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1.
JAMA ; 323(24): 2485-2492, June., 2020. tab., graf.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1123020

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE Corticosteroids are widely used in pediatric cardiac surgery to blunt systemic inflammatory response and to reduce complications; nevertheless, their clinical efficacy is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To determine whether intraoperative administration of dexamethasone is more effective than placebo for reducing major complications and mortality during pediatric cardiac surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Intraoperative Dexamethasone in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery was an investigator-initiated, double-blind, multicenter randomized trial that involved 4 centers in China, Brazil, and Russia. A total of 394 infants younger than 12 months, undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled from December 2015 to October 2018, with follow-up completed in November 2018. INTERVENTIONS The dexamethasone group (n = 194) received 1mg/kg of dexamethasone; the control group (n = 200) received an equivolume of 0.9%sodium chloride intravenously after anesthesia induction. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end pointwas a composite of death, nonfatalmyocardial infarction, need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, acute kidney injury, prolonged mechanical ventilation, or neurological complications within 30 days after surgery. There were 17 secondary end points, including the individual components of the primary end point, and duration of mechanical ventilation, inotropic index, intensive care unit stay, readmission to intensive care unit, and length of hospitalization. RESULTS All of the 394 patients randomized (median age, 6 months; 47.2%boys) completed the trial. The primary end point occurred in 74 patients (38.1%) in the dexamethasone group vs 91 patients (45.5%) in the control group (absolute risk reduction, 7.4%; 95%CI, −0.8%to 15.3%; hazard ratio, 0.82; 95%CI, 0.60 to 1.10; P = .20). Of the 17 prespecified secondary end points, none showed a statistically significant difference between groups. Infections occurred in 4 patients (2.0%) in the dexamethasone group vs 3 patients (1.5%) in the control group. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among infants younger than 12 months undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, intraoperative administration of dexamethasone, compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce major complications and mortality at 30 days. However, the study may have been underpowered to detect a clinically important difference.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos
2.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E483-E488, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mannitol and furosemide have been used as diuretics intraoperatively to facilitate early renal allograft function and reduce delayed graft function. As the evidence of any efficacy of these agents is limited, we sought to characterize the use of diuretics among transplant surgeons. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was sent to all Canadian transplant programs where kidney transplants are routinely performed. Questions were related to the use and indications for mannitol and furosemide. Responses were collected and analyzed as counts and percentages of respondents. We used χ2 analysis to assess the relationship between demographic factors and survey responses. RESULTS: Thirty-five surgeons completed the survey (response rate 50%). Seventy per cent of respondents reported performing 26 or more transplants per year, 88% had formal transplant fellowship training and 67% indicated that they currently train fellows. Only 24% and 12% reported believing that delayed graft function is reduced by mannitol and furosemide use, respectively. However, 73% routinely gave mannitol to patients and 53% routinely gave furosemide. The most common justification given for mannitol use was to induce diuresis (54%); 37% of respondents reported using mannitol because of training dogma. Likewise, 57% used furosemide for diuresis, with 23% reporting that their use of this agent was based on dogma. No relationship emerged between fellowship training, case volume or training program status and the use of any agent. Interestingly, 71% of respondents indicated that a randomized controlled trial evaluating the utility of intraoperative diuretics is needed and that they were interested in participating in such a trial. CONCLUSION: Use of intraoperative diuretics and the rationale for their use vary among surgeons. A substantial proportion of surgeons use these medications on the basis of dogma alone. A randomized controlled trial is needed to clarify the role of intraoperative diuretics in kidney transplant surgery.


