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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 21-25, dic.2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117893

RESUMO

El síndrome de lisis tumoral (SLT) es una complicación potencialmente letal provocada por la liberación masiva de ácidos nucleicos, potasio y fosfato hacia la circulación sistémica lo cual se asocia a graves trastornos del metabolismo hidroelectrolítico. Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas con el objetivo de describir las características clínicas de los pacientes con sospecha de SLT que ingresaron al Servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital General Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López durante el lapso 2017-2018. El 50% de los pacientes tenían una edad comprendida entre 51 y 70 años, siendo el 65% de sexo femenino. Los canceres más frecuentemente encontrados fueron el cáncer de mama (29%), cáncer gástrico (15%) y el linfoma no Hodgkin (12%). Todos los pacientes presentaron al menos tres de las manifestaciones clínicas asociadas al SLT entre las cuales se encuentran náuseas, vómitos, anorexia, debilidad, calambres, hiperreflexia, oliguria, anuria, hematuria, hipotensión, convulsiones y deshidratación. El 46% de los pacientes presentaron hiperpotasemia, mientras que 36% mostraron hipocalcemia y 18% hiperfosfatemia. El 76% de los pacientes cursaron con una creatinina > 1,4 mg/dl. El diagnóstico definitivo de SLT no fue posible realizarlo en ninguno de los pacientes incluidos en este estudio debido a la falta de estudios paraclínicos necesarios para satisfacer los criterios según los lineamientos internacionales(AU)


Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially lethal complication due to massive release of nucleic acids, potassium and phosphate into the systemic circulation which is associated with severe hydroelectrolitic metabolic disorders. A retrospective review of clinical charts was performed in order to describe clinical characteristics of patients with possible TLS that were admitted to the Servicio de Medicina Interna of the Hospital General Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López during the period 2017-2018. The results show that 50% of patients were between 51 and 70 years old and 65% were female. Breast cancer (29%), stomach cancer (15%) and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (12%) were more frequent in patients with possible TLS. All patients showed at least three of the clinical features commonly associated with TLS such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weakness, cramps, hyperreflexia, oliguria, anuria, hematuria, hypotension, convulsion and dehydration. 46% of patients had hyperkalemia, 36% hypocalcemia and 18% hyperphosphatemia. Creatinine levels > 1,4 mg/dl were seen in 76% of patients. Definitive diagnosis of TLS was not possible in any of the patients included in this study due to the lack of laboratory studies required according to international guidelines(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Fosfatos , Potássio , Radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama , Ácidos Nucleicos , Síndrome de Lise Tumoral/fisiopatologia , Tratamento Farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Cuidados Críticos , Hematologia , Medicina Interna , Oncologia
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20190089, Jan.-Dec. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1101984

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the practices of novice graduated nurses in view of their social representations on intensive care to the critical patient provided in non-critical patient units. Method: a qualitative research, based on social representations, with 26 novice graduated nurses at a private university in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Data collection made between 2016 and 2017 by a semi-structured interview and lexical analysis by Alceste software. Results: the context of the Intensive Care Unit influences social representations, which mobilizes identity aspects of this environment that stereotype the ward as a disorganized place and that does not have material resources and trained professionals. Thus, when novice undergraduates act and despite the effort and dedication fail to transfer the patient, fear and lack of confidence are exacerbated, resulting in actions that can bring risks to the patient. Conclusion: there are stereotypes in relation to the clinic that limit the care actions of the novice undergraduates in relation to the critical patient, and should be re-signified in generalist education. It is recommended to develop follow-up programs for novice graduated nurses.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar las prácticas de enfermeros recién graduados sobre la base de sus representaciones sociales acerca del cuidado intensivodel paciente crítico prestado en unidades de pacientes no críticos. Método: investigación cualitativa, pautada en representaciones sociales, con 26 enfermeros recién graduados en una universidad privada de Rio de Janeiro (Brasil). La recolección de datos se realizó entre 2016 y 2017 mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas y análisis del tipo lexical por el software Alceste. Resultados: el contexto de la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva influye sobrelas representaciones sociales, y crea aspectos identitarios de este ambiente que marcan un estereotipo y estigmatizan a la enfermería como un lugar desorganizado que no dispone de recursos materiales ni de profesionales capacitados. En ese contexto, cuando actúan los recién graduados, y, a pesar de su esfuerzo y dedicación, no logran trasladar al paciente, se exacerban el miedo y la falta de confianza, que resultan en acciones que pueden implicar riesgos para el paciente. Conclusión: hay estereotipos en relación a la clínica que limitan los cuidados que el recién graduado presta al paciente crítico y que deben ser resignificados en la formación de grado. Se recomienda desarrollar programas de acompañamiento de enfermeros recién graduados.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar as práticas de enfermeiros recém-formados em face das suas representações sociais sobre o cuidado intensivo ao paciente crítico prestado em unidades de pacientes não-críticos. Método: pesquisa qualitativa, pautada nas representações sociais, com 26 enfermeiros recém-formados em uma universidade privada do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil). Coleta de dados entre 2016 e 2017 por entrevista semiestruturada e análise do tipo lexical pelo software Alceste. Resultados: o contexto da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva influencia as representações sociais, o que mobiliza aspectos identitários deste ambiente que estereotipam a enfermaria como um local desorganizado e que não dispõe de recursos materiais e de profissionais capacitados. Com isso, quando os recém-formados agem e apesar do esforço e dedicação não conseguem transferir o paciente, exacerbam-se o medo e falta de confiança, resultando em ações que podem trazer riscos ao paciente. Conclusão: há estereótipos em relação à clínica que limitam as ações de cuidado do recém-formado frente ao paciente crítico, devendo ser resignificados na formação generalista. Recomenda-se desenvolver programas de acompanhamento dos enfermeiros recém-formados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Prática Profissional , Psicologia Social , Enfermagem , Cuidados Críticos , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Sistema Único de Saúde , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Enfermeiros
4.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053589

