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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804820

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation and abnormal mitochondrial function are related to the cause of aging, neurodegeneration, and neurotrauma. The activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), exaggerating these two pathologies, underlies the pathogenesis for the aforementioned injuries and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS). CDGSH iron-sulfur domain 2 (CISD2) belongs to the human NEET protein family with the [2Fe-2S] cluster. CISD2 has been verified as an NFκB antagonist through the association with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-ß (PPAR-ß). This protective protein can be attenuated under circumstances of CNS injuries and diseases, thereby causing NFκB activation and exaggerating NFκB-provoked neuroinflammation and abnormal mitochondrial function. Consequently, CISD2-elevating plans of action provide pathways in the management of various disease categories. Various bioactive molecules derived from plants exert protective anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects and serve as natural antioxidants, such as conjugated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. Herein, we have summarized pharmacological characters of the two phytochemicals, namely, alpha-eleostearic acid (α-ESA), an isomer of conjugated linolenic acids derived from wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. var. abbreviata Ser.), and curcumin, a polyphenol derived from rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. In this review, the unique function of the CISD2-elevating effect of α-ESA and curcumin are particularly emphasized, and these natural compounds are expected to serve as a potential therapeutic target for CNS injuries and diseases.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/farmacologia , Ácidos Linolênicos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cucurbitaceae/química , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ácidos Linolênicos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(3): 1011-1019, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428404

RESUMO

Luo Han Guo fruit extract (Siraitia grosvenorii), mainly composed of mogroside V (50%), could be considered a suitable alternative to free sugars; however, its commercial applications are limited by its unpleasant off-notes. In the present work, a central composite design method was employed to optimize the transglycosylation of a mogroside extract using cyclodextrin glucosyltransferases (CGTases) from three different bacteriological sources (Paenibacillus macerans, Geobacillus sp., and Thermoanaerobacter sp.) considering various experimental parameters such as maltodextrin and mogroside concentration, temperature, time of reaction, enzymatic activity, and pH. Product structures were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to a diode-array detector (LC-DAD), liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Sensory analysis of glucosylated mogrosides showed an improvement in flavor attributes relevant to licorice flavor and aftereffect. Consequently, an optimum methodology was developed to produce new modified mogrosides more suitable when formulating food products as free sugar substitutes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Cucurbitaceae/química , Glucosídeos/biossíntese , Glucosiltransferases/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Edulcorantes/síntese química , Biocatálise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Geobacillus/enzimologia , Glucosídeos/química , Paenibacillus/enzimologia , Extratos Vegetais/síntese química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Edulcorantes/química , Thermoanaerobacter/enzimologia
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(2): 754-777, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A near-isogenic line (NIL) of melon (SC10-2) with introgression in linkage group X was studied from harvest (at firm-ripe stage of maturity) until day 18 of postharvest storage at 20.5 °C together with its parental control ('Piel de Sapo', PS). RESULTS: SC10-2 showed higher flesh firmness and whole fruit hardness but lower juiciness than its parental. SC10-2 showed a decrease in respiration rate accompanied by a decrease in ethylene production during ripening, both of which fell to a greater extent than in PS. The introgression affected 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the levels of which during ripening were generally higher in SC10-2 than in PS. Transcriptomic analysis from RNA-Seq revealed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the effects studied. For example, 909 DEGs were exclusive to the introgression, and only 23 DEGs were exclusive to postharvest ripening time. Major functions of the DEGs associated with introgression or ripening time were identified by cluster analysis. About 37 genes directly and/or indirectly affected the delay in ripening of SC10-2 compared with PS in general and, more particularly, the physiological and quality traits measured and, probably, the differential non-climacteric response. Of the former genes, we studied in more detail at least five that mapped in the introgression in linkage group (LG) X, and 32 outside it. CONCLUSION: There is an apparent control of textural changes, VOCs and fruit ripening by an expression quantitative trait locus located in LG X together with a direct control on them due to genes presented in the introgression (CmTrpD, CmNADH1, CmTCP15, CmGDSL esterase/lipase, and CmHK4-like) and CmNAC18. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucurbitaceae/química , Cucurbitaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucurbitaceae/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ligação Genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
4.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153378, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In our previous study, we demonstrated the hepatoprotective effect of Herpetospermum pedunculosum in cholestatic rats. A bioassay-guided study also led to the identification and isolation of a lignan, dihydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DA) from the seeds of H. pedunculosum. PURPOSE: To investigate whether DA could alleviate cholestasis and determine the mechanisms underlying such action. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administered with DA (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg) intragastrically once daily for 7 days prior to treatment with α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) (60 mg/kg). We then evaluated the levels of a range of serum indicators, determined bile flow, and carried out histopathological analyses. Western blotting was then used to investigate the levels of inflammatory mediators and the Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR), proteins involved in the downstream biosynthesis of bile acids, and a range of transport proteins. Molecular docking was used to simulate the interaction between DA and FXR. Cell viability of human hepatocytes (L-02) cells was determined by MTT. Then, we treated guggulsterone-inhibited L-02 cells, Si-FXR L-02 cells, and FXR-overexpression cells with the FXR agonist GW4064 (6 µM) or DA (25, 50 and 100 µM) for 24 h before detecting gene and protein expression by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: DA significantly attenuated ANIT-induced cholestasis in SD rats by reducing liver function indicators in the serum, increasing bile flow, improving the recovery of histopathological injuries in the liver, and by alleviating pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver. DA also increased the expression levels of FXR and altered the levels of downstream proteins in the liver tissues, thus indicating that DA might alleviate cholestasis by regulating the FXR. Molecular docking simulations predicted that DA was as an agonist of FXR. In vitro mechanical studies further showed that DA increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of FXR, Small Heterodimer Partner 1/2, Bile Salt Export Pump, Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein 2, and Na+/taurocholate Co-transporting Polypeptide, in both guggulsterone-inhibited and Si-FXR L-02 cells. Moreover, DA enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of FXR, and its downstream genes and proteins, in L-02 cells containing an FXR-overexpression plasmid. CONCLUSION: DA may represent an effective agonist for FXR has significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of cholestatic liver injury.