Assuntos
Função Retardada do Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Reperfusão/métodos , Aloenxertos/efeitos dos fármacos , Aloenxertos/fisiologia , Canadá , Função Retardada do Enxerto/etiologia , Função Retardada do Enxerto/fisiopatologia , Diurese/efeitos dos fármacos , Diurese/fisiologia , Furosemida/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiologia , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Manitol/administração & dosagem , Reperfusão/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22568, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031305

RESUMO

The effect of intraoperative blood transfusion on the immune function and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intraoperative autologous blood transfusion and allogeneic blood transfusion on immune function and prognosis in surgically treated HCC patients. One hundred fourteen primary hepatic carcinoma patients who would undergo selective operations were divided into two groups, 35 patients in the experimental group received intraoperative autologous blood transfusion and 79 patients in the control group received allogeneic blood transfusion. The amount of serum T lymphocyte subsets, natural killer (NK) cells and immunoglobulin before and after operation, as well as the recurrence-free survival (RFS) were compared. Results shown that, there was no significant difference in the level of immunocytes and immunoglobulin between the two groups before treatment (P > .05). At 1 day after surgery, there were significant differences in T lymphocyte, NK cells and immunoglobulin levels before and after transfusion. CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, and NK cells in autologous transfusion group were significantly higher than those in allogeneic transfusion group (P < .05); the level of IgG, IgM, and IgA in allogeneic transfusion group were significantly lower than those before operation (P < .05), the level of IgG, IgM, and IgA in autologous transfusion group did not significantly fluctuate, and significantly higher than those of allogeneic transfusion group (P < .05). At 5 days after surgery, all indexes of autologous transfusion group recovered to the preoperative level, the levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, NK cells, IgG, IgM, and IgA were significantly higher than those of allogeneic transfusion group (P < .05). The follow-up results showed that the RFS of autologous transfusion group was significantly higher than that of allogeneic transfusion group (P < .05). In conclusion, compared with allogeneic blood transfusion, intraoperative autologous blood transfusion possessed less impact on immune function, it may even improve immune function and RFS in HCC patients after surgery. Therefore, HCC patients should be recommended to receive autologous blood transfusion instead of allogeneic blood transfusion when they need blood transfusion during the perioperative period.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Transfusão de Sangue Autóloga , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22575, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019471

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Giant intra-abdominal liposarcomas weighing over 20 kg often increase the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), which has severe effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Abdominal compartment syndrome is defined typically as the combination of a raised IAP of 20 mm Hg or higher and new onset of organ dysfunction or failure. The anesthetic management and perioperative management are very challenging. PATIENTS CONCERNS: We presented 2 patients with rare giant growing liposarcoma of the abdomen, weighing 21 kg and over 35 kg, respectively. Circulatory management was particularly difficult in the first case, while respiratory management and massive blood loss was very challenging in the second one. DIAGNOSIS: With a computed tomography scan and peritoneal-to-abdominal height ratio measurement, preoperatively the risk of developing intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome was recognized early in each patient. The inferior vena cava and right atrium of the first patient was compressed and malformed due to the uplifted diaphragm, while there was severe decreased lung volume and increased airway resistance, because of rare giant retroperitoneal liposarcomas in the second case. Histologic examination revealed dedifferentiated liposarcoma in both cases. INTERVENTIONS: Both of the patients underwent resection surgery with multiple monitoring; transesophageal echocardiography monitoring in the first case and pressure-controlled ventilation volume guaranteed mechanical ventilation mode in both cases. OUTCOMES: Intraoperatively and postoperatively no cardiopulmonary complications in both patients. The first patient was discharged without any complications on postoperative day 10, and the second patient underwent another surgery because of anastomotic leakage resulting from bowel resection. LESSONS: Multiple monitorings, in particular transesophageal echocardiography should be considered in patients with increased IAP due to a giant mass, while an appropriate lung protection ventilation strategy is crucial in these patients.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Lipossarcoma/complicações , Lipossarcoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/complicações , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/cirurgia , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias/fisiologia , Fístula Anastomótica/cirurgia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Lipossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Lipossarcoma/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 296, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Surgical Pleth Index (SPI) is a monitoring method that reflects painful stimuli during general anesthesia, and dexmedetomidine is an analgesic adjuvant with an opioid-sparing effect. But up to now, it is still unclear whether dexmedetomidine has any influence on SPI. To investigate whether dexmedetomidine has an effect on SPI during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. METHODS: We enrolled 94 patients who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic lung lobectomy. Patients were randomly assigned to a dexmedetomidine group (dexmedetomidine: 0.8 µg/kg administered for 10 min before anesthesia) or normal saline group (equal volume of normal saline). SPI and vital signs were recorded. The number rating scale (NRS) pain score was also evaluated. RESULTS: SPI values were significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group than in the normal saline group at intubation and at discharge from the postanesthesia care unit. Compared with the normal saline group, mean arterial pressure and heart rate were both significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group at intubation. Heart rate was lower at skin incision in the dexmedetomidine group. The NRS score in the normal saline group was noticeably higher vs. the dexmedetomidine group at discharge from the postanesthesia care unit. CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine decreased intraoperative SPI and NRS scores. Our results showed that dexmedetomidine attenuated noxious stimuli. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-OOC-16009450 , Registered 16 October, 2016.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória , Pneumonectomia , Estudos Prospectivos , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida , Adulto Jovem
6.
JAMA ; 324(9): 848-858, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870298

