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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 212: 107873, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165146

RESUMO

Ginsenoside-Rh2 and cucurbitacin-B (CuB) are secondary metabolites of Ginseng (Panax ginseng) and Cucurbitaceae plants respectively. We assessed the anticryptosporidial activity of these two functional compounds in a cell culture model of cryptosporidiosis. The highest concentration of each compound that was not toxic to the host cells was used to assess the activity against C. parvum during infection/invasion and growth in HCT-8 cell monolayers. Monolayers were infected with pre-excysted C. parvum oocysts. Infected monolayers were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h and 48 h in the presence of different concentrations of each test compound. A growth resumption assay was performed by incubating infected monolayers in the presence of compounds for 24 h followed by a second 24-h incubation in the absence of compound. To screen for invasion inhibiting activity, freshly excysted C. parvum sporozoites were pre-treated with different concentrations of compounds prior to adding them to the cell monolayers. Paromomycin, a known inhibitor of C. parvum, and DMSO were used as positive and negative control, respectively. The level of infection was initially assessed using an immunofluorescent assay and quantified by real-time PCR. Both compounds were found to strongly inhibit C. parvum intracellular development in a dose-dependent manner. IC50 values of 25 µM for a 24 h development period and 5.52 µM after 48 h development were measured for Rh2, whereas for CuB an IC50 value of 0.169 µg/ml and 0.118 µg/ml were obtained for the same incubation periods. CuB also effectively inhibited resumption of growth, an activity that was not observed with Rh2. CuB was more effective at inhibiting excystation and/or host cell invasion, indicating that this compound also targets extracellular stages of the parasite.


Assuntos
Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucurbitacinas/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cryptosporidium parvum/citologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucurbitaceae/química , Dimetil Sulfóxido , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Panax/química , Paromomicina/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Solventes
2.
Food Chem ; 303: 125400, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470275

RESUMO

Siraitia grosvenorii fruit (SGF) has been used as a natural sweetener and traditional medicine in China for more than two centuries. This study evaluated the effect of SGF extract supplementation (0.5%, 1%, and 2%) on the chemical, microbial and sensory properties of probiotic yogurt. The antioxidant, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitory (ACE-I) and antibacterial bioactivities were determined. SGF extract supplementation improved some of the chemical and physicochemical characteristics. Probiotic yogurt with the fruit extract had significantly more Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, whereas there was no significant effect on the number of Streptococcus thermophiles. The bioactivities were significantly increased by SGF extract supplementation. Probiotic yogurt with 2% SGF extract showed the highest antioxidant, ACE-I, and antibacterial activities, whereas the one with 1% SGF extract conferred the highest sensory attributes score. Overall, SGF extract offers a promising option as a dietary supplement to produce novel dairy products that have high nutritional and bioactivity values.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Probióticos/análise , Iogurte/microbiologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , China , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactobacillus casei/genética , Lactobacillus casei/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus casei/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/genética , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/isolamento & purificação , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Paladar , Iogurte/análise
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112273, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586692

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Luohanguo (LHG), a traditional Chinese medicine, could clear heat, moisten the lung, soothe the throat, restore the voice, and lubricate intestine and open the bowels. LHG has been utilized for the treatment of sore throats and hyperglycemia in folk medicine as a homology of medicine and food. The hypoglycemic pharmacology of LHG has attracted considerable attention, and mogrosides have been considered to be active ingredients against diabetes mellitus. We have found that these mogrosides could be metabolized into their secondary glycosides containing 1-3 glucose residues in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats in previous studies. These metabolites may be the antidiabetic components of LHG in vivo. Thus far, no reports have been found on reducing blood glucose of mogrosides containing 1-3 glucose residues. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to confirm that mogrosides containing 1-3 glucose residues were the active components of LHG for antidiabetic effects and to understand their potential mechanisms of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, the special fraction of mogrosides containing 1-3 glucose residues was separated from a 50% ethanol extract of LHG, and the chemical components were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and named low-polar Siraitia grosvenorii glycosides (L-SGgly). Second, the antidiabetic effects of L-SGgly were evaluated by HFD/STZ-induced (high-fat diet and streptozocin) obese T2DM rats by indexing fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), and insulin resistance, and then compared with other fractions in the separation process. The changes in serum lipid levels were also detected. Finally, possible mechanisms of antidiabetic activity of L-SGgly were identified as increasing GLP-1 levels and activating liver AMPK in T2DM rats. RESULTS: The chemical analysis of L-SGgly showed that they contain 11-oxomogroside V, mogroside V, mogroside III, mogroside IIE, mogroside IIIA1, mogroside IIA1, and mogroside IA1, respectively. The total content of the mogrosides in L-SGgly was 54.4%, including 15.7% mogroside IIA1 and 12.6% mogroside IA1. L-SGgly showed excellent effects on obese T2DM rats compared with the other fractions of LHG extract, including significantly reducing the levels of FBG (p < 0.001) and modifying insulin resistance (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, they could significantly decrease the content of triglyceride (p < 0.01), total cholesterol (p < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.01) and free fatty acid (p < 0.001) and increase the content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001) in serum of T2DM rats. Moreover, L-SGgly can significantly increase (p < 0.01) GLP-1 levels and decrease (p < 0.01) IL-6 levels in T2DM rat serum. AMPK-activating activity in T2DM rats was also upregulated by L-SGgly, but no statistical significance was shown. CONCLUSION: L-SGgly, fractions separated from LHG extract, were verified to have obvious anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects on T2DM rats. Furthermore, L-SGgly regulated insulin secretion in T2DM rats by increasing GLP-1 levels. These findings provide an explanation for the antidiabetic role of LHG.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Fracionamento Químico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipolipemiantes/análise , Hipolipemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Ratos , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Triterpenos/análise , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico
4.
Molecules ; 24(24)2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847360

