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2.
Pediatrics ; 142(Suppl 1): S533-S538, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171138

RESUMO

Sweden has a long tradition of being at the forefront of the management of extremely preterm infants. In this article, we explore the historical background, ethical discussions, and evidence from national surveys combined with data from quality registers that form the background of the current Swedish guidelines for the care of extremely preterm infants. The current Swedish national guidelines suggest providing active care for preterm infants from 23 weeks' gestation and considering active care from 22 weeks' gestation. The survival of infants in gestational weeks 22 and 23 has increased and now exceed 50% and 60%, respectively; importantly, the Swedish proactive approach to care at the border of viability has not resulted in an increased proportion of functional impairment among survivors.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Viabilidade Fetal/fisiologia , Cuidado do Lactente/ética , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/fisiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/terapia , Humanos , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Cuidado do Lactente/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Sistema de Registros/ética , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suécia/epidemiologia
3.
Pediatrics ; 142(Suppl 1): S590-S592, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171146

RESUMO

In this article, I identify 3 ways of justifying neonatal policies of when to provide life-saving treatment to infants who were born extremely premature: by appealing to universal principles or rights, to considerations of the best interests of the children, or to considerations of the best interests of the families. I go on to show how each of these justifications can be used to characterize the discourse on neonatal policies in 1 of the Scandinavian countries.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Cuidado do Lactente/ética , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/ética , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Cuidado do Lactente/tendências , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/tendências , Noruega/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(1): 39-46, 2018 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324729

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There have been dramatic improvements in reducing infant sleep-related deaths since the 1990s, when recommendations were introduced to place infants on their backs for sleep. However, there are still approximately 3,500 sleep-related deaths among infants each year in the United States, including those from sudden infant death syndrome, accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, and unknown causes. Unsafe sleep practices, including placing infants in a nonsupine (on side or on stomach) sleep position, bed sharing, and using soft bedding in the sleep environment (e.g., blankets, pillows, and soft objects) are modifiable risk factors for sleep-related infant deaths.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Cuidado do Lactente/tendências , Sono , Morte Súbita do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Morte Súbita do Lactente/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Midwifery ; 56: 29-43, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055852

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to identify what skin practices are important for the protection of baby skin in healthy term babies (0-6 months) and generate evidence-based conclusions to inform health professionals and parents. DESIGN: eleven databases were searched for all empirical quantitative and qualitative research published between 2000-2015 which explored baby skin care for bathing and cleansing, nappy care, hair and scalp care, management of dry skin or baby massage, for healthy term babies up to 6 months old. Papers not published in English were excluded. A total of 3062 papers were identified. Pairs of reviewers assessed all citations and extracted data independently. There were 26 included papers: 16 RCTs, 3 non-randomised experimental studies, 1 mixed-methods study and 6 qualitative studies. Primary and secondary outcome measures were analysed using meta-analysis or narrative descriptive statistics. Synthesis of qualitative data was not possible due to disparity of the evidence. FINDINGS: from the small numbers of studies with comparable data, there was no evidence of any significant differences between tested wash products and water or tested baby wipes and water. There was some evidence to suggest that daily use of full-body emollient therapy may help to reduce the risk of atopic eczema in high risk babies with a genetic predisposition to eczema; however, the use of olive oil or sunflower oil for baby dry skin may adversely affect skin barrier function. There was no evidence about hair/scalp care or baby massage. Qualitative research indicates that parents and health professionals believe that water alone is best. KEY CONCLUSIONS: meta-analysis was restricted due to the lack of consistency of study outcome measures. Although there is considerable RCT evidence comparing the use of specific products against water alone, or another product, for bathing, cleansing and nappy care, the power of this evidence is reduced due to inconsistency of outcome measures in terms of outcome, treatment site or time-point. The development of a core outcome measure set is advocated for trials assessing skin care practices. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: this review offers health professionals best evidence available on which to base their advice. Of those studies with comparative outcomes, the evidence indicates no difference between the specific products tested and water alone; offering parents a choice in their baby skin care regimen. Protocol available: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPEROFILES/28054_PROTOCOL_20151009.pdf.


Assuntos
Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Cuidado do Lactente/tendências , Higiene da Pele/métodos , Banhos/métodos , Banhos/normas , Feminino , Cabelo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Higiene da Pele/tendências
6.
Nurs Womens Health ; 21(6): 442-450, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223208

RESUMO

There has been a recent trend toward delaying newborn baths because of mounting evidence that delayed bathing promotes breastfeeding, decreases hypothermia, and allows for more parental involvement with newborn care. A multidisciplinary team from a maternal-new-born unit at a military medical center designed and implemented an evidence-based practice change from infant sponge baths shortly after birth to delayed immersion baths. An analysis of newborn temperature data showed that newborns who received delayed immersion baths were less likely to be hypothermic than those who received a sponge bath shortly after birth. Furthermore, parents reported that they liked participating in bathing their newborns and that they felt prepared to bathe them at home.


