggesting that local epidemiological factors may influence infection risk. Animals of all age groups were infected, with a higher molecular prevalence of B. bigemina and A. marginale in young buffalo and calves, respectively, while a stepwise increase in seroprevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina from calves to adult buffaloes was found. The co-infection by the three pathogens was found in 12% of animals, and when analyzed by pair, the co-infections of B. bovis and B. bigemina, B. bigemina and A. marginale, and B. bovis and A. marginale were found in 20%, 24%, and 26%, respectively, underlying the positive interaction between these pathogens infecting buffaloes. These results provide evidence that tick-borne pathogen infections can be widespread among water buffalo populations in tropical livestock ecosystems. Further studies should evaluate whether these pathogens affect the health status and productive performance of water buffalo and infection risk of these pathogens in cattle cohabiting with buffalo.


Assuntos
Anaplasma marginale , Anaplasmose/complicações , Babesia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Búfalos/parasitologia , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Babesiose/complicações , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Cuba/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Carrapatos
7.
Ecohealth ; 16(1): 128-140, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377876

RESUMO

The fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a generalist amphibian pathogen responsible for chytridiomycosis. It was documented for the first time in Cuba in 2007, the apparent cause of the decline in one species of toad. In a recent survey, Bd was reported only for the highlands of Central Cuba. In the present study, we reexamined the geographic distribution and level of impact of Bd in Cuba by conducting an island-wide sampling in 10 localities and collecting skin swabs from 18 species and 28 environmental samples. We report detection of Bd in 60% of sampled sites and in 58% of sampled taxa. We show that Bd is associated with riparian, arboreal and terrestrial species, and it was estimated to occur in approximately 30% of the aquatic habitats we sampled. In addition, we confirmed that a dying individual of the species Eleutherodactylus casparii was severely infected with Bd. We also rise concern about the endanger toad Peltophryne longinasus and about three species of endemic riparian frogs that were not detected during our surveys. This study demonstrates that this pathogen is widespread throughout Cuba and provides relevant evidence to advance our understanding of its detection in amphibians and the aquatic environment in Cuba and about the occurrence of Bd in species with different ecologies. We provide valuable baseline information for Bd risk assessment and decision-making processes to mitigate its negative impact on Cuban amphibians.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/microbiologia , Quitridiomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Micoses/veterinária , Animais , Clima , Cuba/epidemiologia , DNA Fúngico , Ecossistema , Rios
8.
Rev Gastroenterol Mex ; 84(2): 143-148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898862

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Wilson's disease is characterized by the accumulation of copper in different organs, mainly affecting the liver, brain, and cornea, and is caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene. More than 120 polymorphisms in the ATP7B gene have been reported in the medical literature. The aim of the present study was to identify the conformational changes in the exon 3 region of the ATP7B gene and detect the p.L456V polymorphism in Cuban patients clinically diagnosed with Wilson's disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted at the Centro Nacional de Genética Médica and the Instituto Nacional de Gastroenterología within the time frame of 2007-2012 and included 105 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Wilson's disease. DNA extraction was performed through the salting-out method and the fragment of interest was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction technique. The conformational shift changes in the exon 3 region and the presence of the p.L456V polymorphism were identified through the Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: The so-called b and c conformational shift changes, corresponding to the p.L456V polymorphism in the heterozygous and homozygous states, respectively, were identified. The allelic frequency of the p.L456V polymorphism in the 105 Cuban patients that had a clinical diagnosis of Wilson's disease was 41% and liver-related symptoms were the most frequent in the patients with that polymorphism. CONCLUSION: The p.L456V polymorphism was identified in 64 Cuban patients clinically diagnosed with Wilson's disease, making future molecular study through indirect methods possible.


