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1.
Food Chem ; 371: 131194, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600364

RESUMO

Styrian pumpkin seed oil is a conditioned green-colored oil renowned for nutty smell and taste. Due to α-linolenic acid (ALA) contents below 1% of total fatty acids and the prospect of nutritional health claims based on its potential oxidation products, we investigated the fate of ALA and product oxylipins in the course of down-stream processing of seeds and in oils. Lipidomic analyses with Lipid Data Analyzer 2.8.1 revealed: Processing did not change (1) main fatty acid composition in the oils, (2) amounts of triacylglycerol species, (3) structures of triacylglycerol molecular species containing ALA. (4) Minor precursor ALA in fresh Styrian and normal pumpkins produced 6 product phytoprostanes in either cultivar, quantitatively more in the latter. (5) In oil samples 7 phytoprostanes and 2 phytofurans were detected. The latter two are specific for their presence in pumpkin seed oils, of note, quantitatively more in conditioned oils than in cold-pressed native oils.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Ácidos Graxos , Lipidômica , Estrutura Molecular , Oxilipinas , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes , Triglicerídeos , Ácido alfa-Linoleico
2.
Food Chem ; 371: 131197, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592626

RESUMO

Lipid oxidation in fatty food products presents serious challenge, significantly limiting their shelf-life. One of the possible approaches to deal with it is use of high-barrier or active packaging. Oxidation affects the formation of potentially toxic aldehydes through the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, reducing the nutritive value of food, and leads to significant changes in sensory properties. For fatty food products packing, biopolymer packaging materials may provide good alternative to plastic, due to competitive barrier properties to gases, their natural origin and biodegradability. In this paper, composite pumpkin oil cake (PuOC) and duplex pumpkin oil cake/maize zein films (PuOC/MZ) were prepared. Potential protective effects PuOC-based pouches were tested for packing fatty food products, and flaxseed oil was used as a model food system. Results showed that PuOC-based films ensure good oxidative stability and less satisfactory sensory quality of oil, without significance changes in oil composition.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Filmes Comestíveis , Zeína , Embalagem de Alimentos , Óleo de Semente do Linho
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150136, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818799

RESUMO

Arid zones contain a diverse set of microbes capable of survival under dry conditions, some of which can form relationships with plants under drought stress conditions to improve plant health. We studied squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) root microbiome under historically arid and humid sites, both in situ and performing a common garden experiment. Plants were grown in soils from sites with different drought levels, using in situ collected soils as the microbial source. We described and analyzed bacterial diversity by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (N = 48) from the soil, rhizosphere, and endosphere. Proteobacteria were the most abundant phylum present in humid and arid samples, while Actinobacteriota abundance was higher in arid ones. The ß-diversity analyses showed split microbiomes between arid and humid microbiomes, and aridity and soil pH levels could explain it. These differences between humid and arid microbiomes were maintained in the common garden experiment, showing that it is possible to transplant in situ diversity to the greenhouse. We detected a total of 1009 bacterial genera; 199 exclusively associated with roots under arid conditions. By 16S and shotgun metagenomics, we identified dry-associated taxa such as Cellvibrio, Ensifer adhaerens, and Streptomyces flavovariabilis. With shotgun metagenomic sequencing of rhizospheres (N = 6), we identified 2969 protein families in the squash core metagenome and found an increased number of exclusively protein families from arid (924) than humid samples (158). We found arid conditions enriched genes involved in protein degradation and folding, oxidative stress, compatible solute synthesis, and ion pumps associated with osmotic regulation. Plant phenotyping allowed us to correlate bacterial communities with plant growth. Our study revealed that it is possible to evaluate microbiome diversity ex-situ and identify critical species and genes involved in plant-microbe interactions in historically arid locations.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Microbiota , Rhizobiaceae , Humanos , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Raízes de Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Streptomyces
4.
Food Chem ; 367: 130710, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343802

