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1.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(2)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849906

RESUMO

During the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic, the UK government took the decision to centralise the procurement, allocation and distribution of mission-critical intensive care unit (ICU) medical equipment. Establishing new supply chains in the context of global shortages presented significant challenges. This report describes the development of an innovative platform developed rapidly and voluntarily by clinical engineers, to mobilise the UK's shared medical equipment inventory, in order to match ICU capacity to dynamically evolving clinical demand. The 'Coronavirus ICU Medical Equipment Distribution' platform was developed to optimise ICU equipment allocation, distribution, collection, redeployment and traceability across the National Health Service. Although feedback on the platform has largely been very positive, the platform was built for a scenario that did not fully materialise in the UK and this affected the implementation approach. As such, it was not used to its full potential. Nonetheless, the platform and the insights derived and disseminated in its development have been extremely valuable. It provides a prototype for not only optimising system capacity in future pandemic scenarios but also a means for maximally exploiting the large amount of new equipment in the UK health system, as a result of the coronavirus pandemic. This early stage innovation has demonstrated that a system-wide pooled information resource can benefit the operations of individual organisations. It has also generated numerous lessons to be borne in mind in innovation projects.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Sistemas de Distribuição no Hospital/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Humanos , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-01/02/03): 79-82, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Keller Army Community Hospital, a 12-bed community hospital located in the Hudson Valley of New York State, within the pandemic epicenter anticipated the surge of critically ill patients, which would overwhelm local resources during the coronavirus pandemic sweeping across the globe. In this facility, there were no Intensive Care Unit (ICU) beds and resources were mobilized in order to create a negative pressure Corona Virus Unit (CVU) consisting of seven ICU beds and two step-down beds. Although the creation of the CVU decreased the non-COVID inpatient capacity to five beds, the hospital also formulated a plan to expand overall bed capacity from 12 inpatient beds to 45 beds within 24 hours. OBJECTIVE: To create a ICU embedded within a CVU and implement a three day curriculum to prepare four mixed teams of critical care and non-critical care staff nurses to manage critically ill patients with the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Nursing leaders and hospital education staff developed a critical care curriculum utilizing Elsevier didactic, the DoD COVID-19 Practice Guide, and hands-on training for 34 nurses.1,2 Nurses had varied scope of practice levels from licensed practical nurses to advance practice nurses, with diverse critical care expertise to non-critical care nursing staff from the primary care medical home (PCMH), all of which participated in the cross-leveling to the CVU unit during the pandemic response. Educational elements included PPE donning and doffing, mechanical ventilation, central venous catheter maintenance, arterial catheter management, hemodynamics, and critical care pharmacotherapy. A medical model skills station with common critical care equipment such as ventilators allowed for instantaneous feedback and 13 hands-on skills training. RESULTS: A fully functional ICU and CVU was created with thirty-four nurses who completed training within seven days with a didactic completing rate of 94.65 % and 100% hands-on skills. The program endures with monthly tailored re-fresher training to improve efficiency and maintain critical competencies. The team maintained operational readiness through the surge and remain resolute for the next surge. CONCLUSIONS: On-going program execution and evaluation continues to develop new staff members due to permanent change of station, recent on-boarding, or because of evidence based clinical guideline changes. Training has continued, but shifted to include normal inpatient operations over the summer of 2020. Re-fresher classes covering the treatment and care of COVID patients continue with the anticipation of a second wave surge of COVID-19 cases emerges this fall based on epidemiology predictions.