Assuntos
Colestase Intra-Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Fenóis/farmacologia , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , 1-Naftilisotiocianato/toxicidade , Membro 11 da Subfamília B de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Bile/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Colestase Intra-Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Colestase Intra-Hepática/metabolismo , Colestase Intra-Hepática/patologia , Cucurbitaceae/química , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fenóis/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/agonistas , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/química , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética
5.
Phytomedicine ; 81: 153431, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several lines of preclinical studies have shown promising antidiabetic effects of the aqueous leaves extract of Coccinia grandis (Linn.) Voigt (Cucurbitaceae) in vivo and in vitro. PURPOSE: The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a newly developed herbal formulation of C. grandis in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). STUDY DESIGN: A three months long, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. METHOD: Based on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration, a total number of 158 newly diagnosed patients with T2DM (45 ± 15 years age) were recruited for the present trial from the University Medical Clinic, Teaching Hospital, Karapitiya, Galle, Sri Lanka. They were randomly assigned to the test or placebo group to receive 500 mg of herbal drug (n = 79) or placebo drug (n = 79) once daily for three months. Patients and investigators were blinded for the treatment. Percentage of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C %), insulin and lipid profile parameters were estimated at the base line and at the end of the intervention. Serum concentration of fructosamine was assessed at every other visit of the trial. The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), atherogenic index (AI), cardio-protective index (CPI) and coronary risk index (CRI) were calculated. Furthermore, fasting plasma glucose concentration, renal and liver toxicity parameters, hematological parameters, blood pressure (BP) were assessed throughout the study in two weekly intervals till the end of three months. RESULTS: Out of 158, a total number of 145 patients completed the entire clinical trial period successfully. Mean (SD) changes of variables from the baseline to the end of the intervention in test and placebo groups were 0.65 (0.54) and 0.08 (0.66) for HbA1C % (p < 0.001), 1.91 (3.07) and -1.28 (9.77) for insulin (p < 0.001), 0.02 (0.03) and -0.01 (0.04) for frucosamine (p < 0.001), 1.51 (0.49) and 0.05 (0.50) for FPG (p < 0.001), 1.73 (1.36) and -0.37 (3.38) for HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), 0.16 (0.18) and -0.04 (0.42) for TG (p < 0.001), 0.07 (0.08) and -0.02 (0.19) for VLDL-C (p < 0.001), respectively. However, the herbal drug of C. grandis was unable to change other outcome variables significantly when compared to the placebo (p > 0.05). All the renal, liver and toxicity parameters, hematological parameters and BP were within the normal physiological reference ranges at each visit. CONCLUSION: Treatment with herbal drug of C. grandis (500 mg per day) for three months for patients with newly diagnosed T2DM significantly improved their glycemic and selected lipid profile parameters with well tolerated safety.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Food Chem ; 335: 127579, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738531