RESUMO

Importance: In patients who undergo mechanical ventilation during surgery, the ideal tidal volume is unclear. Objective: To determine whether low-tidal-volume ventilation compared with conventional ventilation during major surgery decreases postoperative pulmonary complications. Design, Setting, and Participants: Single-center, assessor-blinded, randomized clinical trial of 1236 patients older than 40 years undergoing major noncardiothoracic, nonintracranial surgery under general anesthesia lasting more than 2 hours in a tertiary hospital in Melbourne, Australia, from February 2015 to February 2019. The last date of follow-up was February 17, 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive a tidal volume of 6 mL/kg predicted body weight (n = 614; low tidal volume group) or a tidal volume of 10 mL/kg predicted body weight (n = 592; conventional tidal volume group). All patients received positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at 5 cm H2O. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of postoperative pulmonary complications within the first 7 postoperative days, including pneumonia, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pulmonary congestion, respiratory failure, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, or unplanned requirement for postoperative invasive or noninvasive ventilation. Secondary outcomes were postoperative pulmonary complications including development of pulmonary embolism, acute respiratory distress syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, acute kidney injury, wound infection (superficial and deep), rate of intraoperative need for vasopressor, incidence of unplanned intensive care unit admission, rate of need for rapid response team call, intensive care unit length of stay, hospital length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. Results: Among 1236 patients who were randomized, 1206 (98.9%) completed the trial (mean age, 63.5 years; 494 [40.9%] women; 681 [56.4%] undergoing abdominal surgery). The primary outcome occurred in 231 of 608 patients (38%) in the low tidal volume group compared with 232 of 590 patients (39%) in the conventional tidal volume group (difference, -1.3% [95% CI, -6.8% to 4.2%]; risk ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.84-1.11]; P = .64). There were no significant differences in any of the secondary outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adult patients undergoing major surgery, intraoperative ventilation with low tidal volume compared with conventional tidal volume, with PEEP applied equally between groups, did not significantly reduce pulmonary complications within the first 7 postoperative days. Trial Registration: ANZCTR Identifier: ACTRN12614000790640.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Método Simples-Cego , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21684, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871884

RESUMO

Ultrasound-guided interscalene block (US-ISB) and nerve stimulator-guided interscalene block (NS-ISB) have both been commonly used for anesthesia in shoulder arthroscopic surgery.This study aims to compare which method provides surgical block as a sole anesthesia. In this retrospective study, 1158 patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair surgery under ISB between October 2002 and March 2018 were classified into either the US-ISB or NS-ISB anesthesia groups. Demographic and anesthetic characteristics and intraoperative medications were analyzed after propensity score matching and compared between the 2 groups.There was a 0.5% rate of conversion to general anesthesia in the US-ISB group and a 6.7% rate in the NS-ISB group (P < .001). The volume of local anesthetics used for ISB was 29.7 ±â€Š8.9 mL in the US-ISB group versus 38.1 ±â€Š4.8 mL in the NS-ISB group (P < .001). The intraoperative use of analgesics and sedatives such as fentanyl, midazolam and propofol in combination was significantly lowered in the US-ISB group (P < .001).US-ISB is a more effective and safer approach for providing intense block to NS-ISB because it can decrease the incidence of conversion to general anesthesia and reduce the use of analgesics and sedatives during arthroscopic shoulder surgery.