RESUMO

The current S3-Guideline for intensive care therapy in patients after cardiac surgery provides a wealth of information and recommendations ranging from monitoring to treatment options for various perioperative clinical situations. This article focuses on the most relevant information applicable to every-day critical care practice, covering important aspects of general and advanced monitoring, goal directed hemodynamic therapy and treatment principles for perioperative left and right heart failure.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Cuidados Críticos , Hemodinâmica , Humanos
5.
Air Med J ; 39(5): 340-342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012469

RESUMO

In late 2019, a novel coronavirus was identified as the cause of a cluster of atypical pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China. It subsequently spread throughout China and around the world, quickly becoming a public health emergency. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease 2019 a pandemic. This article explores the preparation and early experiences of a large Canadian critical care transport program during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic focused on 6 broad strategic objectives centered around staff welfare, regular and transparent communication, networking, evidenced-based approach to personal protective equipment, agile mission planning, and an expedited approach to clinical practice and policy updates and future state modeling.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Disseminação de Informação , Liderança , Pandemias , Transferência de Pacientes/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral , Transporte de Pacientes/organização & administração , Medicina Aeroespacial , Resgate Aéreo , Ambulâncias , Betacoronavirus , Colúmbia Britânica , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Resiliência Psicológica
7.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3370, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the nursing research priorities in critical care in Brazil identified by specialists and researchers in the area, as well as to establish the consensus of the topics suggested by the experts. METHOD: a descriptive study, using the e-Delphi technique in three rounds. The research participants were 116 Brazilian nurses who are experts in critical care in the first round, ending up with 68 participants in the third round of the study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the demographic variables and the results of the research topics in the second round. In the final analysis, the Kappa agreement coefficient was calculated, comparing the answers between rounds two and three. RESULTS: 63 research topics were generated, grouped into 14 domains of intensive care practice in the first round, and consensus was settled in the subsequent rounds. Topics such as humanization of care (0.56), bloodstream infection control (0.54), and nursing care for polytrauma patients (0.51) were items rated above 0.50 in the agreement analysis between the topics in the two rounds using the Kappa coefficient. CONCLUSION: this study provides an important guideline for nursing research in critical care in Brazil, guiding for future research efforts in the area.