Assuntos
/terapia , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Currículo , Hospitais Militares , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências/organização & administração , /epidemiologia , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Hospitais Comunitários , Humanos , New York
8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(3): 287-295, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522881

RESUMO

The burdens of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic have fallen disproportionately on disadvantaged groups, including the poor and Black, Latinx, and Indigenous communities. There is substantial concern that the use of existing ICU triage protocols to allocate scarce ventilators and critical care resources-most of which are designed to save as many lives as possible-may compound these inequities. As governments and health systems revisit their triage guidelines in the context of impending resource shortages, scholars have advocated a range of alternative allocation strategies, including the use of a random lottery to give all patients in need an equal chance of ICU treatment. However, both the save-the-most-lives approach and random allocation are seriously flawed. In this Perspective, we argue that ICU triage policies should simultaneously promote population health outcomes and mitigate health inequities. These ethical goals are sometimes in conflict, which will require balancing the goals of maximizing the number of lives saved and distributing health benefits equitably across society. We recommend three strategies to mitigate health inequities during ICU triage: introducing a correction factor into patients' triage scores to reduce the impact of baseline structural inequities; giving heightened priority to individuals in essential, high-risk occupations; and rejecting use of longer-term life expectancy and categorical exclusions as allocation criteria. We present a practical triage framework that incorporates these strategies and attends to the twin public health goals of promoting population health and social justice.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Triagem/organização & administração , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD012876, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critical care telemedicine (CCT) has long been advocated for enabling access to scarce critical care expertise in geographically-distant areas. Additional advantages of CCT include the potential for reduced variability in treatment and care through clinical decision support enabled by the analysis of large data sets and the use of predictive tools. Evidence points to health systems investing in telemedicine appearing better prepared to respond to sudden increases in demand, such as during pandemics. However, challenges with how new technologies such as CCT are implemented still remain, and must be carefully considered. OBJECTIVES: This synthesis links to and complements another Cochrane Review assessing the effects of interactive telemedicine in healthcare, by examining the implementation of telemedicine specifically in critical care. Our aim was to identify, appraise and synthesise qualitative research evidence on healthcare stakeholders' perceptions and experiences of factors affecting the implementation of CCT, and to identify factors that are more likely to ensure successful implementation of CCT for subsequent consideration and assessment in telemedicine effectiveness reviews. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science for eligible studies from inception to 14 October 2019; alongside 'grey' and other literature searches. There were no language, date or geographic restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies that used qualitative methods for data collection and analysis. Studies included views from healthcare stakeholders including bedside and CCT hub critical care personnel, as well as administrative, technical, information technology, and managerial staff, and family members. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data using a predetermined extraction sheet. We used the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) qualitative checklist to assess the methodological rigour of individual studies. We followed the Best-fit framework approach using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to inform our data synthesis.  We classified additional themes not captured by CFIR under a separate theme. We used the GRADE CERQual approach to assess confidence in the findings. MAIN RESULTS: We found 13 relevant studies. Twelve were from the USA and one was from Canada. Where we judged the North American focus of the studies to be a concern for a finding's relevance, we have reflected this in our assessment of confidence in the finding. The studies explored the views and experiences of bedside and hub critical care personnel; administrative, technical, information technology, and managerial staff; and family members. The intensive care units (ICUs) were from tertiary hospitals in urban and rural areas. We identified several factors that could influence the implementation of CCT. We had high confidence in the following findings: Hospital staff and family members described several advantages of CCT. Bedside and hub staff strongly believed that the main advantage of CCT was having access to experts when bedside physicians were not available. Families also valued having access to critical care experts. In addition, hospital staff described how CCT could support clinical decision-making and mentoring of junior staff.  Hospital staff greatly valued the nature and quality of social networks between the bedside and CCT hub teams. Key issues for them were trust, acceptance, teamness, familiarity and effective communication between the two teams. Interactions between some bedside and CCT hub staff were featured with tension, frustration and conflict. Staff on both sides commonly described disrespect of their expertise, resistance and animosity. Hospital staff thought it was important to promote and offer training in the use of CCT before its implementation. This included rehearsing every step in the process, offering staff opportunities to ask questions and disseminating learning resources. Some also complained that experienced staff were taken away from bedside care and re-allocated to the CCT hub team. Hospital staff's attitudes towards, knowledge about and value placed on CCT influenced acceptance of CCT. Staff were positive towards CCT because of its several advantages. But some were concerned that the CCT hub staff were not able to understand the patient's situation through the camera. Some were also concerned about confidentiality of patient data. We also identified other factors that could influence the implementation of CCT, although our confidence in these findings is moderate or low. These factors included the extent to which telemedicine software was adaptable to local needs, and hub staff were aware of local norms; concerns about additional administrative work and cost; patients' and families' desire to stay close to their local community; the type of hospital setting; the extent to which there was support from senior leadership; staff access to information about policies and procedures; individuals' stage of change; staff motivation, competence and values; clear strategies for staff engagement; feedback about progress; and the impact of CCT on staffing levels. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our review identified several factors that could influence the acceptance and use of telemedicine in critical care. These include the value that hospital staff and family members place on having access to critical care experts, staff access to sufficient training, and the extent to which healthcare providers at the bedside and the critical care experts supporting them from a distance acknowledge and respect each other's expertise. Further research, especially in contexts other than North America, with different cultures, norms and practices will strengthen the evidence base for the implementation of CCT internationally and our confidence in these findings. Implementation of CCT appears to be growing in importance in the context of global pandemic management, especially in countries with wide geographical dispersion and limited access to critical care expertise. For successful implementation, policymakers and other stakeholders should consider pre-empting and addressing factors that may affect implementation, including strengthening teamness between bedside and hub teams; engaging and supporting frontline staff; training ICU clinicians on the use of CCT prior to its implementation; and ensuring staff have access to information and knowledge about when, why and how to use CCT for maximum benefit.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Participação dos Interessados , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Canadá , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Família , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Administração de Recursos Humanos em Hospitais , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/educação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Rede Social , Estados Unidos
10.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(3): 282-291, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616696