Assuntos
Artroscopia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1102-1110, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) is increasingly being used in intensive care units for management of hypoxemia and respiratory failure. However, the effectiveness of HFNO for preventing hypoxemia in the intraoperative period is unclear. The purpose of this systematic review was to compare patient oxygenation and end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), between HFNO and conventional oxygenation, during the intraoperative period in surgical patients. METHODS: Standard databases were searched from inception to February 2020. Studies involving intraoperative use of HFNO with 1 of the 4 outcomes: (1) oxygen (O2) desaturation, (2) minimum O2 saturation, (3) safe apnea time, or (4) EtCO2 were included. Intraoperative period was divided into 2 phases: at induction with general anesthesia and during surgical procedure under sedation without tracheal intubation. RESULTS: Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs; 4 induction, 4 procedure, 2314 patients) were included for systematic review and meta-analyses. We found the risk of intraoperative O2 desaturation was lower in HFNO versus conventional oxygenation control group; at induction with an odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.06 (0.01-0.59, P = .02), and during procedure, OR (95% CI) of 0.09 (0.05-0.18; P < .001). The minimum O2 saturation was higher in HFNO versus conventional oxygenation; at induction by a mean difference (MD) (95% CI) of 5.1% (3.3-6.9; P < .001), and during procedure, by a MD (95% CI) of 4.0% (1.8-6.2; P < .001). Safe apnea time at induction was longer in HFNO versus conventional oxygenation by a MD (95% CI) of 33.4 seconds (16.8-50.1; P < .001). EtCO2 at induction was not significantly different between HFNO and conventional oxygenation groups. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis show that, in the intraoperative setting, HFNO compared to conventional oxygenation reduces the risk of O2 desaturation, increases minimum O2 saturation, and safe apnea time. HFNO should be considered for anesthesia induction and during surgical procedures under sedation without tracheal intubation in patients at higher risk of hypoxemia.


Assuntos
Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Administração Intranasal , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 1111-1123, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925332