Assuntos
Banhos/métodos , Saúde do Lactente/normas , Pais/educação , Higiene da Pele/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotermia/prevenção & controle , Imersão , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Cuidado do Lactente/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Retrospectivos , Higiene da Pele/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
8.
Curr Diabetes Rev ; 13(5): 477-481, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27550056

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Optimal infant and young child feeding, which includes initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding for first six months, age appropriate complementary feeding after six months along with continued breastfeeding for 2 years and beyond, is a public health intervention to prevent child morbidity, mortality and malnutrition [1]. In India, even though institutional delivery rates are increasing, only 44% women are able to breastfeed their babies within one hour of delivery. While 65% children are exclusively breast fed for the first six months, the median duration of breastfeeding is 24.4 months and complementary feeding rates are 50%. To achieve optimal IYCF practices, each woman should have access to a community based IYCF counseling support system. Efforts are therefore needed to upgrade skill based training of health workers and revive and update the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI). To promote and sustain breastfeeding amongst working women, it is essential to ensure adequate maternity leave, crèches at work place, flexible working hours, and provision of physical space for breast feeding at work place. It is imperative to also create public awareness about the dangers of bottle and formula feeding and to provide accurate information on the appropriate complementary food to be given to infants. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, India needs to make serious efforts to overcome malnutrition with not only prioritized IYCF policies but also their effective implementation in place.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança/tendências , Comportamento Alimentar , Cuidado do Lactente/tendências , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Criança , Cuidado da Criança/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/etnologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/normas , Recém-Nascido
9.
Pediatrics ; 139(1)2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27965377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a multifaceted intervention for preterm and low birth weight infants and their parents. Short- and mid-term benefits of KMC on survival, neurodevelopment, breastfeeding, and the quality of mother-infant bonding were documented in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in Colombia from 1993 to 1996. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the persistence of these results in young adulthood. METHODS: From 2012 to 2014, a total of 494 (69%) of the 716 participants of the original RCT known to be alive were identified; 441 (62% of the participants in the original RCT) were re-enrolled, and results for the 264 participants weighing ≤1800 g at birth were analyzed. The KMC and control groups were compared for health status and neurologic, cognitive, and social functioning with the use of neuroimaging, neurophysiological, and behavioral tests. RESULTS: The effects of KMC at 1 year on IQ and home environment were still present 20 years later in the most fragile individuals, and KMC parents were more protective and nurturing, reflected by reduced school absenteeism and reduced hyperactivity, aggressiveness, externalization, and socio-deviant conduct of young adults. Neuroimaging showed larger volume of the left caudate nucleus in the KMC group. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that KMC had significant, long-lasting social and behavioral protective effects 20 years after the intervention. Coverage with this efficient and scientifically based health care intervention should be extended to the 18 million infants born each year who are candidates for the method.


Assuntos
Cuidado do Lactente/tendências , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Método Canguru/tendências , Adolescente , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Apego ao Objeto , Ajustamento Social , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Pediatr ; 182: 321-326.e1, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27979582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between maternal birth country and adherence to the American Academy of Pediatrics safe sleep recommendations in a national sample of Hispanic mothers, given that data assessing the heterogeneity of infant care practices among Hispanics are lacking. STUDY DESIGN: We used a stratified, 2-stage, clustered design to obtain a nationally representative sample of mothers from 32 US intrapartum hospitals. A total of 907 completed follow-up surveys (administered 2-6 months postpartum) were received from mothers who self-identified as Hispanic/Latina, forming our sample, which we divided into 4 subpopulations by birth country (US, Mexico, Central/South America, and Caribbean). Prevalence estimates and aORs were determined for infant sleep position, location, breastfeeding, and maternal smoking. RESULTS: When compared with US-born mothers, we found that mothers born in the Caribbean (aOR 4.56) and Central/South America (aOR 2.68) were significantly more likely to room share without bed sharing. Caribbean-born mothers were significantly less likely to place infants to sleep supine (aOR 0.41). Mothers born in Mexico (aOR 1.67) and Central/South America (aOR 2.57) were significantly more likely to exclusively breastfeed; Caribbean-born mothers (aOR 0.13) were significantly less likely to do so. Foreign-born mothers were significantly less likely to smoke before and during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Among US Hispanics, adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics safe sleep recommendations varies widely by maternal birth country. These data illustrate the importance of examining behavioral heterogeneity among ethnic groups and have potential relevance for developing targeted interventions for safe infant sleep.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Sono/fisiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/etnologia , México/etnologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Gravidez , Decúbito Ventral , Características de Residência , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumar/efeitos adversos , América do Sul/etnologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 30(3): 243-8, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27465459