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has posed unprecedented healthcare system challenges, some of which will lead to transformative change. It is obvious to healthcare workers and policymakers alike that an effective critical care surge response must be nested within the overall care delivery model. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted key elements of emergency preparedness. These include having national or regional strategic reserves of personal protective equipment, intensive care unit (ICU) devices, consumables and pharmaceuticals, as well as effective supply chains and efficient utilization protocols. ICUs must also be prepared to accommodate surges of patients and ICU staffing models should allow for fluctuations in demand. Pre-existing ICU triage and end-of-life care principles should be established, implemented and updated. Daily workflow processes should be restructured to include remote connection with multidisciplinary healthcare workers and frequent communication with relatives. The pandemic has also demonstrated the benefits of digital transformation and the value of remote monitoring technologies, such as wireless monitoring. Finally, the pandemic has highlighted the value of pre-existing epidemiological registries and agile randomized controlled platform trials in generating fast, reliable data. The COVID-19 pandemic is a reminder that besides our duty to care, we are committed to improve. By meeting these challenges today, we will be able to provide better care to future patients.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Pandemias , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências , Telemedicina , Fluxo de Trabalho
11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(4): 430-434, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450202

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic strained health-care systems throughout the world. For some, available medical resources could not meet the increased demand and rationing was ultimately required. Hospitals and governments often sought to establish triage committees to assist with allocation decisions. However, for institutions operating under crisis standards of care (during times when standards of care must be substantially lowered in the setting of crisis), relying on these committees for rationing decisions was impractical-circumstances were changing too rapidly, occurring in too many diverse locations within hospitals, and the available information for decision making was notably scarce. Furthermore, a utilitarian approach to decision making based on an analysis of outcomes is problematic due to uncertainty regarding outcomes of different therapeutic options. We propose that triage committees could be involved in providing policies and guidance for clinicians to help ensure equity in the application of rationing under crisis standards of care. An approach guided by egalitarian principles, integrated with utilitarian principles, can support physicians at the bedside when they must ration scarce resources.