RESUMO

The goal of this work was to characterize the profile of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of inodorus melon peels. Melon peels were divided into three fractions: a solid fraction with a higher content of carbohydrates (84.81%); a liquid fraction with a higher ash content (11.5%); and a pellet fraction with a higher protein content (34.90%). The structural carbohydrates study revealed a composition of cellulose (27.68%), hemicellulose (8.2%) and lignin (26.46%) in the solid fraction. The liquid fraction had the highest antioxidant activity based on results from DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays. Flavones, hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids were the main phenolic classes found in all fractions. In addition, ß-carotene, lutein, ß-cryptoxanthin and violaxanthin had also been quantified. Melon fractions were rich in nutrients and bioactive substances and could be useful in the development of novel functional products, considering the growing market demand for safe and healthy food products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cucurbitaceae/química , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Alimento Funcional , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia
7.
Food Chem ; 335: 127622, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739811

RESUMO

During the last decade, dried fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii (luo han guo), also known as monk fruit, have become popular food ingredients. Luo han guo extracts, which are promoted as non-caloric natural sweeteners, are now incorporated into dietary supplements, soft drinks, and energy shakes. The compounds responsible for the sweetening effect are glycosylated cucurbitane-type triterpenoids, the so-called mogrosides. However, of the more than 40 known mogroside compounds, only 11-α-hydroxy-mogrosides exhibit a sweetening effect, whereas the other triterpenoids are non- or bitter-tasting. We have used two-dimensional quantitative NMR to determine selectively the content of 11-α-hydroxy-mogrosides in these dried fruits and thus to predict their sweetening potential. Homonuclear (H,H COSY) and heteronuclear (HSQC) methods were developed, validated, and compared. Both techniques were found suitable for the quality control of luo han guo fruits and extracts, the COSY experiment being advantageous with regard to accuracy, precision, and limit of quantification.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Frutas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Paladar , Glicosídeos/análise , Triterpenos/análise
8.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(11): 1381-1388, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055451

RESUMO

The oil content and the fatty acid composition of roasted and unroasted melon seed and oils were determined. The oil contents of roasted melon seeds changed between 26.4% (Type 12) and 38.7% (Type 4). In general, oil contents of roasted melon seeds were found higher than that of unroasted seeds that could be due to the evaporation of water during roasting processes which consequently lead to increased concentrations of other seed components including oils. Saturated fatty acid contents of unroasted melon seed samples change between 13.5% (Type 6) and 17.1% (Type 20). In addition, polyunsaturated fatty acids of unroasted melon seed oils ranged from 51.9% (Type 13) to 70.2% (Type 6). Palmitic acid contents of roasted seed oils varied between 7.8% (Type 5) and 15.1% (Type 17). In addition, the oleic acid contents ranged from 15.4% (Type 10) to 37.7% (Type17). Also, linoleic acid contents were found between 34.7% (Type 17) and 70.3% (Type 6). Saturated fatty acid contents of roasted melon seed oils ranged from 13.5% (Type 6) to 16.7% (Type 13). The major tocopherols in both roasted and unroasted melon seed oils were α-tocopherol, É£-tocopherol and δ-tocopherols. Melon seed oils are rich in linoleic, oleic acids and É£-tocopherol.