RESUMO

The protection that breast-feeding affords both mother and infant against acute and chronic illness is well documented. The grassroots, public health, and governmental supports for breast-feeding have influenced changes in maternal and newborn care. History indicates that the additional influence has come in the form of governmental workshops and initiatives, professional organizations, as well as The Joint Commission. This includes the influence that the Baby-Friendly® Hospital Initiative and the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding have had on infant care throughout the years. The requirements that hospitals must follow to implement all, or some, of the Ten Steps lead to change in care that not only increases breast-feeding rates but also leads to health improvements. This article reviews how an upward trend in the adoption of Baby-Friendly practices to support breast-feeding impacts infant care.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Cuidado do Lactente , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , Enfermagem Materno-Infantil/tendências , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Cuidado do Lactente/normas , Cuidado do Lactente/tendências , Bem-Estar do Lactente/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Enfermagem Materno-Infantil/normas , Estados Unidos
12.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 30(3): 265-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27465463

RESUMO

Family-centered care in neonatal intensive care changed over the last decades. Initially, parents and infants were separated and parents were even being blamed for cau-sing infections in their infants. The importance, though, of the parents being the constant in the infant's life emerged and with that the importance of early bonding and attachment for the parents to take on their role and responsibi-lities as primary caregivers. Facilitation of family-centered care includes involving the parents in daily care activities, kangaroo care, developmental care, interaction and communication with the infant, as well as involving grandparents and siblings. Implementation of family-centered care requires appropriate policies, facilities and resources, education of all involved, and a positive attitude.


Assuntos
Enfermagem Familiar/métodos , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Pais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Cuidado do Lactente/psicologia , Cuidado do Lactente/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/métodos , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/psicologia , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/tendências , Masculino , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia
13.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 18(2): 402-10, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25864091

RESUMO

To investigate African-American parental reasons for pacifier use or non-use, and whether knowledge of the association with decreased SIDS risk changes decisions about pacifier use. We conducted focus groups and individual interviews with mothers. Grounded theory methodology was used. 83 mothers participated; 72.3 % of infants used pacifiers. Reasons for pacifier use included comfort/soothing, safety/SIDS, and preference over digit-sucking. Reasons for pacifier non-use included infant refusal, fear of attachment, nipple confusion, and germs. Many parents were unaware that pacifier use reduces SIDS risk; however, most parents of non-users did not think that this knowledge would have changed their decision. Reasons included skepticism about the pacifier-SIDS link. Many reasons underlie African-American parental decisions about pacifier use. Providers should provide information about the benefits of pacifiers. Establishing for parents any plausible link between the protective mechanism of pacifiers and SIDS pathophysiology may be important in promoting pacifier use.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Mães/psicologia , Chupetas/estatística & dados numéricos , Morte Súbita do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/normas , Cuidado do Lactente/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Hum Lact ; 31(3): 467-73, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25896468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early introduction of complementary foods is common in Middle Eastern countries but little is known about the determinants of this practice in this region. OBJECTIVES: This prospective cohort study conducted from October 2007 to October 2008 investigated the determinants of the very early (before 17 weeks) introduction of complementary foods in Kuwait and compared rates of this practice against rates reported in the mid-1990s. METHODS: A total of 373 women were recruited from maternity hospitals in Kuwait City and followed to 26 weeks postpartum. Data on complementary feeding practices were available from 303 women. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association of very early introduction of complementary foods with infant sex and maternal characteristics including age, years of education, employment intentions at 6 months postpartum, parity, prepregnancy body mass index, and prepregnancy smoking status. RESULTS: All infants had received complementary foods by 26 weeks of age, with 30.4% receiving complementary foods before 17 weeks of age. Women born in other Arabic countries were less likely to introduce complementary foods before 17 weeks (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] = 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22-0.73) than women born in Kuwait. Women who were exclusively formula feeding at 6 weeks postpartum were less likely to introduce complementary foods before 17 weeks (adj OR = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.23-0.71) than women who were still breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: Compared to the mid-1990s, fewer infants in Kuwait were receiving complementary foods before 17 weeks. Nevertheless, all infants had received complementary foods by 6 months of age.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Alimentos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Materno , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado do Lactente/tendências , Kuweit , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 31 Suppl 1: 15-8, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25403934

RESUMO

There are tremendous variations in diapering practices, reflecting varying cultural practices and regional difference. Around the world, more than 134 million babies are born each year, a rate of 255 births per minute or 4.3 births each second. While global population growth has been steadily declining from its peak in 1963, several regions, including the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa, continue to maintain high birth rates. Though the essential needs of infants are largely similar, family habits and practices during early years of life vary dramatically. This article surveys data documenting variations in diaper frequency, types, and duration of use internationally, including age of toilet training. These factors may influence diaper rash and skin health of infants and young children. Much of this data was collected as part of analysis of the international commercial diaper market, evaluated and organized as part of an international initiative on Global Infant Skin Care, and presented to a panel of experts for critique and commentary in a symposium held in December, 2013.


