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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22575, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019471

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Giant intra-abdominal liposarcomas weighing over 20 kg often increase the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), which has severe effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Abdominal compartment syndrome is defined typically as the combination of a raised IAP of 20 mm Hg or higher and new onset of organ dysfunction or failure. The anesthetic management and perioperative management are very challenging. PATIENTS CONCERNS: We presented 2 patients with rare giant growing liposarcoma of the abdomen, weighing 21 kg and over 35 kg, respectively. Circulatory management was particularly difficult in the first case, while respiratory management and massive blood loss was very challenging in the second one. DIAGNOSIS: With a computed tomography scan and peritoneal-to-abdominal height ratio measurement, preoperatively the risk of developing intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome was recognized early in each patient. The inferior vena cava and right atrium of the first patient was compressed and malformed due to the uplifted diaphragm, while there was severe decreased lung volume and increased airway resistance, because of rare giant retroperitoneal liposarcomas in the second case. Histologic examination revealed dedifferentiated liposarcoma in both cases. INTERVENTIONS: Both of the patients underwent resection surgery with multiple monitoring; transesophageal echocardiography monitoring in the first case and pressure-controlled ventilation volume guaranteed mechanical ventilation mode in both cases. OUTCOMES: Intraoperatively and postoperatively no cardiopulmonary complications in both patients. The first patient was discharged without any complications on postoperative day 10, and the second patient underwent another surgery because of anastomotic leakage resulting from bowel resection. LESSONS: Multiple monitorings, in particular transesophageal echocardiography should be considered in patients with increased IAP due to a giant mass, while an appropriate lung protection ventilation strategy is crucial in these patients.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Lipossarcoma/complicações , Lipossarcoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/complicações , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/cirurgia , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias/fisiologia , Fístula Anastomótica/cirurgia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Lipossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Lipossarcoma/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237503, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative restrictive fluid management strategies might improve postoperative outcomes in liver transplantation. Effects of vasopressors within any hemodynamic management strategy are unclear. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study on adult liver transplant recipients between July 2008 and December 2017. We measured the effect of vasopressors infused at admission in the intensive care unit (ICU) and total intraoperative fluid balance. Our primary outcome was 48-hour acute kidney injury (AKI) and our secondary outcomes were 7-day AKI, need for postoperative renal replacement therapy (RRT), time to extubation in the ICU, time to ICU discharge and survival up to 1 year. We fitted models adjusted for confounders using generalized estimating equations or survival models using robust standard errors. We reported results with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: We included 532 patients. Vasopressors use was not associated with 48-hour or 7-day AKI but modified the effects of fluid balance on RRT and mortality. A higher fluid balance was associated with a higher need for RRT (OR = 1.52 [1.15, 2.01], p<0.001 for interaction) and lower survival (HR = 1.71 [1.26, 2.34], p<0.01 for interaction) only among patients without vasopressors. In patients with vasopressors, higher doses of vasopressors were associated with a higher mortality (HR = 1.29 [1.13, 1.49] per 10 µg/min of norepinephrine). CONCLUSION: The presence of any vasopressor at the end of surgery was not associated with AKI or RRT. The use of vasopressors might modify the harmful association between fluid balance and other postoperative outcomes. The liberal use of vasopressors to implement a restrictive fluid management strategy deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
3.
Am Surg ; 86(8): 1022-1025, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809851