Assuntos
Culinária , Cucurbitaceae/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Temperatura Alta , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Tocoferóis/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Ácido Oleico/análise , Ácido Palmítico/análise
9.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 993-1000, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788518

RESUMO

In this study, seed oils of Thladiantha nudiflora and Thladiantha dubia were found to contain 55.5 and 44.4% mole of conjugated octadecatrienoic fatty acids, respectively. The presence of moieties of conjugated fatty acids was confirmed by a series from physical methods: UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The triacylglycerols (TAGs) isolated of the seed oils were studied by RP-HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detections. It was shown that all 15 TAGs of Thladiantha dubia contain moieties of conjugated fatty acids - punicic, (9Z,11E,13Z)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid (35.6% mole) and 8.9% mole α-eleostearic, (9Z,11E,13E)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid. Meanwhile, 24 TAGs of Thladiantha nudiflora seed oil contain both acids in approximately equal proportions (27.4:28.2 % mole). The enrichment for polyunsaturated fatty acids of the hydrolysis product of the seed oils due to urea inclusion complex formation was discussed.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas
10.
Food Chem ; 333: 127502, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683257

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ethanol, ultrasound and/or vacuum as a pretreatment to melon drying. Eight types of pretreatments were performed in which samples were immersed in ethanol solutions with different concentrations (50% and 100%) using four treatment conditions: immersion, immersion with ultrasound (US), with vacuum (VC) and with ultrasound and vacuum (USVC). Drying was performed at 60 °C and five different semi-theoretical drying mathematical models were examined to characterize the drying curves, and quality analyses were carried out. The condition that obtained the lower drying time was using the US pretreatment in 100% ethanol solution. Drying caused a diminution of bioactive compounds and influenced color parameters. However, the samples immersed in 50% ethanol solution and dried obtained minor losses of total phenolics, total carotenoids, and ascorbic acid contents.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Etanol/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Carotenoides/química , Cor , Cucurbitaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Dessecação , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/química , Vácuo
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1076-1081, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237449

RESUMO

To prepare the herpetolide A nanosuspension lyophilized powder(HPA-NS-LP), in order to investigate its anti-hepatitis B virus(HBV) activity and the dissolution in vitro. Herpetolide A nanosuspension(HPA-NS) was prepared by ultrasonic precipitation method. The formulation and process of HPA-NS were optimized by the single factor experiment. Lyophilized powder(HPA-NS-LP) was prepared by freeze-drying method. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphology of HPA-NS-LP. Paddle method was used to determinate the dissolution of HPT-NS-LP in vitro. The anti-HBV activity of herpetolide A coarse suspension lyophilized powder(HPA-CS-LP) and HPA-NS-LP was evaluated by HepG2.2.15 cell model. The mean particle size of optimized HPA-NS was(173.46±4.36) nm, with a polydispersity index of 0.110±0.012. After redispersion, the mean particle size and the polydispersity index of HPA-NS-LP increased, with changes within a rational range. Scanning electron microscopy showed that HPA-NS-LP was spherical in shape. Cumulative dissolution rate of HPA-NS-LP was more than 90% in 2 hours, which was higher than that of HPA-CS-LP. Both HPA-CS-LP and HPA-NS-LP could effectively inhibit the secretion of HepG2.2.15 cell antigens(HBsAg and HBeAg), and the inhibitory effect of HPA-NS-LP was significantly higher than that of HPA CS-LP(P<0.05). HBV-DNA test showed that high, medium and low-dose HPA-NS-LP(50, 25, 12.5 mg·kg~(-1)) significantly decreased the level of HBV-DNA(P<0.05), and the effect was better than that of the same dose of HPA-CS-LP(P<0.05). The results revealed that HPA-NS-LP exhibited anti-HBV activity in vitro, and its effect was superior to that of HPA-CS-LP.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Cucurbitaceae/química , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade , Suspensões
12.
Exp Parasitol ; 212: 107873, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165146