Assuntos
Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Brasil , Consenso , Cuidados Críticos , Técnica Delfos , Humanos
8.
Crit Care Med ; 48(11): 1553-1555, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the unique perspective of pediatric intensivists caring for critically ill adults during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Academic medical center in New York City. PATIENTS: Coronavirus disease 2019 positive adults requiring admission to an ICU. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In late March 2020, New York Presbyterian Hospital centralized all of its inpatient pediatric units (n = 4) from across the network to a single center, in order to create space to accommodate the increasing number of critically ill adults with coronavirus disease 2019. Within 1 week, the PICU at New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medicine transferred or discharged all inpatients, underwent a transformation of the physical space, and began admitting adults of all ages with coronavirus disease 2019 related acute respiratory failure. The New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medicine PICU physician group continued to lead this unit. PICU nurses, respiratory therapists, social workers, and child life specialists joined their PICU physician colleagues to care for these critically ill adults. CONCLUSIONS: In the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, PICU physicians are well poised to care for adult patients in a surge capacity, and bring a unique perspective to the experience.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Estado Terminal/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240624, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing demand for post-acute care services, which is amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic. AIMS: We studied the pattern of spatial association between post-acute care services and acute care facilities and evaluated how geographic variability could influence their use. METHODS: We compiled data on CMS-certified acute care and critical access hospitals and post-acute health care services (nursing homes, home health care services, inpatient rehabilitation facilities, long-term care hospitals, and hospice facilities). We used the colocation quotient (CLQ) to measure the magnitude and direction of association (clustering or segregation) between post-acute care providers and hospitals. This metric allows pairwise comparison of categorical data; a value <1 indicates spatial segregation and a value >1 spatial clustering. Unity marks the lack of spatial dependence (random distribution). RESULTS: With the exception of nursing homes (CLQ 1.26), all other types of post-acute care providers are spatially segregated from rural critical access hospitals. Long-term care facilities ranked first (had the lowest global CLQ, 0.06), hospice facilities ranked last (had the highest global CLQ estimate, 0.54). Instead, post-acute care services either clustered with (inpatient rehabilitation 2.76, long-term care 2.10, nursing homes 1.37) or were only weakly segregated (home health care 0.86) from acute care hospitals. Home health care (1.44), hospice services (1.46), and nursing homes (1.08) spatially clustered with the same category of services. Results were robust in the sensitivity analysis and we provided illustrative examples of local variation for the states of MA and IA. CONCLUSION: Post-acute care services are isolated from critical access hospitals, and have a clustering pattern with the same category services and acute care hospitals. Such misdistribution of resources may result in both underuse and a substitution effect on the type of post-acute care between rural and urban areas and undermine public health during increasing demand, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Análise Espacial , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estados Unidos
10.
Cir Cir ; 88(5): 569-575, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064694

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and management of severe COVID-19 patients. Method: Observational, descriptive, longitudinal, and retrospective study. Results: 56 patients were admitted, of whom 80.3% (n = 45) were males with a mean age of 58 years [46-67]. The main comorbidities were obesity, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Symptoms onset time at admittance to the ICU was 9 [7-14] days, of which the most frequent were dyspnea, fever, and dry cough. Laboratory data were lymphopenia; elevation of LDH, fibrinogen, D-dimer, ferritin and CRP. 100% of the patients required mechanical ventilation, the median mechanical ventilation time was 12 [6-17] days, and 66% (n= 37) required a prone position. The pharmacological treatment was mainly based on azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab and steroids. The most frequent complications were acute kidney injury, venous thromboembolism and acute myocardial infarction. Mortality rate was 17.8% (n = 10). Conclusion: The characteristics of the critically ill patients in our hospital were mostly elderly and obese, with the variables of higher SOFA score and acute kidney injury associated with higher mortality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Terapia Combinada , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Universitários/organização & administração , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial , Avaliação de Sintomas
11.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e039887, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the age-specific clinical presentations and incidence of adverse outcomes among patients with COVID-19 in Jiangsu, China. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective, multicentre cohort study performed at 24 hospitals in Jiangsu, China. PARTICIPANTS: 625 patients with COVID-19 enrolled between 10 January and 15 March 2020. RESULTS: Of the 625 patients (median age, 46 years; 329 (52.6%) men), 37 (5.9%) were children (18 years or younger), 261 (41.8%) young adults (19-44 years), 248 (39.7%) middle-aged adults (45-64 years) and 79 (12.6%) elderly adults (65 years or older). The incidence of hypertension, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes comorbidities increased with age (trend test, p<0.0001, p=0.0003, p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). Fever, cough and shortness of breath occurred more commonly among older patients, especially the elderly, compared with children (χ2 test, p=0.0008, 0.0146 and 0.0282, respectively). The quadrant score and pulmonary opacity score increased with age (trend test, both p<0.0001). Older patients had many significantly different laboratory parameters from younger patients. Elderly patients had the highest proportion of severe or critically-ill cases (33.0%, χ2 test p<0.0001), intensive care unit use (35.4%, χ2 test p<0.0001), respiratory failure (31.6%, χ2 test p<0.0001) and the longest hospital stay (median 21 days, Kruskal-Wallis test p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Elderly (≥65 years) patients with COVID-19 had the highest risk of severe or critical illness, intensive care use, respiratory failure and the longest hospital stay, which may be due partly to their having a higher incidence of comorbidities and poor immune responses to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cuidados Críticos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adolescente , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Avaliação de Sintomas/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(10)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008007