RESUMO

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains one of the most common surgical operations. Common bile duct stones (CBDS) are estimated to be present in 10%-20% of individuals with symptomatic gallstones. Preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) remain the most common methods of evaluation, with subsequent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for stone extraction if positive for CBDS. We examined our experience with preoperative MRCP versus IOC for the management of the jaundiced patient with cholelithiasis. This is a retrospective single-institution study that examined all laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed over a 15-month period between 2017 and 2018. Outpatient elective cases were excluded from the analysis. Charts were reviewed for demographics, operative details, and whether an MRCP, IOC, or ERCP was performed. Data were evaluated using a 2-sample t-test. A total of 460 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy over a 15-month period. Of those, 147 underwent either an MRCP or an IOC for clinical suspicion for CBDS. ERCP after MRCP was nontherapeutic in 11/32 (34%) compared with 2/12 (17%) of patients following IOC. The sensitivity and specificity of MRCP were 91% and 80%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 66% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The sensitivity and specificity of IOC were 83% and 97%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 83% and a negative predictive value of 97%. MRCP and IOC have unique advantages and disadvantages. MRCP has greater sensitivity, but poor specificity, resulting in unnecessary ERCPs with associated morbidity and increased costs to the patient.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Colangiopancreatografia por Ressonância Magnética , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Cálculos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagem , Icterícia Obstrutiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Desnecessários/estatística & dados numéricos , Colangiografia/métodos , Cálculos Biliares/complicações , Cálculos Biliares/cirurgia , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Icterícia Obstrutiva/etiologia , Icterícia Obstrutiva/cirurgia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(2): 122-132, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite several clinical trials on haemodynamic therapy, the optimal intraoperative haemodynamic management for high-risk patients undergoing major abdominal surgery remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that personalised haemodynamic management targeting each individual's baseline cardiac index at rest reduces postoperative morbidity. METHODS: In this single-centre trial, 188 high-risk patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were randomised to either routine management or personalised haemodynamic management requiring clinicians to maintain personal baseline cardiac index (determined at rest preoperatively) using an algorithm that guided intraoperative i.v. fluid and/or dobutamine administration. The primary outcome was a composite of major complications (European Perioperative Clinical Outcome definitions) or death within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes included postoperative morbidity (assessed by a postoperative morbidity survey), hospital length of stay, mortality within 90 days of surgery, and neurocognitive function assessed after postoperative Day 3. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in 29.8% (28/94) of patients in the personalised management group, compared with 55.3% (52/94) of patients in the routine management group (relative risk: 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38 to 0.77; absolute risk reduction: -25.5%, 95% CI: -39.2% to -11.9%; P<0.001). One patient assigned to the personalised management group, compared with five assigned to the routine management group, died within 30 days after surgery (P=0.097). There were no clinically relevant differences between the two groups for secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In high-risk patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, personalised haemodynamic management reduces a composite outcome of major postoperative complications or death within 30 days after surgery compared with routine care. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02834377.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Hidratação/métodos , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
5.
Anesthesiology ; 133(2): 318-331, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal tissue perfusion and oxygenation during surgery may be responsible for postoperative nausea and vomiting in some patients. This trial tested the hypothesis that muscular tissue oxygen saturation-guided intraoperative care reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting. METHODS: This multicenter, pragmatic, patient- and assessor-blinded randomized controlled (1:1 ratio) trial was conducted from September 2018 to June 2019 at six teaching hospitals in four different cities in China. Nonsmoking women, 18 to 65 yr old, and having elective laparoscopic surgery involving hysterectomy (n = 800) were randomly assigned to receive either intraoperative muscular tissue oxygen saturation-guided care or usual care. The goal was to maintain muscular tissue oxygen saturation, measured at flank and on forearm, greater than baseline or 70%, whichever was higher. The primary outcome was 24-h postoperative nausea and vomiting. Secondary outcomes included nausea severity, quality of recovery, and 30-day morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Of the 800 randomized patients (median age, 50 yr [range, 27 to 65]), 799 were assessed for the primary outcome. The below-goal muscular tissue oxygen saturation area under the curve was significantly smaller in patients receiving muscular tissue oxygen saturation-guided care (n = 400) than in those receiving usual care (n = 399; flank, 50 vs. 140% · min, P < 0.001; forearm, 53 vs. 245% · min, P < 0.001). The incidences of 24-h postoperative nausea and vomiting were 32% (127 of 400) in the muscular tissue oxygen saturation-guided care group and 36% (142 of 399) in the usual care group, which were not significantly different (risk ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.08; P = 0.251). There were no significant between-group differences for secondary outcomes. No harm was observed throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: In a relatively young and healthy female patient population, personalized, goal-directed, muscular tissue oxygen saturation-guided intraoperative care is effective in treating decreased muscular tissue oxygen saturation but does not reduce the incidence of 24-h posthysterectomy nausea and vomiting.