RESUMO

Infusions of roots of Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn.) Baill, ("taiuiá", "cipó-tauá") are used for toothache pain and ulcers. We aimed to study the antinociceptive effects and identify the possible mechanism of action of this plant and its isolated substances (cayaponoside A1, cayaponoside B4, cayaponoside D, and siolmatroside I). Hydroethanol extract (HE), ethyl acetate fraction (EtOAc), and isolated saponins were evaluated in chemical and thermal models of pain in mice. Animals were orally pretreated and evaluated in the capsaicin- or glutamate-induced licking and in the hot plate tests. The antinociceptive mechanism of action was evaluated using the hot plate test with the following pretreatments: Atropine (cholinergic antagonist), naloxone (opioid antagonist), or L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). All extracts and isolated saponins increased the area under the curve in the hot plate test. Tested substances induced a higher effect than the morphine-treated group. Our data suggest that stems of S. brasiliensis and their isolated substances present antinociceptive effects. Cholinergic and opioidergic pathways seem to be involved in their mechanism of action. Taken together our data corroborate the traditional use of the plant and expands the information regarding its use.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Cucurbitaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/química , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Camundongos , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Saponinas/administração & dosagem , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Solventes
5.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104404, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676394

RESUMO

Five new cucurbitane-type triterpenoid saponins Xuedanosides A-E (1-5) were isolated from the medicinal plant Hemsleya amabilis Diels by silica gel column, octadecylsilyl (ODS) column, and pre-HPLC techniques. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and examined alongside existing data from prior studies. Separated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity in HeLa, HCT-8, MCF-7 and HepG2 human cancer cell lines, and compounds 1 and 2 showed significant effects against HeLa cells with IC50 values of 3.21 and 8.57 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Cucurbitaceae/química , Tubérculos/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Glicosídeos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 304, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.) Franquet (BP) active compound, BP total saponins (BPTS), on MDA-MB-231 cells, and investigate the underlying mechanism regarding BPTS-mediated attenuation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. METHODS: The effect of BPTS on cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and migration on MDA-MB-231 cells at three different concentrations was investigated. A CCK-8 assay, wound-healing assay and flow cytometry were used to demonstrate the effects of BPTS. Additionally, expression of the primary members of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway was assessed using western blotting. To verify the underlying mechanisms, a PI3K inhibitor and an mTOR inhibitor were used. RESULTS: BPTS inhibited proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells with an IC50 value of 10 µg/mL at 48 h. BPTS inhibited migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, and the western blot results demonstrated that BPTS reduced p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR protein expression levels in MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, the results were confirmed using a PI3K inhibitor and an mTOR inhibitor. BPTS decreased proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells possibly through inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the therapeutic potential of BPTS for treating patients with triple-negative breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Cucurbitaceae/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética
7.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 201: 111637, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706086