RESUMO

Aspirin is considered critical lifelong therapy for patients with established cardiovascular (CV) disease (including coronary artery, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial diseases) and is consequently one of the most widely used medications worldwide. However, the indications for aspirin use continue to evolve and recent trials question its efficacy for primary prevention. Although one third of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery and at risk for a major adverse CV event receive aspirin perioperatively, uncertainty still exists about how aspirin should be optimally managed in this context, and significant practice variability remains. Recent trials suggest that the risks of continuing aspirin during the perioperative period outweigh the benefits in many cases, but data on patients with high CV risk remain limited. We performed a comprehensive PubMed and Medline literature search using the following keywords: aspirin, aspirin withdrawal, perioperative, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, and CV disease; we manually reviewed all relevant citations for inclusion. Patients taking aspirin for the primary prevention of CV disease should likely discontinue it during the perioperative period, especially when there is a high risk of bleeding. Patients with established CV disease but without a coronary stent should likely continue aspirin during the perioperative period unless undergoing closed-space surgery. Patients with a history of coronary stenting also likely need aspirin continuation throughout the perioperative period for nonclosed space procedures. Perioperative clinicians need to balance the risks of ceasing aspirin before surgery against its continuation during the perioperative interval using a patient-specific strategy. The guidance on decision-making with regard to perioperative aspirin cessation or continuation using currently available clinical data from studies in high-risk patients along with nonclinical aspirin studies is conflicting and does not enable a simplified or unified answer. However, pertinent guidelines on CV disease management provide a basic framework for aspirin management, and large trial findings provide some insight into the safety of perioperative aspirin cessation in some contexts, although uncertainty on perioperative aspirin still exists. This review provides an evidence-based update on perioperative aspirin management in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery with a focus on recommendations for perioperative clinicians on continuing versus holding aspirin during this context.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Prevenção Primária , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios
10.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 303, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is a major complication of pituitary adenomas transsphenoidal surgery. Lumbar drainage (LD) is a common method of treating CSF leakage. But whether intraoperative LD can prevent CSF leakage during the perioperative period of pituitary adenomas transsphenoidal surgery remains controversial. Clarity on the appropriate use of LD is needed. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of science databases. Articles were included when they compared intraoperative LD with intraoperative no-LD CSF leakage rates during pituitary adenomas transsphenoidal surgery. RESULTS: Overall, 5 studies containing 678 cases met the inclusion criteria. When data were provided on intraoperative CSF leakage rates, the meta-analysis showed a significant difference in favor of intraoperative LD. When data were provided on postoperative CSF leakage rates, the meta-analysis also demonstrated a significant difference in favor of intraoperative LD. CONCLUSIONS: Although the results of this meta-analysis suggest intraoperative LD can reduce the risk of CSF leakage during the perioperative period of pituitary adenomas transsphenoidal surgery, the available evidence is indefinite. To some extent the results suggest intraoperative LD's potential positive role. Further studies that include well-designed prospective, randomized controlled clinical trials are necessary for further verification.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Drenagem/métodos , Região Lombossacral/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Adenoma/cirurgia , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/epidemiologia , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/prevenção & controle , Vazamento de Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/terapia , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Hipófise/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Osso Esfenoide/cirurgia
11.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(3): 471-481, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the use of a Mayo Scissor as a suburethral spacer compared with a Babcock clamp holding a loop of tape under the urethra results in different rates of abnormal bladder outcomes 12 months after retropubic midurethral sling surgery. METHODS: The MUST (Mid-Urethral Sling Tensioning) trial was a block-randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial that allocated women to have their retropubic midurethral slings tensioned by Scissor or Babcock technique. The primary outcome (abnormal bladder) was a composite of persistent stress urinary incontinence (SUI), overactive bladder, and urinary retention. Secondary outcomes included outcomes of the composite, postoperative catheterization, incontinence-related questionnaires, repeat incontinence treatment, and uroflowmetry. Sample size of 159 in each arm (N=318) was planned for a superiority trial, hypothesizing a 10% difference in primary outcome. RESULTS: From September 2015 to December 2017, 506 women were screened and 318 were randomized. Baseline characteristics were similar in each arm. At 12 months, 253 (79.6%) women provided information on primary outcome: 40 of 128 (31.3%) patients with midurethral slings tensioned by Scissor experienced abnormal bladder, compared with 23 of 125 (18.4%) of those with midurethral slings tensioned by Babcock (P=.018, relative difference 12.9%). Secondary analyses favored Babcock for median duration of catheterization and the proportions of women experiencing urinary retention requiring sling lysis. Uroflowmetry parameters suggest the Scissor technique is more restrictive. Rates of mesh erosion were lower for the Scissor arm. No differences occurred in proportions of women experiencing patient reported persistent SUI after surgery. CONCLUSION: Abnormal bladder outcomes were 12.9% less frequent for women with midurethral slings tensioned by Babcock. Both techniques provided a comparable patient reported cure for SUI at 12 months. Women with midurethral slings tensioned by Scissors experienced more intervention for obstruction, whereas those with midurethral slings tensioned by Babcock experienced higher rates of mesh erosion. This information about how the postoperative courses differ allows surgeons to better counsel patients preoperatively or tailor their choice of technique. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02480231. FUNDING SOURCE: Boston Scientific.