Assuntos
Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/metabolismo , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia/tendências , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/diagnóstico
7.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(3): 383-392, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher intraoperative driving pressures (ΔP) are associated with increased postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC). We hypothesised that dynamic adjustment of PEEP throughout abdominal surgery reduces ΔP, maintains positive end-expiratory transpulmonary pressures (Ptp_ee) and increases respiratory system static compliance (Crs) with PEEP levels that are variable between and within patients. METHODS: In a prospective multicentre pilot study, adults at moderate/high risk for PPC undergoing elective abdominal surgery were randomised to one of three ventilation protocols: (1) PEEP≤2 cm H2O, compared with periodic recruitment manoeuvres followed by individualised PEEP to either optimise respiratory system compliance (PEEPmaxCrs) or maintain positive end-expiratory transpulmonary pressure (PEEPPtp_ee). The composite primary outcome included intraoperative ΔP, Ptp_ee, Crs, and PEEP values (median (interquartile range) and coefficients of variation [CVPEEP]). RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients (48.6% female; age range: 47-73 yr) were assigned to control (PEEP≤2 cm H2O; n=13), PEEPmaxCrs (n=16), or PEEPPtp_ee (n=8) groups. The PEEPPtp_ee intervention could not be delivered in two patients. Subjects assigned to PEEPmaxCrs had lower ΔP (median8 cm H2O [7-10]), compared with the control group (12 cm H2O [10-15]; P=0.006). PEEPmaxCrs was also associated with higher Ptp_ee (2.0 cm H2O [-0.7 to 4.5] vs controls: -8.3 cm H2O [-13.0 to -4.0]; P≤0.001) and higher Crs (47.7 ml cm H2O [43.2-68.8] vs controls: 39.0 ml cm H2O [32.9-43.4]; P=0.009). Individualised PEEP (PEEPmaxCrs and PEEPPtp_ee combined) varied widely (median: 10 cm H2O [8-15]; CVPEEP=0.24 [0.14-0.35]), both between, and within, subjects throughout surgery. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggests that individualised PEEP management strategies applied during abdominal surgery reduce driving pressure, maintain positive Ptp_ee and increase static compliance. The wide range of PEEP observed suggests that an individualised approach is required to optimise respiratory mechanics during abdominal surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02671721.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(1): 1e-10e, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to characterize the effect of laser-assisted indocyanine green fluorescence angiography on fat necrosis and flap failure in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on 1000 free flaps for breast reconstruction at a single center from 2010 to 2017. Indocyanine green angiography was used after completion of recipient-site anastomoses to subjectively assess for areas of hypoperfusion. A multivariable logistical analysis was conducted with 24 demographic and surgical factors and their effects on fat necrosis and flap failure. RESULTS: Five hundred six DIEP flaps were included in the statistical analyses. Thirteen percent of flaps had fat necrosis. Indocyanine green angiography was used for 200 flaps and was independently associated with a decrease in the odds of fat necrosis (OR, 0.38; p = 0.004). There was no reduction in flap failure rates when using indocyanine green angiography (OR, 1.15; p = 0.85). However, there was a decrease in flap loss with increasing venous coupler diameter (OR, 0.031 per 1-mm increase; p = 0.012). The 84.9-g higher weight of resected tissue before inset without indocyanine green angiography versus the weight of the tissue resected with indocyanine green angiography was statistically significant (p = 0.01). Per single incident of fat necrosis, our cohort underwent an additional 0.69 revision procedures, 1.22 imaging studies, 0.77 biopsies, and 1.7 additional oncologic office visits. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence angiography decreases the odds of fat necrosis, saves volume when flap trimming at inset, and can significantly reduce the postoperative surveillance burden in DIEP-based breast reconstruction. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.


Assuntos
Angiografia/métodos , Necrose Gordurosa/prevenção & controle , Mamoplastia/métodos , Retalho Perfurante/irrigação sanguínea , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artérias Epigástricas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina/administração & dosagem , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Lasers , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(2): 141-148, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous lidocaine has been shown to reduce opioid consumption and is associated with favourable outcomes after surgery. In this study, we explored whether intraoperative lidocaine reduces intraoperative opioid use and length of stay (LOS) and improves long-term survival after pancreatic cancer surgery. METHODS: This retrospective study included 2239 patients who underwent pancreatectomy from January 2014 to December 2017. The patients were divided into non-lidocaine and lidocaine (bolus injection of 1.5 mg kg-1 at the induction of anaesthesia followed by a continuous infusion of 2 mg kg-1 h-1 intraoperatively) groups. The overall use of postoperative rescue analgesia and LOS were recorded. Propensity score matching was used to minimise bias, and disease-free survival and overall survival were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: After propensity score matching, patient characteristics were not significantly different between groups. Intraoperative sufentanil consumption and use of postoperative rescue analgesia in the lidocaine group were significantly lower than those in the non-lidocaine group. The LOS was similar between groups. There was no significant difference in disease-free survival between groups (hazard ratio [HR]=0.913; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.821-1.612; P=0.316). The overall survival rates at 1 and 3 yr were significantly higher in the lidocaine group than in the non-lidocaine group (68.0% vs 62.6%, P<0.001; 34.1% vs 27.2%, P=0.011). The multivariable analysis indicated that intraoperative lidocaine infusion was associated with a prolonged overall survival (HR=0.616; 95% CI, 0.290-0.783; P=0.013). CONCLUSION: Intraoperative intravenous lidocaine infusion was associated with improved overall survival in patients undergoing pancreatectomy.