RESUMO

Plants are considered to be a leading source for possible human therapeutic agents. This holistic study has investigated the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS), anti-infection, antioxidant and anti-photoaging properties of neglected plant Diplocyclos palmatus. The results showed that D. palmatus methanolic leaf extract (DPME) effectively inhibited the quorum sensing (QS) regulated virulence factor production as well as biofilm formation in Serratia marcescens. The transcriptomic analysis revealed that DPME significantly downed the expression of QS-regulated genes such as fimA, fimC, flhC, bsmB, pigP and shlA in S. marcescens, which supports the outcome of in vitro bioassays. Further, the docking study revealed that the presence of active compounds, namely tocopherols and phytol, DPME exhibited its anti-QS activity against S. marcescens. In addition, DPME treatment extended the lifespan of S. marcescens infected C. elegans by the action of dropping the internal accumulation. Further, qPCR analysis clearly revealed that DPME treatment significantly up-regulated the expression of the lifespan-related gene (daf-16) and immune-related genes (clec-60, clec-87, lys-7 and bec-1) in S. marcescens infected C.elegans. On the other hand, DPME extensively reduced the UV-A induced ROS stress, thereby, extended the lifespan in UV-A photoaged C. elegans. Further, the qPCR analysis also confirmed the up-regulation of daf-16, clec-60, clec-87 and col-19 genes which advocated the improvement of the lifespan, healthspan and collagen production in UV-A photoaged C. elegans. Further bioassays evidenced that that the lifespan extension of photoaged C. elegans was accomplished by the actions of antioxidants such as tocopherols and phytol in DPME.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos da radiação , Cucurbitaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Serratia marcescens/fisiologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Envelhecimento/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Cucurbitaceae/metabolismo , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Infecções por Serratia/patologia , Infecções por Serratia/veterinária , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6267-6275, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584060

RESUMO

A polyphenolic-rich fraction (CG50) was obtained from the methanol extract of Coccinia grandis leaves by chromatographic fractionation over a Diaion column using 50% aqueous methanol. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of CG50 showed the presence of six flavonoids, namely quercetin-hexoside deoxyhexoside (rutin), quercetin-hexoside deoxyhexoside (quercetin-3-O-neohesperidoside), kaempferol-hexoside deoxyhexoside (kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside), kaempferol-hexoside deoxyhexoside (kaempferol-3-O-neohesperidoside), kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, and kaempferol-hexoside in addition to the presence of two secoiridoids which are oleuropein and ligstroside. CG50 hydrogel showed a pronounced inhibition of the bacterial growth in wounds infected by Bacillus cereus in rats comparable to those treated with hydrogel base only showing 85.08 and 16.50% inhibition for the bacterial growth for the CG50 hydrogel and hydrogel base, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of CG50 hydrogel was close to that of fucidin during all days of treatment. Rats treated with CG50 hydrogel showed remarkable healing ability of the wound compared to other groups and approaching that of fucidin. This was clearly manifested by the clear formation of scars with obvious reduction in the wound size together with the appearance and re-growth of hair. This was further confirmed by the histopathological study of skin tissues as well as by the evaluation of the percentages of collagen fiber deposition. CG50 hydrogel showed 18.71% collagen fiber deposition comparable to the untreated group that showed 6.84% collagen fiber deposition and approaches that of the fucidin group. It was concluded that Coccinia grandis could be used as a natural wound healing agent that further consolidated its traditional use as a wound dressing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Cucurbitaceae/química , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus cereus/fisiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia
9.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412677

RESUMO

Five new cucurbitane-typetriterpenoid glycosides, named Xuedanoside F-J (1-5), were obtained from the rhizomes of Hemsleya penxianensis (Xue dan), which belongs to the family of Cucurbitaceae. These new compounds were elucidated byspectroscopic analysis, including 1D, 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS spectra. Additionally, all the isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines (Hela, MCF-7, and A-549) with the IC50 ranging from 2.25 to 49.44 µM in vitro with treatment 48 h and showed low cytotoxicity in human normal liver L-02 cells (IC50 > 50 µM). Compound 5 showed the most significant cytotoxic activity with the IC50 value of 2.25, 4.72, and 5.33 µM in 48 h, respectively.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Cucurbitaceae/química , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
10.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374969

RESUMO

A high-calorie diet causes fat accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver, leading to fatty liver and eventually non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Melon GliSODin® is used as a nutritional supplement because of its antioxidant activity. This study aimed to assess the antioxidant activity of Melon GliSODin® and its effectiveness in preventing NASH, which primarily results from oxidative stress. Furthermore, we verified the protective effect of Melon GliSODin® by administering it to a mouse model of diet-induced NASH. Melon GliSODin® suppressed liver fibrosis and fat accumulation, which is characteristic of the NASH phenotype. Gene expression analysis confirmed the suppression of fat synthesis and activation of antioxidative mechanisms. These results show that Melon GliSODin® mitigates NASH onset at the molecular level, suggesting its potential application as a NASH preventive agent.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cucurbitaceae/química , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Lipogênese/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/genética , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10306-10312, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464431