RESUMO

The levels of carotenoids and carotenoid esters in pumpkin (C. maxima) slices as affected by hot air drying (60-100 °C, 6-17 h) were assessed via an HPLC-MS/MS method. Among the 25 carotenoids and carotenoid esters identified in pumpkin flesh, xanthophyll diesters (including (all-E)-violaxanthin dipalmitate, lutein 3-O-myristate-3'-O-laurate, lutein 3-O-palmitate-3'-O-laurate, lutein 3-O-myristate-3'-O-palmitate, lutein 3-O-stearate-3'-O-myristate and lutein 3-O-stearate-3'-O-palmitate) accounted for 43% of the total carotenoids (853.6 ± 18.5 µg/g, dried weight). Dihydroxy xanthophylls, especially those containing 5,6-epoxy group, were more heat-labile than carotenes, while xanthophylls were less heat stable than their diester counterparts. The degradation rates (first-order reactions, R2 = 0.983-0.992) for lutein diesters (rate constant: 0.002-0.049 h-1) in pumpkin slices were only 10-20% of that for lutein (rate constant: 0.020-0.243 h-1) during hot air drying, and 76-98% of lutein diesters could be retained in the final dried products.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Cucurbita , Ésteres , Luteína , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 2): 1758-1766, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500173

RESUMO

Metal-free catalysts with environmental friendless, cost-competitiveness and less susceptibility to leaching and poisoning over metal-based catalysts, have revolutionized in the catalysis domain. In this respect, we herein report the first application of cheap and abundant pumpkin-derived N-doped porous carbon for the reduction of 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol assisted by NaBH4. The obtained catalyst is cost-competitive, efficient and robust, with an attractive mass-normalized rate constant of 4.73 s-1 g-1 and good recycling performance. Systematical analyses demonstrate that the 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol reduction reaction catalyzed by the N-doped carbon proceeds through the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics and the performance enhancement benefits from the strong adsorption and activation of the substrates induced by the electronic modulation in the carbon framework via N-doping. This study opens up new avenues for the high-value use of pumpkin as well as the development of metal-free strategy in more catalytic applications.


Assuntos
Carbono , Cucurbita , Nitrogênio , Nitrofenóis , Porosidade
6.
Food Chem ; 369: 130937, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474287

RESUMO

The effects of far-infrared radiation drying (FIRD), freeze drying (FD), vacuum drying (VD), and hot air drying (HAD) on appearance, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities, antityrosinase capacity using B16F10 melanoma cell from seed-used pumpkins (hull-less pumpkin and hull pumpkin) were evaluated. Results suggested that hull-less pumpkin (HLP) dehydrated by FIRD provided the highest total polyphenols content (37.11 ± 1.05 mg GAE/ g DW) and the ability of scavenging free radicals. HPLC analysis exhibited that coumaric acid was predominant phenolic acid in pumpkin. The correlation analysis demonstrated that polyphenolic compounds were related to antioxidant capacity. HLP-FD possessed better colour, higher preservation of ß-carotene, ascorbic acid and higher sugar contents compared with HLP-HAD. The highest antityrosinase activity was recorded in HLP-VD with a concentration of 37.16%. The melanin inhibition increased to 76.61%, and intracellular tyrosinase activity in B16F10 melanoma cells decreased to 88.63% at 800 µg/mL of polyphenol extract.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Dessecação , Sementes
7.
Food Chem ; 368: 130842, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419794

RESUMO

This study proposes a preliminary assessment of the homogeneity and stability through digital image acquisition of a candidate for mechanically processed pumpkin seed meal reference material, exploring the concepts of homogeneity curve and the analysis of texture characteristics by Continuous-Level Moving Block through Robust Principal Component Analysis. This innovative methodology allowed us to examine the percentage of homogeneity in a set of samples, revealing an average of 41% with only one outlier in relation to the entire sample, indicating low homogeneity. In the stability study carried out after storing samples for 12 months at different temperatures, 83% of the samples were considered regular and 17% were outlier, which means that most of them were considered stable. Therefore, this methodology is useful for screening samples for homogeneity, by textural analysis, and detected non-homogeneity can be corrected in advance for quantification by standard protocols.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Farinha , Computadores , Farinha/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Padrões de Referência , Sementes
8.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 29: e20201080, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute and chronic stresses affect the salivary glands, representing the source of plasma BDNF during stressful conditions. Pumpkin is a medicinal plant with an evident antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and potential antidepressant effects. OBJECTIVE: To assess the structural and biochemical effects induced by exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) on salivary glands of albino rats, and to evaluate the role of pumpkin extract (Pump) in ameliorating this effect. METHODOLOGY: Four groups (n=10 each) of male albino rats were included in this study: the control, CUMS, Fluoxetine-treated and Pump-treated. The corticosterone, the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the oxidant/antioxidant profile were all assessed in the serum. The level of BDNF mRNA was measured in the salivary glands using qRT-PCR. Histopathological changes of the salivary glands were also assessed. RESULTS: The depressive-like status was confirmed behaviorally and biochemically. Exposure to CUMS significantly up-regulated (p<0.001) the level of serum corticosterone. CUMS induced degenerative changes in the secretory and ductal elements of the salivary glands evident by increased apoptosis. Both Fluoxetine and Pumpkin significantly up-regulated (p<0.001) BDNF expression in the salivary glands and ameliorated the CUMS-induced histopathological and biochemical alterations in the salivary glands. Pumpkin significantly (p<0.001) increased the serum levels of antioxidant enzymes SOD, GPX and CAT, and reduced the serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6. CONCLUSION: Pumpkin ameliorates the depressive-like status induced in rats following exposure to chronic stress through exerting a promising anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-depressant-like effects. The pumpkin, subsequently, improved stress-induced structural changes in the salivary glands that might be due to up-regulation of BDNF expression in the glands.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Animais , Encéfalo , Ratos , Glândulas Salivares
9.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 185: 107667, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560106