Assuntos
Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Pancreatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Anestésicos Locais , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(2): 137-143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499471

RESUMO

Objective: Administration of warm intravenous (IV) fluid infusion and use of forced air warmers is the most easy and physiologically viable method for maintaining normothermia during surgery and postsurgical periods This study was conducted to assess the effect of combination of active warming (AW) methods namely warm IV fluid infusion and forced air warming versus forced air warming only (WA) on maternal temperature during elective C-delivery under spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients scheduled for elective c-section were grouped into those who received both warmed IV fluid infusion and forced air warmer (Combination of active warming WI= 50) and those who received only forced air warmer (WA = 50). Core body temperature and shivering incidence were recorded using a tympanic thermometer from prespinal till the end of surgery every 10 min and in postanesthesia care unit (PACU) at 0, 15, and 30 min. Results: Core temperature showed statistically significant difference in 15, 35, 45, and 55 min between air warmer and warm infusion groups and in PACU at 0, 15, and 30 min, it was statistically significant (P = 0.000) among WI group (mean temperature = 36.79°C) when compared to WA group (mean temperature = 35.96°C). There was a lower incidence of shivering in WI compared to WA group, which is statistically significant. Conclusion: Combination of warm Intravenous fluid infusion and Forced air warming is better than forced air warming alone. In maintaining near normal maternal core body temperature during elective cesarean section following spinal anesthesia. Combined warming method also reduces shivering incidence.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Temperatura Alta/uso terapêutico , Hipotermia/prevenção & controle , Infusões Intravenosas/métodos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Cesárea/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotermia/induzido quimicamente , Hipotermia/etiologia , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Gravidez , Tremor por Sensação de Frio/efeitos dos fármacos , Tremor por Sensação de Frio/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 25(8): 1551-1561, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to provide more definitive information about the prognostic impact of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) on patients with surgically treated renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: A database of 4019 patients with clear cell RCC, all of whom underwent radical or partial nephrectomy as primary therapy as part of a multi-institutional Korean collaboration between 1988 and 2015, was analyzed retrospectively. PBT was defined as transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells during surgery or postsurgical period. Receipt of a PBT, as well as the amount and time of blood transfusion (BT), was compared. RESULTS: Overall, 335 (8.3%) patients received a PBT: 84 received postoperative BT, 202 received intraoperative BT, and 49 received both intraoperative and postoperative BT. Patients receiving a PBT had a poor preoperative immuno-nutritional status, and aggressive tumor characteristics. Multivariate analyses identified PBT as an independent predictor of recurrence-free survival and cancer-specific survival. Prognostic impact of PBT was restricted to those with locally advanced stage (pT3-4), and who underwent radical nephrectomy. Among patients who received a PBT, intraoperative (but not postoperative) BT was a prognostic factor for survival. Among patients who received intraoperative BT, those receiving three or more transfusion units had a significantly worse survival. CONCLUSION: Receipt of a PBT was an independent predictor of RFS and CSS in patients with surgically treated RCC, specifically locally advanced disease. Regarding the prognostic impact of timing or dose of PBT on survival, intraoperative BT and ≥ 3 pRBC units were associated with adverse oncological outcomes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Transfusão de Sangue , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Nefrectomia/efeitos adversos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Anesth Analg ; 131(2): 527-536, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catecholamine inotropes are frequently used after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but may have undesirable effects. The aim was to identify whether the routine use of inhaled pulmonary vasodilators might reduce the requirement for inotrope drugs after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of sequential patients undergoing cardiac surgery at the Royal Melbourne Hospital performed by a single surgeon and anesthesia care team, within 14 months before and after routine implementation of inhaled pulmonary vasodilators, August 2017. Milrinone 4 mg and iloprost 20 µg were inhaled using a vibrating mesh nebulizer (Aerogen) before initiation of CPB and at chest closure. Other aspects of clinical management were unaltered over the time period. Two investigators blinded to each other extracted data from electronic and written medical records. The primary outcome was any use of inotropes in the perioperative period; a Fisher exact test was used to analyze any differences between the 2 groups. Demographic data, hemodynamic data, and use of inotropes and vasopressors were collected from induction of anesthesia to 36 hours postoperative in the intensive care unit (ICU). Hospital and ICU length of stay, cost, and complications were collected. RESULTS: Any use of inotropes was significantly lower with inhaled pulmonary dilators (62.5% vs 86.8%, odds ratio [95% confidence interval {CI}], 0.253 (0.083-0.764); P = .011), including intraoperative inotrope use (37.5% vs 86.8%, odds ratio [95% CI], 0.091 (0.03-0.275); P < .001). ICU length of stay was significantly lower with inhaled pulmonary dilators (45 hours, interquartile range [IQR], 27-65 vs 50 hours, IQR, 45-74; P = .026). There were no significant differences among major postoperative complications or costs between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Routine use of inhaled milrinone 4 mg and iloprost 20 µg before and after CPB is associated with reduced postoperative inotrope use.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Iloprosta/administração & dosagem , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Milrinona/administração & dosagem , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 21(4): 301-308, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-88662