RESUMO

Ginsenoside-Rh2 and cucurbitacin-B (CuB) are secondary metabolites of Ginseng (Panax ginseng) and Cucurbitaceae plants respectively. We assessed the anticryptosporidial activity of these two functional compounds in a cell culture model of cryptosporidiosis. The highest concentration of each compound that was not toxic to the host cells was used to assess the activity against C. parvum during infection/invasion and growth in HCT-8 cell monolayers. Monolayers were infected with pre-excysted C. parvum oocysts. Infected monolayers were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h and 48 h in the presence of different concentrations of each test compound. A growth resumption assay was performed by incubating infected monolayers in the presence of compounds for 24 h followed by a second 24-h incubation in the absence of compound. To screen for invasion inhibiting activity, freshly excysted C. parvum sporozoites were pre-treated with different concentrations of compounds prior to adding them to the cell monolayers. Paromomycin, a known inhibitor of C. parvum, and DMSO were used as positive and negative control, respectively. The level of infection was initially assessed using an immunofluorescent assay and quantified by real-time PCR. Both compounds were found to strongly inhibit C. parvum intracellular development in a dose-dependent manner. IC50 values of 25 µM for a 24 h development period and 5.52 µM after 48 h development were measured for Rh2, whereas for CuB an IC50 value of 0.169 µg/ml and 0.118 µg/ml were obtained for the same incubation periods. CuB also effectively inhibited resumption of growth, an activity that was not observed with Rh2. CuB was more effective at inhibiting excystation and/or host cell invasion, indicating that this compound also targets extracellular stages of the parasite.


Assuntos
Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucurbitacinas/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cryptosporidium parvum/citologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucurbitaceae/química , Dimetil Sulfóxido , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Panax/química , Paromomicina/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Solventes
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 2956-2968, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089310

RESUMO

We developed a synbiotic yogurt using monk fruit extract as a sweetener and investigated the effects of feeding the yogurt to rats with type 2 diabetes induced by streptozotocin and a high-fat diet. The rats fed the synbiotic yogurt showed greater blood glucose regulation and a significant decrease in insulin resistance and glycosylated hemoglobin compared with rats fed yogurt sweetened with sucrose, and they showed a remarkable improvement in short-chain fatty acid levels and gut microbiota status. Liver and kidney damage was also ameliorated in the rats fed the synbiotic yogurt. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the synbiotic yogurt inhibited ß-cell loss compared with the control yogurt. Consuming the synbiotic yogurt helped to restore the islets of Langerhans. Our results indicated that monk fruit extract may be a good alternative to sucrose for synbiotic yogurt products in people with type 2 diabetes to delay the progression of diabetes and associated complications.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Iogurte , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Frutas/química , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Simbióticos , Iogurte/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 316: 126342, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044706

RESUMO

The types and amounts of volatiles in the fruits of 39 melon cultivars were determined. We identified 146 volatiles, including 55 esters, 23 aldehydes, 30 alcohols, 15 ketones, 6 acids and 17 others. Ethyl acetate, (Z)-6-nonenal and 3,6-(E,Z)-nonadien-1-ol were the most three abundant volatiles (average content > 50 µg/kg FW). Aroma profiles showed significant differences among cultivars. Zhongtian49 and Zhongtian20 had the most abundant aroma components (76) and Jinguniang exhibited the least (23). One non-climacteric inodorus cultivar (Xizhoumi25) had the highest content of total volatiles (1840 µg/kg FW). Principal component analysis clustered the 39 melon cultivars into five groups. This work describes the comparative diversity of melon fruit volatiles for a large number of cultivars. Furthermore, this study could support the selection of cultivars with a flavor that suits the public and also future breeding work towards the genetic improvement of melon flavor.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Álcoois/análise , Aldeídos/análise , Ésteres/análise , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Cetonas/análise , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2109, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034276

RESUMO

Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey is an important medicinal plant used in several reproductive medicines. It serves as a wide source of tetracyclic triterpens called cucurbitacins. Response surface methodology (RSM) with Box-Behnken design (BBD) was studied to optimize the production of cucurbitacins. RSM put forth the ideal conditions such as 1:30 SS ratio (g/mL), 80 rpm (mixing extraction speed), 150 µm mean particle size, 30 min extraction time and 50 °C using chloroform in continuous shaking extraction (CSE) and showed the highest cucurbitacin I (CUI) content (2.345 ± 0.1686 mg/g DW). Similarly, the highest yield of cucurbitacin B (CUB) (1.584 ± 0.15 mg/g DW) was recorded at ideal conditions (1:40 g/mL SS ratio and 60 min time and others similar to CUI). Among the tested extraction methods, the highest CUI, CUB, and CUI + B yield (1.437 ± 0.03, 0.782 ± 0.10, 2.17 ± 0.35 mg/g DW, respectively) as well as promising DPPH radical scavenging activity (25.06 ± 0.1 µgAAE/g DW) were recorded from the SBAE (steam bath assisted extraction). In addition, MAE and UAE revealed the highest inhibition of α-amylase (68.68%) and α-glucosidase (56.27%) enzymes, respectively. Fruit extracts showed potent anticancer activity against breast (MCF-7) and colon (HT-29) cancer cell lines (LC50 - 44.27 and 46.88 µg/mL, respectively). Our study proved that SS ratio, particle size and temperature were the most positively influencing variables and served to be the most efficient for the highest recovery of CUI and CUB. Based on the present study, the fruits of D. palmatus were revealed as a potent antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anticancer bio-resource that could be explored further to develop novel drug to manage diabetes, cancer and oxidative stress related disorders.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Cucurbitacinas/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cucurbitacinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Células HT29/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Células MCF-7/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 147: 688-698, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926925

