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1.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E393-E394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009900

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The impact of waiting for surgery on the mental health of patients usually receives little attention. Because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the waits for elective surgery have been lengthening, potentially inducing or exacerbating mental health burdens. Provinces' health systems need to provide better support to assess not only patients' physical health, but also their mental health, and provide them with timely access to care based on need. A stepped care approach is needed to mitigate negative mental health effects associated with prolonged waits for elective operations. To provide the best care possible, we need to recognize and address both the physical and mental health problems of our waiting patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/psicologia , Controle de Infecções/normas , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Listas de Espera
2.
Aust Health Rev ; 44(5): 723-727, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962798

RESUMO

Objective This study analysed screening for COVID-19 before surgery and outcomes of any perioperative testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection during pandemic-restricted surgery. Methods An audit was conducted with routinely collected health data before both elective and non-elective surgery at two large Melbourne hospitals during April and early May 2020. We looked for documented systematic screening for COVID-19 disease and fever (>38°C) and results of SARS-COV-2 testing, and proposed a minimum acceptable documenting rate of 85%. Results The study included 2197 consecutive patients (1279 (58%) undergoing elective surgery, 917 (42%) undergoing non-elective surgery) across most specialities. Although 926 (72%) patients undergoing elective surgery had both systematic screening and temperature documented, approximately half that percentage undergoing non-elective surgery (n=347; 38%) had both documented. However, 871 (95%) of non-elective surgery patients had temperature documented. Acknowledging limited screening, 85 (9.3%) non-elective surgery patients had positive screening, compared with 39 (3.0%) elective surgery patients. All 152 (7%) patients who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 were negative, and no cases were reported from external contact tracing. Conclusions Although 'not documented' does not necessarily equal 'not done', we found that documenting of COVID-19 screening could be improved. Better understanding of implementing screening practices in pandemics and other crises, particularly for non-elective surgery patients, is warranted. What is known about the topic? Little is known about routine screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection among surgical patients. However, it is well established that implementing effective uptake of safety and quality initiatives can be difficult. What does this paper add? We found that although most patients had documented temperature, fewer than 75% had a documented systematic questionnaire screen for COVID, particularly patients undergoing non-elective surgery. What are the implications for practitioners? Clear documenting is important in managing patients. Pandemics and other crises can require rapid changes in practice. Implementing such measures may be less complete than anticipated and may require greater use of evidence-based implementation strategies, particularly in the less predictable care of non-elective surgery patients.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013407, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower limb peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a type of cardiovascular disease where the blood vessels that carry the blood to the legs are hardened and narrowed. The most severe manifestation of PAD is critical limb ischaemia (CLI). This condition results in symptoms of intractable rest pain, non-healing wounds and ulceration, gangrene or both. PAD affects more than 200 million people worldwide and approximately 3% to 5% of people aged over 40 have PAD, rising to 18% in people over 70 years of age. Between 5% to 10% of symptomatic PAD patients will progress to CLI over a five-year period and the five year cumulative incidence rate for asymptomatic patients with PAD deteriorating to intermittent claudication is 7%, with 21% of these progressing to CLI. Treatment options include angioplasty, bypass or amputation of the limb, when life or limb is threatened. People with CLI have a high risk of mortality and morbidity. The mortality rates during a surgical admission are approximately 5%. Within one year of surgery, the mortality rate rises to 22%. Postoperative complications are as high as 30% and readmission rates vary between 7% to 18% in people with CLI. Despite recent advances in surgical technology, anaesthesia and perioperative care, a proportion of surgical patients have a suboptimal recovery. Presurgery conditioning (prehabilitation) is a multimodal conditioning intervention carried out prior to surgery using a combination of exercise, with or without nutritional or psychological interventions, or both. The use of prehabilitation is gaining momentum, particularly in elderly patients undergoing surgery and patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery, as a means of optimising fitness to improve the prognosis for people undergoing the physiological stress of surgery. People with PAD are characterised by poor mobility and physical function and have a lower level of fitness as a result of disease progression. Therefore, prehabilitation may be an opportunity to improve their recovery following surgery. However, as multimodal prehabilitation requires considerable resources, it is important to assess whether it is superior to usual care. This review aimed to compare prehabilitation with usual care (defined as a preoperative assessment, including blood and urine tests). The key outcomes were postoperative complications, mortality and readmissions within 30 days of the surgical procedure, and one-year survival rates. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of prehabilitation (preoperative exercise, either alone or in combination with nutritional or psychological interventions, or both) on postoperative outcomes in adults with PAD undergoing open lower limb surgery. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials register to 25 September 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing presurgery interventions and usual care. Primary outcomes were postoperative complications, mortality and readmission to hospital within 30 days of the surgical procedure. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently reviewed all records identified by the searches conducted by the Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist. We planned to undertake data collection and analysis in accordance with recommendations described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. MAIN RESULTS: We found no RCTs that met the inclusion criteria for this review. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no RCTs conducted to determine the effects of prehabilitation on mortality or other postoperative outcomes when compared to usual care for patients with PAD. As a consequence, we were unable to provide any evidence to guide the treatment of patients with PAD undergoing surgery. To perform a randomised controlled trial of presurgery conditioning would be challenging but trials are warranted to provide solid evidence on this topic.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Humanos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e21780, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current demographics lead increasing older cancer patients to undergo complex medico-surgical procedures, with substantial risk of decompensations and deconditioning. The Prehabilitation & Rehabilitation in Oncology: Adaptation to Disease and Accompaniment of Patients' Trajectories (PROADAPT) project is currently being developed with the aim of improving care, through standardized care pathways guided by existing evidence and implementation programs. A working group will specifically focus on improvement of physical performances before such procedures. These interventions may have been developed in different contexts: before surgery in large, before carcinologic surgery or complex medical interventions (chemotherapy, radiotherapy), or in primary care for elderly patients to prevent sarcopenia and frailty. Post-surgical interventions are out of the scope of this review. The objective of this review is to summarize the level of evidence to support physical reconditioning interventions and identify areas where further work is required. METHODS: This umbrella review will include moderate to high quality systematic reviews, meta-analysis, and pre-existing umbrella or meta-reviews. Two reviewers will independently search the following databases: PubMed/MedLine, Cochrane Library, Embase, and CINAHL. Research strategy will use diverse keywords used to refer to the concepts of "prehabilitation," "preoperative exercise," or "preoperative rehabilitation," with prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria and only systematic reviews selection. The distinct types of interventions presented using PRISMA guidelines and a narrative reporting of results. A focus will be made on outcomes such as physical performances, quality of life, autonomy in everyday activities, or number of hospital bed days. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for such an umbrella review. Our review will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed international journal using open access option if available. It will be complementary to reviews focused on hospital discharge of older people. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020100110.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/terapia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Idoso , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Oncologia/métodos , Metanálise como Assunto , Período Pré-Operatório , Qualidade de Vida , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
7.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(3): 486-497, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the commonly used fat grafting techniques-Telfa rolling and a closed washing system-in breast reconstruction patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing fat grafting were retrospectively reviewed and grouped by technique. Patients with less than 180 days of follow-up were excluded. Demographics, operative details, and complications were compared using univariate analysis with significance set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Between January of 2013 and September of 2017, 186 women underwent a total of 319 fat grafting procedures. There was no difference in demographics, number of procedures performed, volume of fat grafted, and number of days after reconstruction that fat grafting was performed between groups (p > 0.05). Telfa rolling patients had longer operative times for second fat grafting procedures (implant exchange often completed prior) [100.0 minutes (range, 60.0 to 150.0 minutes) versus 79.0 minutes (range, 64.0 to 94.0 minutes); p = 0.03]. Telfa rolling breasts had more palpable masses requiring imaging (26.0 percent versus 14.4 percent; p = 0.01) and an increased incidence of fat necrosis (20.6 percent versus 8.0 percent; p < 0.01). The closed washing system was found to be an independent predictor of decreased rates of imaging-confirmed fat necrosis (OR, 0.29; p = 0.048). There was no difference in fat necrosis excision or cancer recurrence between the groups. CONCLUSION: The closed washing system was independently associated with decreased rates of imaging-confirmed fat necrosis compared to Telfa rolling without an increase in other complications. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/transplante , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mamoplastia/métodos , Mastectomia/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/instrumentação , Adulto , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo
9.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(8): 1010-1015, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731826