Assuntos
Slings Suburetrais , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/cirurgia , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos
12.
BMC Surg ; 20(1): 174, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) is common in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent studies indicate that more aggressive treatments, including surgical resection or locoregional treatment, may benefit selected HCC patients with PVTT. External radiation therapy and infusion chemotherapy were found to achieve good outcomes; however, the use of low-energy x-ray radiation system (INTRABEAM), intraoperative radiation therapy, and portal vein infusion chemotherapy for PVTT has not been reported. We present a case of HCC with PVTT. The patient underwent hemihepatectomy and thrombectomy along with intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) using a portable INTRABEAM radiation system. Subsequently, to treat PVTT, portal vein infusion chemotherapy with FOLFOX (leucovorin [Folinic acid], fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) regimen was administered. There were no obvious post-operative complications. After 20 months follow-up period, no obvious tumor recurrence had been observed, and PVTT gradually disappeared completely. CONCLUSIONS: IORT using the INTRABEAM radiation system combined with portal vein infusion chemotherapy is promising for select patients with PVTT.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Veia Porta , Trombose Venosa/terapia , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Masculino , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombectomia , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/radioterapia , Trombose Venosa/cirurgia
13.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(5): 663-670, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Iliac limb occlusion (ILO) is a complication of endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) and requires re-intervention in most cases. Attention to any intra-operative defect of iliac limbs and arteries may prevent ILO. The study aimed to analyse the long term effect of an intra-operative protocol of iliac limb treatment during EVAR on ILO. METHODS: Patients treated from 2012 to 2017 for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with standard EVAR were collected prospectively. Pre-operative computed tomography angiography anatomical characteristics were evaluated. The protocol for intra-operative iliac limb management was: a. pre-EVAR angioplasty of common/external iliac artery stenosis; b. precise contralateral iliac limb deployment at the same level of the flow divider; c. iliac limb kissing ballooning with high pressure non-compliant balloons; d. iliac limb stenting for residual tortuosity/kink and adjunctive external iliac stenting for residual stenosis/dissection after EVAR. ILO was evaluated at 30 days and at follow up, which was performed by duplex ultrasonography before discharge, at three, six, and 12 months and yearly thereafter. Kaplan-Meier and Cox linear regression were used. RESULTS: Four hundred and forty-two patients and 884 iliac limbs were included in the study. Severe iliac tortuosity and calcification were present in 15% (132/884) and 8% (70/884), respectively. External iliac angioplasty and stenting of iliac limb were performed in 2% (18/884) and 9.5% (84/884) of limbs. The thirty day mortality was 1.6%, with no ILO. At a mean follow up of 33 ± 12 months, ILO occurred in 7/884 (0.8%) limbs of six patients. Five ILO were treated by endovascular relining, two surgically: one by femorofemoral bypass and one by surgical explant. On univariable analysis, sac shrinkage was significantly associated with ILO (HR 1, 95% CI 0.8-2.5, p = .043). CONCLUSION: A protocol of aggressive iliac limb treatment in EVAR leads to a very low rate of late ILO. The role of sac shrinkage in ILO should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/prevenção & controle , Artéria Ilíaca/cirurgia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Protocolos Clínicos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/epidemiologia , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/etiologia , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/cirurgia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Artéria Ilíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Ilíaca/patologia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Stents/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237503, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative restrictive fluid management strategies might improve postoperative outcomes in liver transplantation. Effects of vasopressors within any hemodynamic management strategy are unclear. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study on adult liver transplant recipients between July 2008 and December 2017. We measured the effect of vasopressors infused at admission in the intensive care unit (ICU) and total intraoperative fluid balance. Our primary outcome was 48-hour acute kidney injury (AKI) and our secondary outcomes were 7-day AKI, need for postoperative renal replacement therapy (RRT), time to extubation in the ICU, time to ICU discharge and survival up to 1 year. We fitted models adjusted for confounders using generalized estimating equations or survival models using robust standard errors. We reported results with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: We included 532 patients. Vasopressors use was not associated with 48-hour or 7-day AKI but modified the effects of fluid balance on RRT and mortality. A higher fluid balance was associated with a higher need for RRT (OR = 1.52 [1.15, 2.01], p<0.001 for interaction) and lower survival (HR = 1.71 [1.26, 2.34], p<0.01 for interaction) only among patients without vasopressors. In patients with vasopressors, higher doses of vasopressors were associated with a higher mortality (HR = 1.29 [1.13, 1.49] per 10 µg/min of norepinephrine). CONCLUSION: The presence of any vasopressor at the end of surgery was not associated with AKI or RRT. The use of vasopressors might modify the harmful association between fluid balance and other postoperative outcomes. The liberal use of vasopressors to implement a restrictive fluid management strategy deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
15.
Am Surg ; 86(8): 1022-1025, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809851