RESUMO

Pectin is one of high-value functional food ingredients. Better knowledge of properties of chayote pectin would help to promote the application of the chayote as a pectin source. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract chayote pectin. The extraction parameters were optimized by a Box-Behnken response surface design. The highest yield (6.19%) was obtained at a liquid/solid ratio of 50 mL/g, ultrasonic temperature of 70 °C and ultrasonic time of 40 min as optimized extraction conditions. The chemical properties, spectral information and rheological properties of pectin extracted with UAE under the optimum conditions (PEUO) were measured and the results indicated that the PEUO exhibited a low degree of esterification, high molar mass (2.47 × 106 g/mol) and suitable foaming capacity. The PEUO featured a stronger antioxidant capacity compared to commercially apple pectin and the PEUO solutions (1%, 2%, 3% and 5%) showed a non-Newtonian behavior. Hence, PEUO may provide beneficial characteristics to find use in food industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Cucurbitaceae/química , Pectinas/química , Reologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Esterificação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Molecular , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura
17.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(3): 275-287, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989491

RESUMO

Herbivorous insects employ host plant volatile blends as cue for host recognition. Adults of Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feed on leaves, flowers, and fruits of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (syn: Melothria heterophylla) (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as creeping cucumber. Currently, this pest is controlled by insecticides application. Hence, it is necessary to find out volatile components from fruits attracting the insect, which might be used for eco-friendly pest management program. behavioral responses of females were measured by Y-tube olfactometer bioassays towards volatile blends from undamaged (UD), insect-damaged (ID), and mechanically damaged (MD) fruits with the aim to identify the compounds responsible for host fruit location. Volatile organic compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses, respectively. Nonanal was predominant in volatile blends of UD, ID, and MD fruits. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 2-octanol, heptadienal (2E,4E), 1-pentadecanol, and 1-hexadecanol were present in volatile blends of ID and MD fruits, but females did not show response to these six compounds. 1-Octanol and 1-heptadecanol were unique in volatile blends of UD fruits after 4 hr of damage, but females did not show response to these compounds. Females were more attracted to volatile blends from UD fruits after 4 hr of damage in comparison to volatile blends released by UD fruits, due to increased emissions of (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and 2E-nonenal. A synthetic blend of 3.35 µg (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal and 1.72 µg 2E-nonenal dissolved in 25 µl CH2Cl2 could be used for the development of baited traps to control this insect pest in integrated pest management strategies.


Assuntos
Besouros/fisiologia , Cucurbitaceae/química , Herbivoria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais , Quimiotaxia , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Frutas/química , Masculino
18.
J Sep Sci ; 43(5): 852-864, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773887

RESUMO

The chemical constituents of the Siraitia grosvenorii leaf extract were studied. Firstly, high-speed counter-current chromatography was applied to the one-step separation of four compounds from S. grosvenorii leaf extract with the solvent system composed of 0.01% acetic acid water/n-butanol/n-hexane/methanol (5:3:1:1, v/v/v/v). In this work, 270 mg of crude sample yielded four compounds, a new kaempferol O-glycoside derivative, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-[4-O-(4-carboxy-3-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoyl)]-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, named kaempferitrin A (2.1 mg, 90%), and three known compounds, grosvenorine (3.4 mg, 93%), kaempferitrin (14.4 mg, 99%) and afzelin (4 mg, 98%), and the structures of these compounds were identified by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Then, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to illustrate the dominant flavonoids in S. grosvenorii leaf extract. 34 flavonoids including 19 kaempferol O-glycosides, 4 quercetin O-glycosides, 6 flavanone derivatives, and 5 polymethoxyflavones, were accurately or tentatively identified by carefully comparing their retention times, UV data, precise masses, the typical fragments of the standards and literature data. Most of these compounds were reported for the first time. This study establishes a foundation for the further development and utilization of S. grosvenorii leaves in future.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Distribuição Contracorrente , Flavonoides/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Fluoresc ; 30(1): 103-112, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865492