RESUMO

Managed and wild bee populations are in decline around the globe due to several biotic and abiotic stressors. Pathogenic viruses associated with the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) have been identified as key contributors to losses of managed honey bee colonies, and are known to be transmitted to wild bee populations through shared floral resources. However, little is known about the prevalence and intensity of these viruses in wild bee populations, or how bee visitation to flowers impacts viral transmission in agroecosystems. This study surveyed honey bee, bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) and wild squash bee (Eucera (Peponapis) pruinosa) populations in Cucurbita agroecosystems across Pennsylvania (USA) for the prevalence and intensity of five honey bee viruses: acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV). We investigated the potential role of bee visitation rate to flowers on DWV intensity among species in the pollinator community, with the expectation that increased bee visitation to flowers would increase the opportunity for transmission events between host species. We found that honey bee viruses are highly prevalent but in lower titers in wild E. pruinosa and B. impatiens than in A. mellifera populations throughout Pennsylvania (USA). DWV was detected in 88% of B. impatiens, 48% of E. pruinosa, and 95% of A. mellifera. IAPV was detected in 5% of B. impatiens and 4% of E. pruinosa, compared to 9% in A. mellifera. KBV was detected in 1% of B. impatiens and 5% of E. pruinosa, compared to 32% in A. mellifera. Our results indicate that DWV titers are not correlated with bee visitation in Cucurbita fields. The potential fitness impacts of these low viral titers detected in E. pruinosa remain to be investigated.


Assuntos
Abelhas/virologia , Vírus de Insetos/fisiologia , Vírus de RNA de Cadeia Positiva/fisiologia , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Cucurbita , Dicistroviridae/fisiologia , Pennsylvania , Polinização , Vírus de RNA/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Planta ; 254(4): 82, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559316

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Genome-wide annotation reveals that the gene birth-death process of the Cucurbita R family is associated with a species-specific diversification of TNL and CNL protein classes. The Cucurbitaceae family includes nearly 1000 plant species known universally as cucurbits. Cucurbita genus includes many economically important worldwide crops vulnerable to more than 200 pathogens. Therefore, the identification of pathogen-recognition genes is of utmost importance for this genus. The major class of plant-resistance (R) genes encodes nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins, and is divided into three sub-classes namely, TIR-NB-LRR (TNL), CC-NB-LRR (CNL) and RPW8-NB-LRR (RNL). Although the characterization of the NLR gene family has been carried out in important Cucurbita species, this information is still linked to the availability of sequenced genomes. In this study, we analyzed 40 de novo transcriptomes and 5 genome assemblies, which were explored to investigate the Cucurbita expressed-NLR (eNLR) and NLR repertoires using an ad hoc gene annotation approach. Over 1850 NLR-encoding genes were identified, finely characterized and compared to 96 well-characterized plant R-genes. The maximum likelihood analyses revealed an unusual diversification of CNL/TNL genes and a strong RNL conservation. Indeed, several gene gain and loss events have shaped the Cucurbita NLR family. Finally, to provide a first validation step Cucurbita, eNLRs were explored by real-time PCR analysis. The NLR repertories of the 12 Cucurbita species presented in this paper will be useful to discover novel R-genes.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Cucurbita/genética , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Família Multigênica , Proteínas NLR/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17883, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504170