Assuntos
Degeneração Hepatolenticular/epidemiologia , Degeneração Hepatolenticular/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , ATPases Transportadoras de Cobre/genética , Cuba/epidemiologia , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples , Adulto Jovem
9.
In. Hernández Fernández, Moisés; Abreu Soto, Dainet. Orientación alimentaria y nutricional para los pacientes ambulatorios con cáncer. Dirigido a los pacientes y su familia. La Habana, Editorial Ciencias Médicas, 2019. , tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-71646
10.
In. González Menéndez, Ricardo; Sandoval Ferrer, Juan E. Manual de psiquiatría. La Habana, Editorial Ciencias Médicas, 2019. , ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-71638
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 336, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Fasciola hepatica infection causes high production losses in the livestock industry. Recently, studies have analyzed the association between measurements of F. hepatica infection intensity and herd management practices. The aim of the present study, the first of its kind in a subtropical region, was to evaluate associations between F. hepatica bulk-tank milk ELISA results with herd management factors and milk yield in dairy herds, in Camagüey, Cuba. The SVANOVIR® F. hepatica-AB ELISA was used to measure F. hepatica antibody levels in a random sample of 516 dairy herds during the period of May-July of 2014. Farm management practice data were collected using a questionnaire. RESULTS: With 82% of the herds testing positive, the results indicate that F. hepatica is very widespread in this area. Reductions in milk production of 18 and 32% were observed in herds with Optical Density Ratios (ODR) of 0.3-0.6 and > 0.6, respectively, when compared to herds with ODR <  0.3. Overall, the longer the milking cows were put out to pasture, the higher the levels of anti-parasite antibodies. Co-grazing with sheep and goats also significantly increased the risk of high ODR. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show a widespread occurrence of the parasite as well as a major potential impact of the infection on the Cuban development goal of becoming self-sufficient in milk production. Our risk factor analysis suggests that the prevention of infection around water sources, and the separation of cattle from small ruminants could be useful control measures. This is the first epidemiological survey of F. hepatica abundance, and associated reductions in milk yield, in dairy herds in Cuba.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/análise , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Fasciola hepatica/imunologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Leite/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Cuba/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/imunologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 601, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of macrolide resistant Mycoplasma genitalium is a major concern worldwide. In Cuba, several cases of clinical treatment failure with 1 g single dose and extended azithromycin regimen have been detected and the aim of the present investigation was to retrospectively determine the prevalence of macrolide-resistance mediating mutations (MRMM) in M. genitalium-positive samples conserved at the Cuban National Reference Laboratory of Mycoplasma Research between 2009 and 2016. METHODS: A total of 280 positive DNA extracts were analysed by a 5' nuclease assay for detection of M. genitalium MRMM. Ten urogenital specimens from patients with azithromycin treatment failure and MRMM were inoculated in Vero cell to obtain the isolates for subsequent determination of antimicrobial susceptibility. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of MRMM was 32%. No MRMM was detected in samples collected between 2009 and 2013 but since 2014 a dramatic increase to 90% (95% CI, 76-96%) in 2016 was seen. Three new M. genitalium isolates were isolated in Vero cell cultures and confirmed phenotypic resistance to macrolides in a cell-culture assisted susceptibility test. Preliminary observations suggest that combination therapy with levofloxacin and doxycycline may represent an affordable option for treatment of macrolide resistant M. genitalium infections. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation showed the rapid emergence and high prevalence of MRMM in M. genitalium-infected patients in Cuba and confirmed the phenotypic resistance in isolates carrying MRMM. We suggest that Cuban guidelines for sexually transmitted infections are modified to include testing for M. genitalium and detection of MRMM in patients with failure of syndromic treatment, to ensure that in these cases, the treatment will be guided by etiologic diagnosis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium , Adulto , Animais , Cuba/epidemiologia , Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Células Vero
14.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207391, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dengue infection is increasing globally. There are few prospective population-based surveillance studies of the immunological and inflammatory consequences of exposure to dengue virus in young children. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between serologically confirmed prior medical diagnosis of dengue infection and blood measures of systemic inflammation with dengue virus immunoglobulin G levels. METHODS: A population-based study of healthy three-year old children living in Havana, Cuba. RESULTS: 865 individuals provided a blood sample. Fourteen (1.6%) had a prior medical diagnosis of dengue infection, and 851 individuals had no prior medical diagnosis. There was no difference in the serum immunoglobulin G titres between these groups (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.49). Total white cell count, blood neutrophil and eosinophil counts were linearly associated with a dengue immunoglobulin G value above the median value. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference between the dengue immunoglobulin G titres in young children who had previously had clinically proven dengue infection compared to those who had no diagnosis of prior infection. This may be a consequence of a relatively high prevalence of sub-clinical infection. A higher dengue immunoglobulin G level was positively associated with a range of inflammatory biomarkers, although these data cannot demonstrate a causal association.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Dengue/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Cuba/epidemiologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Prevalência
15.
Arch Virol ; 163(11): 3059-3064, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078131