RESUMO

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains one of the most common surgical operations. Common bile duct stones (CBDS) are estimated to be present in 10%-20% of individuals with symptomatic gallstones. Preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) remain the most common methods of evaluation, with subsequent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for stone extraction if positive for CBDS. We examined our experience with preoperative MRCP versus IOC for the management of the jaundiced patient with cholelithiasis. This is a retrospective single-institution study that examined all laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed over a 15-month period between 2017 and 2018. Outpatient elective cases were excluded from the analysis. Charts were reviewed for demographics, operative details, and whether an MRCP, IOC, or ERCP was performed. Data were evaluated using a 2-sample t-test. A total of 460 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy over a 15-month period. Of those, 147 underwent either an MRCP or an IOC for clinical suspicion for CBDS. ERCP after MRCP was nontherapeutic in 11/32 (34%) compared with 2/12 (17%) of patients following IOC. The sensitivity and specificity of MRCP were 91% and 80%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 66% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The sensitivity and specificity of IOC were 83% and 97%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 83% and a negative predictive value of 97%. MRCP and IOC have unique advantages and disadvantages. MRCP has greater sensitivity, but poor specificity, resulting in unnecessary ERCPs with associated morbidity and increased costs to the patient.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Colangiopancreatografia por Ressonância Magnética , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Cálculos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagem , Icterícia Obstrutiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Desnecessários/estatística & dados numéricos , Colangiografia/métodos , Cálculos Biliares/complicações , Cálculos Biliares/cirurgia , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Icterícia Obstrutiva/etiologia , Icterícia Obstrutiva/cirurgia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21126, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791687

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Bilateral brachial plexus block (BPB) generally requires a relatively large dose of local anesthetic for a successful block, resulting in a high risk of local anesthetic systemic toxicity. It can also result in inadvertent bilateral phrenic nerve palsy, leading to respiratory failure. Hence, it has not been widely used. However, it can be performed in selected patients. In this report, we present a case of ultrasound-guided BPB for bilateral upper extremity surgery in a patient with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 25-year-old woman with SCI secondary to traumatic fifth cervical spine fracture scheduled for surgical treatment of bilateral elbow fracture received bilateral BPB. DIAGNOSES: Due to the complications of SCI, the patient had incomplete sensory loss, loss of motor function, and complete diaphragmatic paralysis on the right side. INTERVENTIONS: Right infraclavicular and left axillary BPB was performed as the sole anesthetic procedure for bilateral upper extremity surgery. OUTCOMES: Bilateral BPB was successful for bilateral upper extremity surgery. The surgery was uneventful and without further complications. LESSONS: Patients with cervical SCI have a high risk of respiratory complications. Bilateral BPB can be a suitable option for bilateral upper extremity surgery in selected patients. It is imperative to select an appropriate anesthetic technique that preserves respiratory function to minimize the potential risk of respiratory complications.