RESUMO

During 2018 an intensive study was conducted to determine the viruses associated with cucurbitaceous crops in nine agroclimatic zones of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Total of 563 samples collected and analysed across 14 different cucurbitaceous crops. The results showed the dominance of Begomovirus (93%) followed by Potyvirus (46%), cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV-39%), Polerovirus (9%), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-2%) and Orthotospovirus (2%). Nearly 65% of samples were co-infected with more than one virus. Additionally, host range expansion of CMV, CGMMV and polerovirus was also observed on cucurbit crops. A new potyvirus species, zucchini tigre mosaic virus, earlier not documented from India has also been identified on five crops during the study. Risk map generated using ArcGIS for virus disease incidence predicted the virus severity in unexplored areas. The distribution pattern of different cucurbit viruses throughout Uttar Pradesh will help identify the hot spots for viruses and will facilitate to devise efficient and eco-friendly integrated management strategies for the mitigation of viruses infecting cucurbit crops. Molecular diversity and evolutionary relationship of the virus isolates infecting cucurbits in Uttar Pradesh with previously reported strains were understood from the phylogenetic analysis. Diverse virus infections observed in the Eastern Plain zone, Central zone and North-Eastern Plain zone indicate an alarming situation for the cultivation of cucurbits in the foreseeable future.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Cucumovirus/patogenicidade , Cucurbita/virologia , Cucurbitaceae/virologia , Genoma Viral , Índia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Tobamovirus/patogenicidade
12.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500636

RESUMO

The African pumpkin (Momordica balsamina) contains bioactive phenolic compounds that may assist in reducing oxidative stress in the human body. The leaves are mainly consumed after boiling in water for a specific time; this hydrothermal process and conditions of the gastrointestinal tract may affect the presence and bioactivity of phenolics either positively or negatively. In this study, the effects of hydrothermal processing (boiling) and in vitro simulated human digestion on the phenolic composition, bioaccessibility and bioactivity in African pumpkin were investigated in comparison with those of spinach (Spinacia oleracea). A high-resolution ultra-performance liquid chromatography, coupled with diode array detection, quadrupole time-of-flight and mass spectrometer (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) was used to profile phenolic metabolites. Metabolites such as 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were highly concentrated in the boiled vegetable extracts compared to the raw undigested and all digested samples. The majority of African pumpkin and spinach extracts (non-digested and digested) protected Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), (mouse fibroblast) L929 and human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells from 2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative damage. From these results, the consumption of boiled African pumpkin leaves, as well as spinach, could be encouraged, as bioactive metabolites present may reduce oxidative stress in the body.


Assuntos
Cucurbita/química , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Momordica/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Quínico/química , Spinacia oleracea/química , Verduras/química
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112817, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563888

RESUMO

Changes in the types and contents of metabolites in plants can occur in response to environmental stress. In this study, pumpkin seeds were cultivated in a cadmium ion solution (cadmium sulfate) for 7 days, and growth parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, and metabolites in the root, stem, and leaf were analyzed. The results showed that cadmium accumulation characteristics were in the order of root > stem > leaf. Cadmium restrained root growth and promoted superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase activities in the root, but inhibited their activities in the leaf. Cadmium did not change the total biomass of pumpkin seedlings. Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) analyses were conducted to detect the relationships between fresh weight and metabolites. These analyses revealed that maltose had significantly positive relationships with the fresh weight of the root, stem, and leaf. Cadmium influenced glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, sulfur metabolism, butanoate metabolism, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, glutathione metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism in the root; glycolysis/gluconeogenesis in the stem; and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, galactose metabolism, cutin, suberine and wax biosynthesis in the leaf. It is important that cadmium inhibited root growth by inhibiting carbohydrate transport from the leaf to the root and promoted leaf growth by the accumulation of carbohydrates in the leaf. Furthermore, cadmium also restrained amino acid metabolism in the root of pumpkin seedlings. These results provide new information about how pumpkin seedlings respond to cadmium stress.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Plântula , Antioxidantes , Cádmio/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas , Superóxido Dismutase
14.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110575, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507725