RESUMO

Vaccination with the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine decreased the mumps incidence in Cuba, but in 2006 and 2007 an outbreak with more than 1000 laboratory confirmed cases occurred, mainly among high school and university students. The objective of the study was to investigate mumps epidemiology in Cuba between 2004 and 2015 and provide an in-depth laboratory characterization of selected samples from mumps patients. Samples from 116 cases (throat swabs, urines, paired acute and convalescent serum samples) were tested for mumps-specific IgM antibodies by ELISA, in a hemagglutination inhibition assay (HIA) or by RT-PCR. IgM antibodies were found in 80.2% of cases. 48.3% of first sera were positive, 30 of which were collected within two days after symptom onset. Testing of all 116 paired sera by HIA showed seroconversion in 55.2% individuals and an at least fourfold increase in antibodies in 44.8% of cases. In 18 out of the 111 vaccinated people (16.2%) no IgM antibodies were detected, neither in the acute nor the convalescent sera, but 14 of them showed seroconversion by HIA and 4 had an at least fourfold increase of hemagglutinin antibody titers. In the RT-PCR, 23 acute phase sera, 4 throat swabs and 5 urines were positive. Detection of mumps-specific IgM antibodies by ELISA and additional diagnostic methods may be required in settings with high vaccination coverage rates.


Assuntos
Vírus da Caxumba/isolamento & purificação , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cuba/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caxumba/sangue , Caxumba/virologia , Vírus da Caxumba/classificação , Vírus da Caxumba/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Fontilles, Rev. leprol ; 31(5): 341-347, mayo-ago. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-175728

RESUMO

En la lepra lepromatosa, cuando los troncos nerviosos periféricos son invadidos producen lesiones en la medida en que la enfermedad progresa de manera simétrica y dejan graves secuelas en etapas avanzadas de la enfermedad. Se trata de un paciente masculino, de 56 años de edad, con antecedentes de haber sido tratado por la especialidad de neurología por más de 20 años, debido a que tenía trastornos de la sensibilidad en miembros inferiores, en forma de calcetín que había sido diagnosticado como neuropatía sin causa aparente que acude a consulta de cuerpo de guardia del Hospital Manuel Ascunce de Camagüey, refiriendo que desde hacía unos años presentaba lesiones en forma de manchas por todo el cuerpo, que no le picaban. Al examen dermatológico se constata cuadro cutáneo diseminado constituido por placas infiltradas eritematosas, de bordes mal definidos, en número de más de una veintena, acompañadas de trastornos de la sensibilidad y disminución del vello a ese nivel. Además, con infiltraciones difusas de cara y pabellones auriculares, trastorno de la sensibilidad en miembros inferiores y troncos nerviosos engrosados. La variedad neurítica pura es muy discutida y se cree que los casos que fueron diagnosticados como tales presentaron lesiones cutáneas que pasaron inadvertidas y no dejaron secuelas


In lepromatous leprosy, when the peripheral nervous trunks are invaded they produce lesions to the extent that the disease progresses symmetrically and leave serious sequelae in advanced stages of the disease. This is a 56-year-old male patient with a history of having been treated by the specialty of neurology for more than 20 years, because he had sensory disorders in the lower limbs, in the form of a sock that had been diagnosed as a neuropathy without apparent cause, he went to the on call unit at the Manuel Ascunce Hospital in Camagüey, saying that for some years he had had lesions in the form of spots all over his body that did not itch. The dermatological examination revealed a disseminated cutaneous plaque composed of infiltrated erythematous plaques with poorly defined edges, in a number of more than twenty, accompanied by disorders of sensitivity and hair loss at that level. Also with diffuse infiltration of the face and ears, sensory disturbance in the lower limbs and thickened nerve trunks. The pure neuritic variety is very controversial and it is believed that the cases that were diagnosed as such presented cutaneous lesions that went unnoticed and did not leave sequels


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hanseníase Virchowiana/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Biópsia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/terapia , Cuba/epidemiologia
17.
Parasitol Res ; 117(10): 3109-3118, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033488

RESUMO

Equine piroplasmosis is a disease of Equidae, including horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras, caused by either Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. This disease represents a serious problem for the horse industry and its control is critical for the international trade of horses. The objective of the present study was to detect B. caballi and T. equi infections in horses reared in western Cuba. Blood samples from 100 horses were tested for the presence of piroplasms by using Giemsa-stained blood smears and nested PCR (nPCR) assays targeting merozoite antigen genes of B. caballi (bc48) and T. equi (ema-1). All animals were inspected for the detection of tick infestation and tick specimens were collected for species identification. Erythrocyte inclusions were observed in 13 (13%) of the analyzed samples. nPCR analysis showed that 25 (25%) samples were positive for B. caballi, 73 (73%) for T. equi, and 20 (20%) showed dual infections. Only one tick species was found infesting horses, Dermacentor nitens. In addition, three nearly full-length sequences of T. equi 18S rRNA gene were obtained and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. This study reports a high prevalence of T. equi and B. caballi single and coinfections in horses in western Cuba. Molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of T. equi suggested that different genotypes of this hemoparasite circulate in Cuba. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the molecular detection of B. caballi and T. equi in horses in Cuba.