Assuntos
/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Triagem/organização & administração , Comitês Consultivos/organização & administração , Comitês Consultivos/normas , Cuidados Críticos/economia , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões Gerenciais , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/normas , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/economia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/normas , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Pandemias/economia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrão de Cuidado/economia , Triagem/normas
12.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 22, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419456

RESUMO

Providing optimal care to patients with acute respiratory illness while preventing hospital transmission of COVID-19 is of paramount importance during the pandemic; the challenge lies in achieving both goals simultaneously. Controversy exists regarding the role of early intubation versus use of non-invasive respiratory support measures to avoid intubation. This review summarizes available evidence and provides a clinical decision algorithm with risk mitigation techniques to guide clinicians in care of the hypoxemic, non-intubated, patient during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although aerosolization of droplets may occur with aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMP), including high flow nasal oxygen and non-invasive ventilation, the risk of using these AGMP is outweighed by the benefit in carefully selected patients, particularly if care is taken to mitigate risk of viral transmission. Non-invasive support measures should not be denied for conditions where previously proven effective and may be used even while there is suspicion of COVID-19 infection. Patients with de novo acute respiratory illness with suspected/confirmed COVID-19 may also benefit. These techniques may improve oxygenation sufficiently to allow some patients to avoid intubation; however, patients must be carefully monitored for signs of increased work of breathing. Patients showing signs of clinical deterioration or high work of breathing not alleviated by non-invasive support should proceed promptly to intubation and invasive lung protective ventilation strategy. With adherence to these principles, risk of viral spread can be minimized.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Ventilação não Invasiva , /terapia , Algoritmos , Humanos
13.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(2): E1-E5, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449602

RESUMO

AIM: To identify strategies that increase hospital bed capacity, material resources, and available nurse staffing during a national pandemic. BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak resulted in an influx of acutely ill patients requiring critical care. The volume and acuity of this patient population increased the demand for care and stretched hospitals beyond their capacity. While increasing hospital bed capacity and material resources are crucial, healthcare systems have noted one of the greatest limitations to rapid expansion has been the number of available medical personnel, particularly those trained in emergency and critical care nursing. EVALUATION: Program evaluation occurred on a daily basis with hospital throughput, focusing on logistics including our ability to expand bed volume, resource utilization, and the ability to meet staffing needs. CONCLUSION: This article describes how a quaternary care hospital in New York City prepared for the COVID-19 surge in patients by maximizing and shifting nursing resources to its most impacted services, the emergency department (ED) and the intensive care units (ICUs). A tier-based staffing model and rapid training were operationalized to address nurse-staffing shortages in the ICU and ED, identifying key factors for swift deployment. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGERS: Frequent communication between staff and leaders improves teamwork and builds trust and buy-in during normal operations and particularly in times of crisis.


Assuntos
/enfermagem , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/provisão & distribução , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
15.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 1, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505860

RESUMO

Background: UC San Diego Health System (UCSDHS) is an academic medical center and integrated care network in the US-Mexico border area of California contiguous to the Mexican Northern Baja region. The COVID-19 pandemic deeply influenced UCSDHS activities as new public health challenges increasingly related to high population density, cross-border traffic, economic disparities, and interconnectedness between cross-border communities, which accelerated development of clinical collaborations between UCSDHS and several border community hospitals - one in the US, two in Mexico - as high volumes of severely ill patients overwhelmed hospitals. Objective: We describe the development, implementation, feasibility, and acceptance of a novel critical care support program in three community hospitals along the US-Mexico border. Methods: We created and instituted a hybrid critical care program involving: 1) in-person activities to perform needs assessments of equipment and supplies and hands-on training and education, and 2) creation of a telemedicine-based (Tele-ICU) service for direct patient management and/or consultative, education-based experiences. We collected performance metrics surrounding adherence to evidence-based practices and staff perceptions of critical care delivery. Findings: In-person intervention phase identified and filled gaps in equipment and supplies, and Tele-ICU program promoted adherence to evidence-based practices and improved staff confidence in caring for critically ill COVID-19 patients at each hospital. Conclusion: A collaborative, hybrid critical care program across academic and community centers is feasible and effective to address cross-cultural public health emergencies.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Hospitais Comunitários , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Telemedicina , Algoritmos , California , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Cooperação Internacional , México , Enfermagem/métodos , Autoeficácia
16.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 40, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509218

RESUMO

The current coronavirus pandemic has impacted heavily on ICUs worldwide. Although many hospitals and healthcare systems had plans in place to manage multiple casualties as a result of major natural disasters or accidents, there was insufficient preparation for the sudden, massive influx of severely ill patients with COVID-19. As a result, systems and staff were placed under immense pressure as everyone tried to optimize patient management. As the pandemic continues, we must apply what we have learned about our response, both good and bad, to improve organization and thus patient care in the future.