RESUMO

Consumption of fresh and minimally processed foods such as seeds as a part of a healthy diet is a trend. Unfortunately, fat-rich seeds are often contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and face frequent product recalls. Electron beams have been applied as a microbial decontamination measure for decades. Conventionally high energy electron beams (HEEB) are being used, whereas low energy electron beams (LEEB, <300 keV) have only recently been introduced to the food industry and more studies are needed. Electron beam treatment has several advantages over other decontamination technologies. The treatment is non-thermal, chemical-free, water-free, and does not use radioactive substances. The effect of electron beams on the sensory and chemical properties of seeds has not been widely studied. This study assessed LEEB and HEEB treated pumpkin and flax seeds immediately after treatments, and after three months of storage. The seeds' sensory profiles were altered after both treatments when compared with non-treated samples, with a higher dose leading to a greater level of alteration. However, the sensory profile of LEEB treated seeds was similar to the non-treated seeds whereas HEEB treated seeds differed from both. The storage period of three months further increased the observed differences between the samples. LEEB and HEEB treatments seemed to cause lipid degradation as the content of volatile aldehydes was increased. This effect was more profound in HEEB treated samples. The data presented in this study shows that LEEB as a microbial reduction solution has great potential to preserve the chemical and sensory properties of nutritious seeds.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Elétrons , Fast Foods , Sementes
15.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110627, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507771

RESUMO

Peels and seeds are byproducts generated during the processing of fruits and vegetables that have been cut off or rejected in the food industry. Pumpkin peels are an example of products that provide valuable nutritional aspects but that have low commercial value. This work aimed at recovering carotenoids from pumpkin peels to produce valuable powders. The pumpkin peel flour was obtained from convective drying and milling processes. Liquid-solid extraction produced the ethanol raw extract with a high carotenoid content. Carotenoid extract and Arabic gum suspensions were mixed in proportions of 1:2, 1:3, or 1:4 w/w. Emulsions produced via Ultra-Turrax (UT) and Ultra-Turrax plus high pressure (UTHP) were evaluated and spray dried. The particles carotenoid concentrations varied from 159.1 to 304.6 µg/g and from 104.3 to 346.2 µg/g for samples primarily produced via UT and UTHP, respectively. UTHP 1:3 particles showed the lowest degradation of carotenoids during 90 days of storage, with a retention index of 79%. The homogenization and spray drying techniques were proven to be suitable steps to preserve the carotenoids recovered from the byproduct studied. Microparticles can be used as a natural dye with potential use in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Carotenoides , Emulsões , Frutas , Secagem por Atomização , Água
16.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 72(3): 173-181, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587668

RESUMO

Some mycotoxins such as beauvericin (BEA), ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEA) can cross the blood brain barrier, which is why we tested the anti-inflammatory action of a pumpkin carotenoid extract (from the pulp) against these mycotoxins and their combinations (OTA+ZEA and OTA+ZEA+BEA) on a blood brain barrier model with co-cultured ECV304 and C6 cells using an untargeted metabolomic approach. The cells were added with mycotoxins at a concentration of 100 nmol/L per mycotoxin and pumpkin carotenoid extract at 500 nmol/L. For control we used only vehicle solvent (cell control) or vehicle solvent with pumpkin extract (extract control). After two hours of exposure, samples were analysed with HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS. Metabolites were identified against the Metlin database. The proinflammatory arachidonic acid metabolite eoxin (14,15-LTE4) showed lower abundance in ZEA and BEA+OTA+ZEA-treated cultures that also received the pumpkin extract than in cultures that were not treated with the extract. Another marker of inflammation, prostaglandin D2-glycerol ester, was only found in cultures treated with OTA+ZEA and BEA+OTA+ZEA but not in the ones that were also treated with the pumpkin extract. Furthermore, the concentration of the pumpkin extract metabolite dihydromorelloflavone significantly decreased in the presence of mycotoxins. In conclusion, the pumpkin extract showed protective activity against cellular inflammation triggered by mycotoxins thanks to the properties pertinent to flavonoids contained in the pulp.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Micotoxinas , Ocratoxinas , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
17.
J Med Food ; 24(11): 1197-1205, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463138