RESUMO

Patients with cardiopulmonary failure may not be fully supported with typical configurations of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), either veno-arterial (VA) or veno-venous (VV). Veno-arterial-venous (VAV)-ECMO is a technique used to support the cardiopulmonary systems during periods of inadequate gas exchange and perfusion. In the severe case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which simultaneously affects the heart and lung, VAV-ECMO may improve a patient's recovery potential. We report the case of a 72-year-old woman with acute respiratory distress syndrome and circulatory failure following COVID-19, who was treated with VAV-ECMO.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Idoso , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias
13.
J Med Case Rep ; 14(1): 186, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023635

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The virus, known as COVID-19, is recognized as a potentially life-threatening disease by causing severe respiratory disease. Since this virus has not previously been detected in humans, there is a paucity of information regarding its effects on humans. In addition, only limited or no information exists about its impact during pregnancy. CASE PRESENTATION: In the present case study, we report the death of a neonate born to a 32-year-old mother with coronavirus disease 2019 in Ilam, Iran, with Kurdish ethnicity. We report the infection and death of a neonate in Iran with a chest X-ray (CXR) marked abnormality 2 hours after birth demonstrating coronavirus disease 2019 disease. The neonate was born by elective cesarean section, the fetal health was assessed using fetal heart rate and a non-stress test before the birth, and there was no evidence of fetal distress. All the above-mentioned facts and radiographic abnormalities suggested that coronavirus disease 2019 is involved. CONCLUSIONS: In this case study, we report the death of a neonate born to a mother with coronavirus disease 2019, 11 hours after birth. There is a paucity of data on the vertical transmission and the adverse maternal-fetal consequences of this disease, so vertical transmission from mother to child remains to be confirmed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Cesárea/métodos , Deterioração Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Irã (Geográfico) , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Morte Perinatal , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos
14.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(20): 1470-1475, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022728

RESUMO

Decisions about the initiation, continuation and termination of life-supporting treatments are a permanent challenge in intensive care units (ICUs). Decisions should be based on patient preferences and the medical indication. The medical indication is mainly the result of an assessment of the patient's prognosis and the applicable therapeutic options. Factors influencing the short term prognosis are mostly the severity of the acute leading disease, the number and severity of other organ failures and the response to initial treatment. Long term prognosis is dominated by the severity and number of comorbidities, age and the resulting frailty. Because in many patients all these informations are not available at the time of admission, in these cases a time-limited trial is often justified to gather all this information before a decision is made. These principles of decision making can also applied to situations in which ICU-capacities are limited (e. g. COVID-19 pandemic).


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Cuidados Críticos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Prognóstico
15.
J Med Case Rep ; 14(1): 191, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determining the infectiousness of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 is crucial for patient management. Medical staff usually refer to the results of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction tests in conjunction with clinical symptoms and computed tomographic images. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 62-year-old Japanese man who twice had positive and negative test results by polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 over 48 days of hospitalization, including in intensive care. His respiratory symptoms and computed tomographic imaging findings consistent with coronavirus disease 2019 improved following initial intensive care, and the result of his polymerase chain reaction test became negative 3 days before discharge from the intensive care unit. However, 4 days after this first negative result, his polymerase chain reaction test result was positive again, and another 4 days later, he had a negative result once more. Eight days after the second polymerase chain reaction negative test result, the patient's test result again became positive. Finally, his polymerase chain reaction results were negative 43 days after his first hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: This case emphasizes the importance of repeat polymerase chain reaction testing and diagnosis based on multiple criteria, including clinical symptoms and computed tomographic imaging findings. Clinical staff should consider that a negative result by polymerase chain reaction does not necessarily certify complete coronavirus disease 2019 recovery.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Reações Falso-Negativas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4534-4538, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019002

RESUMO

Pain and physical function are both essential indices of recovery in critically ill patients in the Intensive Care Units (ICU). Simultaneous monitoring of pain intensity and patient activity can be important for determining which analgesic interventions can optimize mobility and function, while minimizing opioid harm. Nonetheless, so far, our knowledge of the relation between pain and activity has been limited to manual and sporadic activity assessments. In recent years, wearable devices equipped with 3-axis accelerometers have been used in many domains to provide a continuous and automated measure of mobility and physical activity. In this study, we collected activity intensity data from 57 ICU patients, using the Actigraph GT3X device. We also collected relevant clinical information, including nurse assessments of pain intensity, recorded every 1-4 hours. Our results show the joint distribution and state transition of joint activity and pain states in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Dor , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Medição da Dor
17.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4986-4991, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019106