RESUMO

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated viral infection (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) is a virulent, contagious viral pandemic that is affecting populations worldwide. As with any airborne viral respiratory infection, surgical and non-surgical patients may be affected. Methods: Review and synthesis of pertinent English-language literature pertaining to COVID-19 infection among adult patients. Results: COVID-19 disease that requires hospitalization results in critical illness approximately 25% of the time and requires mechanical ventilation with positive airway pressure. Acute kidney injury, a marked hypercoagulable state, and sometimes myocarditis can be features of COVID-19 in addition to the characteristic severe acute lung injury. Even if not among the most seriously afflicted, older patients with medical comorbidities are both predisposed to infection and risk increased morbidity and mortality, however, all persons presenting for surgical intervention should be suspected of infection (and thus transmissibility) even if asymptomatic. Although most elective surgery has been curtailed by administrative or governmental fiat, patients will still need urgent or emergency operative intervention for time-sensitive disease processes such as malignant neoplasia or for true emergencies such as perforated viscus or traumatic injury. It is possible to provide safe surgical care for SARS-CoV-2-positive patients and minimize nosocomial transmission to healthcare workers. Conclusions: This guidance will facilitate appropriate protection of patients and staff, and maintenance of infection control measures to assist surgical personnel and facilities to prepare for COVID-19-infected adult patients requiring urgent or emergent operative intervention and to provide optimal patient care.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Controle de Infecções/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Adulto , Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/normas , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos
20.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(2): 128-134, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224107

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Shielding disks play an important role in intraoperative electron radiation therapy, and different designs are currently used in clinical practice. This paper investigates the dosimetric impact of the shielding disk used during intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper focuses on the study of four shielding disks types that have been used in our clinic: Aluminum (Al)/Lead (Pb), PMMA/Copper(Cu)/PMMA, Aluminum (Al)/Copper (Cu) and Aluminum (Al)/Steel with their specific thicknesses. The theoretical study was conducted with the EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) code. On the other hand, the measurements were carried out with gafchromic films for the four shielding disks for the same setup inside the water phantom. Finally, a comparison of the simulated and measured PDD curves was performed for the four material combinations. RESULTS: MC simulation and gafchromic measurements illustrated that dose values under the four shielding disks types were close to 0, whereas the backscattering enhancement of the disks were 103% with Al/Pb shielding disk, 102% with Al/Steel shielding disk, 102% with Al/Cu shielding disk, 95% with PMMA/Cu/PMMA shielding disk. The PDDs values of the gafchromic films in front of the disks were: 107%, 105%, 104%, and 94% for the Al/Pb, Al/Steel, Al/Cu, and PMMA/Cu/PMMA disks respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The dose values above and under the shielding disks were acceptable for the four studied shielding types. Demonstrated it is possible to use any of them clinically, while the best shielding disk was the Al/Pb since it has minimum thickness and a small backscatter enhancement.


Assuntos
Elétrons/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/instrumentação , Método de Monte Carlo , Órgãos em Risco , Proteção Radiológica/instrumentação , Ligas , Alumínio , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Cobre , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Coração , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Pulmão , Aceleradores de Partículas , Imagens de Fantasmas , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Costelas , Espalhamento de Radiação , Aço
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