RESUMO

Natural extracts constitute an important source in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases. The pumpkin, Cucurbita maxima, is widely consumed in Chile. Pumpkin seeds, despite having crude protein, lipids, and carbohydrates, are regarded as agro-industrial waste. In this work, we correlated the antiplatelet activity of aqueous, ethanolic, and methanolic extracts from pumpkin seeds with their bioactive compounds. In vitro platelet aggregation and activation studies were performed by turbidimetry and flow cytometry, respectively. Results reveal that the extracts inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate, thrombin receptor activator peptide 6 (TRAP-6), and collagen. Pumpkin seed extracts inhibited P-selectin secretion and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa activation on TRAP-6-activated platelets. They were found to be rich in fatty acids and a powerful source of plant-based protein, which could be related to the high antiplatelet potential identified in extracts. This research demonstrated that pumpkin seed extracts could be a candidate in the prevention of thrombotic events.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Plaquetas , Ácidos Graxos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas , Agregação Plaquetária
18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444791

RESUMO

Traditional medicines rely mainly on use of plant extracts to mitigate or treat a wide range of disorders, including those that affect skeletal homeostasis. In this study, we investigated for the first time the potential pro-osteogenic effects of hexane, acetone and methanol extracts of the leaves of Cucurbita moschata, a very popular pumpkin cultivar in Western countries. We found that in Cucurbita moschata leaves, there are acetone-extractable substances-in particular, fatty acids such as 13-OH-9Z,11E,15E-octadecatrienoic acid (PU-13OH-FA), which is capable of both stimulating the function of human primary osteoblasts, which are responsible for bone formation, and inhibiting the differentiation of human osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone resorption. This dual effect was monitored by analyzing Runx2 expression, deposition of mineralized matrix, ALP activity, TRAP and actin ring staining respectively. This study suggests that bioactive chemicals from Cucurbita moschata leaves are potentially suitable as therapeutics for managing metabolic bone disorders such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis, and promoting tissue healing and functional recovery after bone fractures. The data we obtained increase knowledge on the biological activities of Cucurbita moschata, and in particular underline the potential benefits of consuming leaves which are a part of the plant currently little considered in the Western world.


Assuntos
Cucurbita/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Cultura Primária de Células/métodos , Reabsorção Óssea , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371845

RESUMO

Because the world's population is deficient in dietary calcium, it is important to search for new sources of this essential mineral for the bones and the entire body. One of the innovative foods that could act as such a source is pumpkin enriched with calcium lactate by means of osmotic dehydration. Providing the body with easily absorbable calcium may have beneficial effects on the reconstruction of bone tissue. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with body weight and fat mass gain, and the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of consuming enriched pumpkin on the levels of adipokines and cytokines produced by the adipose tissue. This study was conducted on 12-month-old female Wistar rats that received nutritional intervention for 12 weeks. After termination of the rats, the levels of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin 31 and interleukin 33 in serum and adipose tissue were determined, and the femurs were examined histopathologically. It was demonstrated that calcium-enriched pumpkin reduced bone marrow femoral adipocytes and also markedly decreased serum leptin levels in groups of rats after ovariectomy, which was associated with a decrease of fat content. Additionally, it seems that calcium-enriched pumpkin may reduce body weight gain often observed after menopause.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cucurbita , Alimentos Fortificados , Leptina/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/dietoterapia , Adiponectina/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucinas/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Ovariectomia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439770

RESUMO

Climate change is a pressing matter of anthropogenic nature to which agriculture contributes by abusing production inputs such as inorganic fertilizers and fertigation water, thus degrading land and water sources. Moreover, as the increase in the demand of food in 2050 is estimated to be 25 to 70% more than what is currently produced today, a sustainable intensification of agriculture is needed. Biostimulant substances are products that the EU states work by promoting growth, resistance to plant abiotic stress, and increasing produce quality, and may be a valid strategy to enhance sustainable agricultural practice. Presented in this review is a comprehensive look at the scientific literature regarding the widely used and EU-sanctioned biostimulant substances categories of silicon, seaweed extracts, protein hydrolysates, and humic substances. Starting from their origin, the modulation of plants' hormonal networks, physiology, and stress defense systems, their in vivo effects are discussed on some of the most prominent vegetable species of the popular plant groupings of cucurbits, leafy greens, and nightshades. The review concludes by identifying several research areas relevant to biostimulant substances to exploit and enhance the biostimulant action of these substances and signaling molecules in horticulture.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Agricultura/tendências , Cucurbita/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum/efeitos dos fármacos , Verduras , Mudança Climática , Cucurbita/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Húmicas , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Alga Marinha , Silicatos , Silício/química
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