RESUMO

Sepsis is a life-threatening clinical syndrome and one of the most expensive conditions treated in hospitals. It is challenging to detect due to the nonspecific clinical signs and the absence of gold standard diagnostics. However, early recognition of sepsis and optimal treatments for sepsis are of paramount importance to improve the condition's management and patient outcomes. This paper aims to delineate key aspects of current sepsis detection systems, including their dependency on clinical expert and laboratory biometric features requiring ongoing critical care intervention, the efficacy of vital sign measures, and the effect of the study population with respect to the precision of sepsis prediction. The AUROC performances of XGBoost models trained on a heterogenous ICU patient group (n=3932) showed significant degradations (p<0.05) as the expert and laboratory biomarker features are removed systematically and vital sign features taken in ICU settings are left. The performance of XGBoost models trained only with vital sign features on a more homogeneous group of ICU patients (n=1927) had a significantly (P<0.05) improved AUPRC to moderate level. The presented results highlight the importance of making a practical machine learning system for sepsis prediction by considering the availability of dominant features as well as personalizing sepsis prediction by configuring it to the specific demographics of a targeted population.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Sepse , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Sepse/diagnóstico
18.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5132-5135, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019141

RESUMO

M-health applications are playing an important role in current healthcare delivery, individual's health and well-being. Usability of mHealth applications (apps) is a critical factor for the success of the apps, yet this is often overlooked in the current health care solutions in primary care, secondary (acute) care, community care and especially in remote patient monitoring applications. This work aimed to co-design the vital signs monitoring application with end-users and clinicians. The co-design user-experience includes goals and objectives, participant inclusion and exclusion criteria, task list, testing documentation, laboratory-based usability testing and data analysis for identifying gaps and opportunities. The study found two main issues from the usability analysis, presentation of the information such as use of icons, text and graphs and clinical workflow related matters such as the number of mandatory steps required to finish a task.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Telemedicina , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Fluxo de Trabalho
19.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5459-5463, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019215

RESUMO

Fungemia is a life-threatening infection, but predictive models of in-patient mortality in this infection are few. In this study, we developed models predicting all-cause in-hospital mortality among 265 fungemic patients in the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC-III) database using both structured and unstructured data. Structured data models included multivariable logistic regression, extreme gradient boosting, and stacked ensemble models. Unstructured data models were developed using Amazon Comprehend Medical and BioWordVec embeddings in logistic regression, convolutional neural networks (CNNs), and recurrent neural networks (RNNs). We evaluated models trained on all notes, notes from only the first three days of hospitalization, and models trained on only physician notes. The best-performing structured data model was a multivariable logistic regression model that achieved an accuracy of 0.74 and AUC of 0.76. Liver disease, acute renal failure, and intubation were some of the top features driving prediction in multiple models. CNNs using unstructured data achieved similar performance even when trained with notes from only the first three days of hospitalization. The best-performing unstructured data models used the Amazon Comprehend Medical document classifier and CNNs, achieving accuracy ranging from 0.99-1.00, and AUCs of 1.00. Therefore, unstructured data - particularly notes composed by physicians - offer added predictive value over models based on structured data alone.


Assuntos
Fungemia , Área Sob a Curva , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Redes Neurais de Computação
20.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 39(3): 130-138, 2020.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077982

RESUMO

. How hospitals, Intensive Care Units and nursing care of critically ill patients have changed during the COVID-19 outbreak? Results from an exploratory research in some European countries. INTRODUCTION: During the Covid-19 outbreak, the health care institutions and the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) have been reorganized with significant consequences at both organizational and clinical levels. AIMS: To investigate (1) the organizational changes of hospitals and ICUs in dealing with the Covid-19 outbreak; (2) the characteristics of the nursing care; (3) the most important challenges perceived by nurses in caring for Covid-19 patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional online survey, available from May 11th and July 10th, 2020. Participants were nurses caring for Covid-19 patients in European ICUs. RESULTS: A total of 62 nurses responded to the survey; average age 37.5 years, 31 (60.8%) were female, mostly from Italy, France and United Kingdom. All hospitals underwent many changes, such as the opening of new dedicated wards and the restriction of family visits. The number of ICU beds doubled during the pandemic (p<0.01), as well as the number of nurses per shift from 10.2 (SD 7.3) before to 17.9 (SD 13.6) during the pandemic (p<0.01). However, changes in the nurse-to-patient ratio were not significant: from 1:1.5 to 1:2 (p=0.05). Among nursing care activities, clinical risk management (n=14, 22.6%), psychological support for patients (n=22, 35.5%) and family's involvement (n=31, 50%) resulted as more challenging; 64.5% of nurses suffered from protective equipment shortages, and 66.1% experienced psychological burden. CONCLUSION: These findings can help to reflect on how to better prepare both nurses and health care institutions for other events that may threaten clinical practice and require major and innovative efforts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Gestão de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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