RESUMO

Conjugated linolenic acids (CLnAs) are natural phytochemicals with known and potential bioactivities in mammals. Established CLnA sources are limited to a few common fruit seeds, notably pomegranate seeds and cherry pits, and the search for alternatives is impeded in part by cumbersome methods for reliable measurement. We investigated CLnA contents in lower value fruit seeds with a recently available facile mass spectrometry method, solvent-mediated chemical ionization, enabling and quantitative analysis. We report for the first time the detection of CLnAs in cantaloupe and honeydew seeds at levels of 2 mg CLnA/g seed kernel. Based on the combined waste stream for these muskmelons of about 1.4 billion pounds in the USA annually, we estimate that the available CLnAs amount to 37.5 tons, similar to cherry pits. Our results suggest the potentially enhanced economic value of a specific class of bioactives that may be extracted from discarded food processing waste.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química , Resíduos/análise , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10401-10411, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441654

RESUMO

This research applied inhibitors to reduce the content of cooked off-flavor components (dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and 3-(methylthio)propanaldehyde) in heat-treated melon juice. The effects of glucose oxidase (GOD) on the formation and release of these four volatile sulfur compounds were also investigated. Results showed that GOD strongly inhibited the formation of the four compounds. In GOD-treated melon juice, S-methylmethionine was strongly protonated and not easily degraded into dimethyl sulfide. Moreover, the release of the dimethyl sulfide that did form was restrained by the hydrophobic interactions of gluconic acid and oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. In addition, gluconic acid (or glucose) and hydrogen peroxide could form a stable complex with methionine in an acidic matrix and thus prevented the methionine from producing 3-(methylthio)propanaldehyde, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide by the Maillard reaction during heat processing.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Aromatizantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Culinária , Cucurbitaceae/enzimologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/enzimologia , Glucose Oxidase/química , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Reação de Maillard , Odorantes/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Paladar
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 243: 112056, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279071

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ethnobotanical studies have been of very great importance in recognizing plants that contain substances that modulate the heterodimer T1R2-T1R3 sweet taste receptor, inclusive of Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) and Siraitia grosvenorii (Cucurbitaceae). AIM OF THE REVIEW: In addition to reviewing relevant ethnobotanical literature, inclusive of original field work conducted, the authors have provided a progress report on the ultimate regulatory acceptance of highly sweet ent-kaurane (steviol) diterpene glycosides from S. rebaudiana leaves ("stevia") and cucurbitane triterpene glycosides (mogrosides) from the fruits of S. grosvenorii (popularly known as "monk fruit"). Despite their relatively high prices relative to that of sucrose, the steviol glycosides and mogrosides are of current great interest for further more extensive utilization on the market as sweet-tasting non-caloric food additives, due to increases in the rates of obesity and diabetes all over the world. Recent phytochemical work on the sweet principles of these two species is highlighted, including the important "next-generation" sweetener, rebaudioside M, from S. rebaudiana. RESULTS: Initial observations on the ethnobotany of both S. rebaudiana and S. grosvenorii have proved crucial to indicating the presence of their sweet-tasting principles to the wider scientific community. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnobotanical observations have been pivotal in enabling the discovery of many sweet-tasting plant constituents, with those of S. rebaudiana and S. grosvenorii both being examples. Extractives prepared from these species are now commercially used widely in the U.S. as additives for the sweetening of foods and beverages.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Stevia , Edulcorantes , Animais , Cucurbitaceae/química , Etnobotânica , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Stevia/química , Edulcorantes/química , Edulcorantes/farmacologia
14.
Phytomedicine ; 63: 152999, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Recently, the inhibitory effects of flavone glycosides isolated from Sicyos angulatus extract on hepatic lipid accumulation in vitro were demonstrated. However, the effects of S. angulatus extract and its major flavonoid glycoside on in vivo hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet have not yet been established. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of S. angulatus extract and its major flavonoid glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)]-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, on hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice, which serves as a model of NAFLD. In addition, attempts have been made to chemically profile the metabolites involved in the activity of the S. angulatus extract. METHODS: C57BL/6 J mice were divided into vehicle, total extract of S. angulatus (SA; 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) and major active component (20 mg/kg) groups. The mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without S. angulatus extract or its major single compound for 10 weeks. Chemical identification was carried out using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-qTOF-MS/MS) and then quantified by HPLC-DAD. RESULTS: Administration of S. angulatus extract significantly lowered plasma ALT and AST levels in HFD-fed mice compared to those of the vehicle group. The hepatic lipid content, as evidenced by oil-red O staining and quantification, was significantly lower in the S. angulatus-administered group, and the effect was dose dependent. These beneficial effects of S. angulatus extract were related to the decreased expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid (ACC1, FAS and SCD1) and triglyceride (DGAT) synthesis. The expression levels of two key transcription factors regulating lipogenesis, SREBP-1c and PPARγ, were significantly suppressed in the liver by administration of S. angulatus extract with HFD. Treatment of the HFD-fed mice with the major compound isolated from S. angulatus extract resulted in improved liver function along with an anti-steatotic effect similar to the results seen with S. angulatus extract. For the standardization of the S. angulatus extract, 23 compounds were identified based on MS/MS fragmentation and UV spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the major compound showed that the major component was present in 15.35 ± 0.01 mg/g of total extract. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that S. angulatus extract and its major component have the potential to improve liver function and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese mice.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/genética , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicosídeos/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Food Chem ; 295: 514-519, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174790