Assuntos
Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Articulação do Cotovelo/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Adulto , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial/métodos , Vértebras Cervicais , Articulação do Cotovelo/lesões , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Extremidade Superior/lesões , Extremidade Superior/cirurgia
17.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 248e-250e, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740631
18.
BMJ ; 370: m2836, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether risk adapted intraoperative radiotherapy, delivered as a single dose during lumpectomy, can effectively replace postoperative whole breast external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer. DESIGN: Prospective, open label, randomised controlled clinical trial. SETTING: 32 centres in 10 countries in the United Kingdom, Europe, Australia, the United States, and Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 2298 women aged 45 years and older with invasive ductal carcinoma up to 3.5 cm in size, cN0-N1, eligible for breast conservation and randomised before lumpectomy (1:1 ratio, blocks stratified by centre) to either risk adapted targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT-IORT) or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). INTERVENTIONS: Random allocation was to the EBRT arm, which consisted of a standard daily fractionated course (three to six weeks) of whole breast radiotherapy, or the TARGIT-IORT arm. TARGIT-IORT was given immediately after lumpectomy under the same anaesthetic and was the only radiotherapy for most patients (around 80%). TARGIT-IORT was supplemented by EBRT when postoperative histopathology found unsuspected higher risk factors (around 20% of patients). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Non-inferiority with a margin of 2.5% for the absolute difference between the five year local recurrence rates of the two arms, and long term survival outcomes. RESULTS: Between 24 March 2000 and 25 June 2012, 1140 patients were randomised to TARGIT-IORT and 1158 to EBRT. TARGIT-IORT was non-inferior to EBRT: the local recurrence risk at five year complete follow-up was 2.11% for TARGIT-IORT compared with 0.95% for EBRT (difference 1.16%, 90% confidence interval 0.32 to 1.99). In the first five years, 13 additional local recurrences were reported (24/1140 v 11/1158) but 14 fewer deaths (42/1140 v 56/1158) for TARGIT-IORT compared with EBRT. With long term follow-up (median 8.6 years, maximum 18.90 years, interquartile range 7.0-10.6) no statistically significant difference was found for local recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.41, P=0.28), mastectomy-free survival (0.96, 0.78 to 1.19, P=0.74), distant disease-free survival (0.88, 0.69 to 1.12, P=0.30), overall survival (0.82, 0.63 to 1.05, P=0.13), and breast cancer mortality (1.12, 0.78 to 1.60, P=0.54). Mortality from other causes was significantly lower (0.59, 0.40 to 0.86, P=0.005). CONCLUSION: For patients with early breast cancer who met our trial selection criteria, risk adapted immediate single dose TARGIT-IORT during lumpectomy was an effective alternative to EBRT, with comparable long term efficacy for cancer control and lower non-breast cancer mortality. TARGIT-IORT should be discussed with eligible patients when breast conserving surgery is planned. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN34086741, NCT00983684.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/radioterapia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/cirurgia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Mastectomia Segmentar , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Prospectivos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Surgery ; 168(3): 457-461, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative infectious complications after a pancreaticoduodenectomy remain a significant cause of morbidity. Studies have demonstrated that a preoperative biliary stent increases the risk of postoperative infectious complications. Few studies have investigated the specific preoperative biliary stent bacterial sensitivities to preoperative antibiotics and the effect on infectious complications. The goal of this study was to investigate if the presence of a preoperative biliary stent increases the risk of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing a pancreaticoduodenectomy. Additionally, we aimed to investigate biliary stent culture sensitivities to preoperative antibiotics and determine if those sensitivities impacted postoperative infectious complications after a pancreaticoduodenectomy. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who had undergone a pancreaticoduodenectomy at a single institution tertiary care center from 2007 to 2018 was performed. Perioperative variables including microbiology cultures from biliary stents were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 244 patients underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy. A preoperative biliary stent was present in 45 (18%) patients. Infectious complications occurred in 25% of those patients with a preoperative biliary stent, and 19% of those without (P = .37). Of those patients with a stent that was cultured intraoperatively, 92% grew bacteria and 61% of those were resistant to the preoperative antibiotics administered. Of the patients with a preoperative biliary stent and bacteria resistant to the preoperative antibiotics, 17% developed a postoperative infectious complication, compared with 20% if the bacteria cultured was susceptible to the preoperative antibiotics (P = .64). CONCLUSION: Infectious complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy are a significant cause of morbidity. Stent bacterial sensitivities to preoperative antibiotics did not reduce the postoperative infectious complications in the preoperative biliary stent group suggesting a multifactorial cause of infections.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Biliar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema Biliar/microbiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Biliar/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Biliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Drenagem/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/instrumentação , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
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