RESUMO

AIMS: Responsiveness and ceiling effects are key properties of an outcome score. No such data have been reported for the original English version of the International Hip Outcome Tool 12 (iHOT-12) at a follow-up of more than four months. The aim of this study was to identify the responsiveness and ceiling effects of the English version iHOT-12 in a series of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for intra-articular hip pathology at a minimum of one year postoperatively. METHODS: A total of 171 consecutive patients undergoing hip arthroscopy with a diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) under the care of a single surgeon between January 2013 and March 2017 were included. iHOT-12 and EuroQol 5D-5L (EQ-5D-5L) scores were available pre- and postoperatively. Effect size and ceiling effects for the iHOT-12 were calculated with subgroup analysis. RESULTS: A total of 122 patients (71.3%) completed postoperative PROMs scores with median follow-up of 24.3 months (interquartile range (IQR) 17.2 to 33.5). The median total cohort iHOT-12 score improved significantly from 31.0 (IQR 20 to 58) preoperatively to 72.5 (IQR 47 to 90) postoperatively (p < 0.001). The effect size (Cohen's d) was 1.59. In all, 33 patients (27%) scored within ten points (10%) of the maximum score and 38 patients (31.1%) scored within the previously reported minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of the maximum score. Furthermore, nine (47%) male patients aged < 30 years scored within 10% of the maximum score and ten (53%) scored within the previously reported MCID of the maximum score. CONCLUSION: There is a previously unreported ceiling effect of the iHOT-12 at a minimum one-year follow-up which is particularly marked in young, male patients following hip arthroscopy for FAI. This tool may not have the maximum measurement required to capture the true outcome following this procedure. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(8):1010-1015.


Assuntos
Artroscopia/métodos , Impacto Femoroacetabular/diagnóstico , Medição da Dor , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Impacto Femoroacetabular/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diferença Mínima Clinicamente Importante , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Pesos e Medidas
10.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(8): 1062-1071, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731831

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the effectiveness of prone traction radiographs in predicting postoperative slip distance, slip angle, changes in disc height, and lordosis after surgery for degenerative spondylolisthesis of the lumbar spine. METHODS: A total of 63 consecutive patients with a degenerative spondylolisthesis and preoperative prone traction radiographs obtained since 2010 were studied. Slip distance, slip angle, disc height, segmental lordosis, and global lordosis (L1 to S1) were measured on preoperative lateral standing radiographs, flexion-extension lateral radiographs, prone traction lateral radiographs, and postoperative lateral standing radiographs. Patients were divided into two groups: posterolateral fusion or posterolateral fusion with interbody fusion. RESULTS: The mean changes in segmental lordosis and global lordosis were 7.1° (SD 6.7°) and 2.9° (SD 9.9°) respectively for the interbody fusion group, and 0.8° (SD 5.1°) and -0.4° (SD 10.1°) respectively for the posterolateral fusion-only group. Segmental lordosis (ρ = 0.794, p < 0.001) corrected by interbody fusion correlated best with prone traction radiographs. Global lumbar lordosis (ρ = 0.788, p < 0.001) correlated best with the interbody fusion group and preoperative lateral standing radiographs. The least difference in slip distance (-0.3 mm (SD 1.7 mm), p < 0.001), slip angle (0.9° (SD 5.2°), p < 0.001), and disc height (0.02 mm (SD 2.4 mm), p < 0.001) was seen between prone traction and postoperative radiographs. Regression analyses suggested that prone traction parameters best predicted correction of slip distance (Corrected Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc) = 37.336) and disc height (AICc = 58.096), while correction of slip angle (AICc = 26.453) was best predicted by extension radiographs. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) cut-off showed, with 68.3% sensitivity and 64.5% specificity, that to achieve a 3.0° increase in segmental lordotic angle, patients with a prone traction disc height of 8.5 mm needed an interbody fusion. CONCLUSION: Prone traction radiographs best predict the slip distance and disc height correction achieved by interbody fusion for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. To achieve this maximum correction, interbody fusion should be undertaken if a disc height of more than 8.5 mm is attained on preoperative prone traction radiographs. Level of Evidence: Level II Prognostic Study Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(8):1062-1071.