RESUMO

Chayote, the fruit of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz, is known for culinary applications and in traditional medicine. A great number of its health benefits have been related to its phenolic composition. However, literature concerning the characterization of phenolic compounds in chayote is scarce. Therefore, this work highlights new information about the composition of chayote. For that, different hydro-alcoholic mixtures (50-100% ethanol content) were used to recover phenolic compounds by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and the platform HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS was employed to characterize these components in the fruit. Briefly, 26 compounds, classified as phenolic acids, flavonoids and other polar compounds were identified in the fruit. About the effect of ethanol ratio on phenolic extraction, 70% ethanol exhibited the best recovery of target compounds (188 ±â€¯2 mg/100 g fruit d.w.). Chayote is rich in flavones accounting for a 60.6% from the total compounds quantified and the major compound is diosmetin 7-O-rutinoside (23.8%).


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Ultrassom/métodos
16.
Phytochemistry ; 164: 102-110, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112925

RESUMO

A bioassay-guided chemical investigation on the ethyl acetate extract of the stems of Herpetospermum pedunculosum led to the isolation and identification of 22 lignans including 6 previously undescribed ones, herpetosiols A-F. Their structures including stereochemistries were elucidated by analysis of NMR, HRMS and ECD data. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of all isolates were studied against human gastric carcinoma SGC7901, lung carcinoma A549, breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell lines. Among them, eight lignans exhibited anti-proliferative effects against four tumor cell lines with IC50 ranging from 1.7 ±â€¯0.1 to 32.6 ±â€¯1.1 µM. Hedyotol-B displayed potent inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 1.7 ±â€¯0.1 µM against SGC7901 and 6.1 ±â€¯0.5 µM against A549, respectively.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Cucurbitaceae/química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Conformação Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126008

RESUMO

Both the calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and CDPK-related kinases (CRKs) play numerous roles in plant growth, development, and stress response. Despite genome-wide identification of both families in Cucumis, comparative evolutionary and functional analysis of both CDPKs and CRKs in Cucurbitaceae remain unclear. In this study, we identified 128 CDPK and 56 CRK genes in total in six Cucurbitaceae species (C. lanatus, C. sativus, C. moschata, C. maxima, C. pepo, and L. siceraria). Dot plot analysis indicated that self-duplication of conserved domains contributed to the structural variations of two CDPKs (CpCDPK19 and CpCDPK27) in C. pepo. Using watermelon genome as reference, an integrated map containing 25 loci (16 CDPK and nine CRK loci) was obtained, 16 of which (12 CDPK and four CRK) were shared by all seven Cucurbitaceae species. Combined with exon-intron organizations, topological analyses indicated an ancient origination of groups CDPK IV and CRK. Moreover, the evolutionary scenario of seven modern Cucurbitaceae species could also be reflected on the phylogenetic trees. Expression patterns of ClCDPKs and ClCRKs were studied under different abiotic stresses. Some valuable genes were uncovered for future gene function exploration. For instance, both ClCDPK6 and its ortholog CsCDPK14 in cucumber could be induced by salinity, while ClCDPK6 and ClCDPK16, as well as their orthologs in Cucumis, maintained high expression levels in male flowers. Collectively, these results provide insights into the evolutionary history of two gene families in Cucurbitaceae, and indicate a subset of candidate genes for functional characterizations in the future.