Assuntos
/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , /epidemiologia , Humanos
19.
Am J Nurs ; 121(1): 48-54, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350697

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In March 2020, in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the executive leadership of an academic medical center in Atlanta tasked an interprofessional quality improvement (QI) team with identifying ways to improve staff and patient safety while caring for patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection. Additional goals of the initiative were to improve workflow efficiency by reducing the amount of time spent donning and doffing personal protective equipment (PPE) and to conserve PPE, which could be in short supply in a prolonged pandemic. The QI team developed a "warm zone model" that allowed staff members to wear the same mask, eye protection, and gown while moving between the rooms of patients who had tested positive for COVID-19. The risk of self-contamination while doffing PPE is well documented. Staff members were trained to conserve PPE and to properly change gloves and perform hand hygiene between exiting and entering patients' rooms. The warm zone model allowed multidisciplinary team members to reduce the times they donned and doffed PPE per shift while maintaining or increasing the times they entered and exited patients' rooms. Staff members believed that the model improved workflow and teamwork while maintaining staff members' personal safety. Daily gown use decreased on the acute care unit where the model was employed, helping to preserve PPE supplies. Once the model was proven successful in acute care, it was modified and instituted on several critical care COVID-19 cohort units.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Modelos Organizacionais , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Luvas Protetoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Luvas Protetoras/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Roupa de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Roupa de Proteção/provisão & distribução , Estados Unidos
20.
Thorax ; 76(3): 302-312, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334908

RESUMO

The surge in cases of severe COVID-19 has resulted in clinicians triaging intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in places where demand has exceeded capacity. In order to assist difficult triage decisions, clinicians require clear guidelines on how to prioritise patients. Existing guidelines show significant variability in their development, interpretation, implementation and an urgent need for a robust synthesis of published guidance. To understand how to manage which patients are admitted to ICU, and receive mechanical ventilatory support, during periods of high demand during the COVID-19 pandemic, a systematic review was performed. Databases of indexed literature (Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Global Health) and grey literature (Google.com and MedRxiv), published from 1 January until 2 April 2020, were searched. Search terms included synonyms of COVID-19, ICU, ventilation, and triage. Only formal written guidelines were included. There were no exclusion criteria based on geographical location or publication language. Quality appraisal of the guidelines was performed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation Instrument II (AGREE II) and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation Instrument Recommendation EXcellence (AGREE REX) appraisal tools, and key themes related to triage were extracted using narrative synthesis. Of 1902 unique records identified, nine relevant guidelines were included. Six guidelines were national or transnational level guidance (UK, Switzerland, Belgium, Australia and New Zealand, Italy, and Sri Lanka), with one state level (Kansas, USA), one international (Extracorporeal Life Support Organization) and one specific to military hospitals (Department of Defense, USA). The guidelines covered several broad themes: use of ethical frameworks, criteria for ICU admission and discharge, adaptation of criteria as demand changes, equality across health conditions and healthcare systems, decision-making processes, communication of decisions, and guideline development processes. We have synthesised the current guidelines and identified the different approaches taken globally to manage the triage of intensive care resources during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is limited consensus on how to allocate the finite resource of ICU beds and ventilators, and a lack of high-quality evidence and guidelines on resource allocation during the pandemic. We have developed a set of factors to consider when developing guidelines for managing intensive care admissions, and outlined implications for clinical leads and local implementation.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Hospitalização , Humanos , Respiração Artificial , Triagem/organização & administração
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