Assuntos
Babesia/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos/parasitologia , Theileria/genética , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Coinfecção , Cuba/epidemiologia , Equidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Carrapatos/parasitologia
18.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 65(2): 117-127, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in Cuban children is high, but little is known about adverse reactions to foods. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for adverse reaction to foods in children. METHODS: Population-based cohort study carried out in Havana, Cuba, in a three-year period. Parents of 1543 children provided medical and lifestyle information from the first to the third year of age, which was collected using a questionnaire. An adverse reaction to foods was defined by medical diagnosis reported by the parents or caregivers. RESULTS: Annual cumulative incidence was 5.7%, 1.9% and 0.8%, whereas annual prevalence was 5.7%, 4% and 2.5% at 1, 2 and 3 years of age, respectively; 8% of infants had experienced an adverse reaction to foods when they turned 3 years of age. Cow milk was the most commonly implicated food. Main risk factors were allergenic food consumption, use of antibiotics, factors related to the presence of allergens, maternal history of overweight during pregnancy and allergy to insect bites. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse reaction to food is a significant clinical problem in children from Havana. Modifiable risk factors were identified, the understanding of which will help to direct effective intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Cuba/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
19.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 193: xix-xxvii, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906432

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This article reviews the history of Cuban epidemic optic neuropathy (1991-1993), which caused visual loss, peripheral neuralgias, and other neurologic symptoms in over 50,000 persons, an incidence of almost 0.5% of the entire population. The clinical findings, etiology, and treatment are described. We then relate the Cuban epidemic to the fictional epidemic of contagious blindness depicted by Nobel Laureate José Saramago in his 1995 novel Blindness. This novel describes an unnamed modern city in which all inhabitants, except the ophthalmologist's wife, are affected with a white, not black, blindness. DESIGN: Historical review and literary essay. METHODS: The sources for the Cuban epidemic were an extensive review of the published literature and personal communications with physicians who treated these patients. Both authors have analyzed the novel and the critical literature about Saramago's writings. RESULTS: Though Saramago uses the epidemic of blindness as an allegory to comment on human weakness and immorality, he may also have known of the actual Cuban epidemic. Saramago was a lifelong member of the Communist party, as well as a friend of Fidel Castro and admirer of the Cuban government. We have no proof that Blindness was influenced by the Cuban epidemic, but we find it plausible. CONCLUSION: It is valuable to examine the real and fictional epidemics side by side, not least because Saramago's novel depicts the actions of an ophthalmologist during an epidemic of blindness. Ophthalmologists may be interested in a novel that uses the language of eyes, vision, sight, and blindness extensively.


Assuntos
Cegueira/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/epidemiologia , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/história , Cuba/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/história , Epidemias/história , Hispano-Americanos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Portugal/epidemiologia
20.
Epilepsy Behav ; 85: 72-75, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908387

RESUMO

There are limited epilepsy mortality data from developing countries and Latin America in particular. We examined national epilepsy mortality data from Cuba and contrasted them with comparable data from England and Wales. National epilepsy mortality data for Cuba between the years 1987 and 2010 were obtained from the Medical Records and Health Statistics Bureau of the Cuban Public Health Ministry (www.sld.cu/sitios/dne/) with the corresponding mortality data from England and Wales obtained from the UK Office of National Statistics (ONS, www.ons.gov.uk). Indirect standardization with calculation of a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was used to compare trends. The overall trend was of a slight decrease in mortality rates over the 23 years in Cuba, with higher mortality rates primarily occurring in young people. Annual age-adjusted rates were consistently lower in Cuba than those seen in England and Wales, with the SMR ranging from 0.35 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.30 to 0.48) in 2007 to 1.00 (95% CI: 0.85 to 1.15) in 1994. Cuban epilepsy mortality rates are consistently lower than those of England and Wales. Reasons for this disparity in mortality rates are not immediately apparent but are likely to be multifactorial.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuba/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , País de Gales/epidemiologia
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