Assuntos
Fraldas Infantis , Pré-Escolar , Cultura , Equipamentos Descartáveis , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Higiene da Pele/métodos , Treinamento no Uso de Toaletes
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 17: 282, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25317230

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The objective is to describe the trends of infant feedings choices in HIV context after infant feeding counseling. Descriptive retrospective study: Infant feeding counseling (IFC) sessions were offered to HIV pregnant women by the same team of counselors from April 2008 to December 2012. Counseling content was promoting either exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) or exclusive formula feeding (EFF) prior to 2010. Later on, versus EBF+ antiretroviral (ARV) drug given either to the mother or the infant or EFF was the gold standard. Mixed feeding was prohibited. Infants feeding were practices recorded at the first post natal visit. MAIN MEASUREMENT: rate of EBF/ EFF per year and period. We included a total of 1114 live-born babies. During the five year the overall rate of EBF and EFF stood at 41% and 59% respectively. The rate of EBF/EFF was recorded as follow: varies from 25/75% in year one to 52/48% in year five(p ≤ 0.001). The rate of mixed was virtually cancelled during the same period, 3/237 (1.2%) in year one to period 1/165 (0.6%) in the latest period. In conclusion, in Yaoundé, there is a slight increase in breastfeeding rate among HIV exposed infants during the first two months of life. Further investigations are required to confirm this tendency and analyze the new features of breastfeeding practices.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Métodos de Alimentação/tendências , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Camarões/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1 , Humanos , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Cuidado do Lactente/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Lancet ; 384(9938): 189-205, 2014 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24853593

RESUMO

In this Series paper, we review trends since the 2005 Lancet Series on Neonatal Survival to inform acceleration of progress for newborn health post-2015. On the basis of multicountry analyses and multi-stakeholder consultations, we propose national targets for 2035 of no more than 10 stillbirths per 1000 total births, and no more than 10 neonatal deaths per 1000 livebirths, compatible with the under-5 mortality targets of no more than 20 per 1000 livebirths. We also give targets for 2030. Reduction of neonatal mortality has been slower than that for maternal and child (1-59 months) mortality, slowest in the highest burden countries, especially in Africa, and reduction is even slower for stillbirth rates. Birth is the time of highest risk, when more than 40% of maternal deaths (total about 290,000) and stillbirths or neonatal deaths (5·5 million) occur every year. These deaths happen rapidly, needing a rapid response by health-care workers. The 2·9 million annual neonatal deaths worldwide are attributable to three main causes: infections (0·6 million), intrapartum conditions (0·7 million), and preterm birth complications (1·0 million). Boys have a higher biological risk of neonatal death, but girls often have a higher social risk. Small size at birth--due to preterm birth or small-for-gestational-age (SGA), or both--is the biggest risk factor for more than 80% of neonatal deaths and increases risk of post-neonatal mortality, growth failure, and adult-onset non-communicable diseases. South Asia has the highest SGA rates and sub-Saharan Africa has the highest preterm birth rates. Babies who are term SGA low birthweight (10·4 million in these regions) are at risk of stunting and adult-onset metabolic conditions. 15 million preterm births, especially of those younger than 32 weeks' gestation, are at the highest risk of neonatal death, with ongoing post-neonatal mortality risk, and important risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairment, stunting, and non-communicable conditions. 4 million neonates annually have other life-threatening or disabling conditions including intrapartum-related brain injury, severe bacterial infections, or pathological jaundice. Half of the world's newborn babies do not get a birth certificate, and most neonatal deaths and almost all stillbirths have no death certificate. To count deaths is crucial to change them. Failure to improve birth outcomes by 2035 will result in an estimated 116 million deaths, 99 million survivors with disability or lost development potential, and millions of adults at increased risk of non-communicable diseases after low birthweight. In the post-2015 era, improvements in child survival, development, and human capital depend on ensuring a healthy start for every newborn baby--the citizens and workforce of the future.


Assuntos
Prioridades em Saúde , Cuidado do Lactente/organização & administração , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Programas Gente Saudável/organização & administração , Programas Gente Saudável/tendências , Humanos , Cuidado do Lactente/normas , Cuidado do Lactente/tendências , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Natimorto/epidemiologia
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