Assuntos
Citrullus/genética , Cucurbitaceae/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Citrullus/química , Cucurbitaceae/química , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Quinases/química
18.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 13(2): 170-177, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051447

RESUMO

Malaria is a dangerous disease affecting humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. According to recent estimates, 3.2 billion people are at risk of malaria. Many drugs are in practices to control this disease and their vectors. Eco-friendly control tools are needed to fight vectors of this important disease. Nanotechnology is playing a key role in the fight against many public health emergencies. In the present study, Lagenaria siceraria aqueous peel extract was used to prepare zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), then tested on Anopheles stephensi eggs, larvae and pupae. The L. siceraria-synthesised ZnO NPs were characterized additionally by FTIR, AFM, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, EDX, and SEM spectroscopy The ovicidal, larvicidal, pupicidal and repellent activities of L. siceraria and green-synthesised ZnO NPs were analysed on A. stephensi. The potential mechanism of action of ZnO NPs was studied investigating the changes in various enzyme activities in A. stephensi IV instar larvae. Furthermore, the smoke toxicity of L. siceraria-based cones against A. stephensi evoked higher mortality if compared with the control. Overall, the present study concluded that L. siceraria peel extract and its mediated green synthesised ZnO NPs represent a valuable green option to manage against malaria vectors.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucurbitaceae/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Química Verde , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/química
19.
Phytomedicine ; 61: 152835, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Siraitia grosvenorii fruits are used in traditional medicine to treat cough, sore throat, bronchitis, and asthma. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic effects of S. grosvenorii residual extract (SGRE) on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma in mice. METHODS: Asthma was induced in BALB/c mice by systemic sensitization to OVA, followed by intratracheal, intraperitoneal, and aerosol allergen challenges. SGRE was orally administered for four weeks. We investigated the effects of SGRE on airway hyper-responsiveness, OVA-specific IgE production, histological analysis of lung and trachea, immune cell phenotyping, Th1/Th2 cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) fluid and splenocytes, and gene expression in the lung. RESULTS: SGRE ameliorated OVA-driven airway hyper-responsiveness, serum IgE production, and histopathological changes in the lung and trachea. SGRE reduced the total number of cells in the lung and BAL, the total number of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils in the lung and BAL, the absolute number of CD4+/CD69+ T cells in the lung, and the absolute number of CD4+/CD8+ T cells and CD11b+/Gr-1+ granulocytes in the lung and BAL. SGRE also reduced Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and increased the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ in the BAL fluid and supernatant of splenocyte cultures. SGRE decreased the OVA-induced increase of IL-13, TARC, MUC5AC, TNF-α, and IL-17 expression in the lung. CONCLUSION: SGRE exerts anti-asthmatic effects via the inhibition of Th2 and Th17 cytokines and the increase of Th1 cytokines, suggesting that SGRE may be a potential therapeutic agent for allergic lung inflammation, such as asthma.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/farmacologia , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Cucurbitaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mucina-5AC/genética , Mucina-5AC/metabolismo , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/patologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th17/patologia
20.
Food Chem ; 289: 278-284, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955613

RESUMO

Fusarium rot of muskmelon is a common and frequently-occurring postharvest disease, which leads to quality deterioration and neosolaniol (NEO) contamination. New strategies to control postharvest decay and reduce NEO contamination are of paramount importance. The effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment on the growth of Fusarium sulphureum in vitro, and Fusarium rot development and NEO accumulation in fruits inoculated with F. sulphureum in vivo were investigated. The results showed that ASA inhibited the growth of F. sulphureum, evident morphological and major cellular changes were observed under the microscope. In vivo testing showed that 3.2 mg/mL ASA significantly suppressed Fusarium rot development and NEO accumulation after 6 and 8 d of pathogen inoculation. Meanwhile, Tri gene expressions involved in NEO biosynthesis were down-regulated after treatment. Taken together, ASA treatment not only reduced Fusarium rot development by inhibiting the growth of F. sulphureum, but decreased NEO accumulation by suppressing NEO biosynthesis pathway.


Assuntos
Aspirina/farmacologia , Cucurbitaceae/química , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Cucurbitaceae/metabolismo , Cucurbitaceae/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/metabolismo , Fusarium/ultraestrutura , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Tricotecenos/química
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