RESUMO

Facile and fast hydrothermal process for the synthesis of nitrogen doped carbon dots (N-CDs) from Coccinia grandis (C. grandis) extract is discussed here. The morphology of prepared N-CDs was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) method. The optical properties of the prepared N-CDs were revealed by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopic techniques were employed to examine the crystallinity and graphitization of prepared N-CDs. The nitrogen doping was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The prepared nitrogen doped carbon dots released blue fluorescence at 405 nm beneath the excitation of 310 nm. The prepared N-CDs influenced the catalytic performance of NaBH4 in the reduction of methyl orange. The rate constant for the reduction of organic dye (methyl orange) by NaBH4 in the presence of the prepared green catalyst was also determined.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/química , Cucurbitaceae/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Nitrogênio/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Catálise , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Frutas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/síntese química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112273, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586692

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Luohanguo (LHG), a traditional Chinese medicine, could clear heat, moisten the lung, soothe the throat, restore the voice, and lubricate intestine and open the bowels. LHG has been utilized for the treatment of sore throats and hyperglycemia in folk medicine as a homology of medicine and food. The hypoglycemic pharmacology of LHG has attracted considerable attention, and mogrosides have been considered to be active ingredients against diabetes mellitus. We have found that these mogrosides could be metabolized into their secondary glycosides containing 1-3 glucose residues in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats in previous studies. These metabolites may be the antidiabetic components of LHG in vivo. Thus far, no reports have been found on reducing blood glucose of mogrosides containing 1-3 glucose residues. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to confirm that mogrosides containing 1-3 glucose residues were the active components of LHG for antidiabetic effects and to understand their potential mechanisms of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, the special fraction of mogrosides containing 1-3 glucose residues was separated from a 50% ethanol extract of LHG, and the chemical components were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and named low-polar Siraitia grosvenorii glycosides (L-SGgly). Second, the antidiabetic effects of L-SGgly were evaluated by HFD/STZ-induced (high-fat diet and streptozocin) obese T2DM rats by indexing fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), and insulin resistance, and then compared with other fractions in the separation process. The changes in serum lipid levels were also detected. Finally, possible mechanisms of antidiabetic activity of L-SGgly were identified as increasing GLP-1 levels and activating liver AMPK in T2DM rats. RESULTS: The chemical analysis of L-SGgly showed that they contain 11-oxomogroside V, mogroside V, mogroside III, mogroside IIE, mogroside IIIA1, mogroside IIA1, and mogroside IA1, respectively. The total content of the mogrosides in L-SGgly was 54.4%, including 15.7% mogroside IIA1 and 12.6% mogroside IA1. L-SGgly showed excellent effects on obese T2DM rats compared with the other fractions of LHG extract, including significantly reducing the levels of FBG (p < 0.001) and modifying insulin resistance (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, they could significantly decrease the content of triglyceride (p < 0.01), total cholesterol (p < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.01) and free fatty acid (p < 0.001) and increase the content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001) in serum of T2DM rats. Moreover, L-SGgly can significantly increase (p < 0.01) GLP-1 levels and decrease (p < 0.01) IL-6 levels in T2DM rat serum. AMPK-activating activity in T2DM rats was also upregulated by L-SGgly, but no statistical significance was shown. CONCLUSION: L-SGgly, fractions separated from LHG extract, were verified to have obvious anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects on T2DM rats. Furthermore, L-SGgly regulated insulin secretion in T2DM rats by increasing GLP-1 levels. These findings provide an explanation for the antidiabetic role of LHG.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Fracionamento Químico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipolipemiantes/análise , Hipolipemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Ratos , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Triterpenos/análise , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico
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