Assuntos
Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Espondilolistese/diagnóstico por imagem , Espondilolistese/terapia , Tração/métodos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Posicionamento do Paciente , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Decúbito Ventral , Curva ROC , Radiografia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Am Surg ; 86(8): 976-980, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of mortality following orthotopic liver transplant, yet there is no standardized protocol for pre-liver-transplant coronary artery disease assessment. The main objective of this study was to determine the agreement between 2 methods of cardiac risk assessment: dobutamine stress echocardiogram (DSE) and coronary calcium score (CCS) and to determine which test was best able to predict coronary calcification in low-risk patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed using the medical records of 436 patients who received cardiac clearance for a liver transplant. A total of 152 patients' medical records were included based on the inclusion of patients who had received both DSE and CCS. A kappa coefficient was calculated to determine the agreement between the DSE and CCS results. In addition, the positive predictive values (PPVs) of both the CCS and DSE along with cardiac catheterization indicating abdominal occlusion were analyzed to compare the accuracy of the 2 tests. RESULTS: It was determined that there was a 12% agreement between DSE results and CCS. It was found that the DSE had a PPV of 56% and the CCS had a PPV of 80%. CONCLUSION: From this data, it was concluded that there was no agreement between the results of the CCS and the DSE. While neither the CCS nor the DSE presents an optimal method of risk assessment, the CCS had a much higher PPV and was therefore determined to be the more accurate test.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Transplante de Fígado , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012451, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery suffer from preoperative anaemia. Preoperative anaemia is a risk factor for mortality and adverse outcomes in different surgical specialties and is frequently the reason for blood transfusion. The most common causes are renal, chronic diseases, and iron deficiency. International guidelines recommend that the cause of anaemia guide preoperative anaemia treatment. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) with iron supplementation has frequently been used to increase preoperative haemoglobin concentrations in patients in order to avoid the need for perioperative allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of preoperative rHuEPO therapy (subcutaneous or parenteral) with iron (enteral or parenteral) in reducing the need for allogeneic RBC transfusions in preoperatively anaemic adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid Embase, ISI Web of Science: SCI-EXPANDED and CPCI-S, and clinical trial registries WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov on 29 August 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared preoperative rHuEPO + iron therapy to control treatment (placebo, no treatment, or standard of care with or without iron) for preoperatively anaemic adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. We used the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of anaemia: haemoglobin concentration (g/dL) less than 13 g/dL for males, and 12 g/dL for non-pregnant females (decision of inclusion based on mean haemoglobin concentration). We defined two subgroups of rHuEPO dosage: 'low' for 150 to 300 international units (IU)/kg body weight, and 'high' for 500 to 600 IU/kg body weight. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors collected data from the included studies. Our primary outcome was the need for RBC transfusion (no autologous transfusion, fresh frozen plasma or platelets), measured in transfused participants during surgery (intraoperative) and up to five days after surgery. Secondary outcomes of interest were: haemoglobin concentration (directly before surgery), number of RBC units (where one unit contains 250 to 450 mL) transfused per participant (intraoperative and up to five days after surgery), mortality (within 30 days after surgery), length of hospital stay, and adverse events (e.g. renal dysfunction, thromboembolism, hypertension, allergic reaction, headache, fever, constipation). MAIN RESULTS: Most of the included trials were in orthopaedic, gastrointestinal, and gynaecological surgery and included participants with mild and moderate preoperative anaemia (haemoglobin from 10 to 12 g/dL). The duration of preoperative rHuEPO treatment varied across the trials, ranging from once a week to daily or a 5-to-10-day period, and in one trial preoperative rHuEPO was given on the morning of surgery and for five days postoperatively. We included 12 trials (participants = 1880) in the quantitative analysis of the need for RBC transfusion following preoperative treatment with rHuEPO + iron to correct preoperative anaemia in non-cardiac surgery; two studies were multiarmed trials with two different dose regimens. Preoperative rHuEPO + iron given to anaemic adults reduced the need RBC transfusion (risk ratio (RR) 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 0.80; participants = 1880; studies = 12; I2 = 84%; moderate-quality evidence due to inconsistency). This analysis suggests that on average, the combined administration of rHuEPO + iron will mean 231 fewer individuals will need transfusion for every 1000 individuals compared to the control group. Preoperative high-dose rHuEPO + iron given to anaemic adults increased the haemoglobin concentration (mean difference (MD) 1.87 g/dL, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.49; participants = 852; studies = 3; I2 = 89%; low-quality evidence due to inconsistency and risk of bias) but not low-dose rHuEPO + iron (MD 0.11 g/dL, 95% CI -0.46 to 0.69; participants = 334; studies = 4; I2 = 69%; low-quality evidence due to inconsistency and risk of bias). There was probably little or no difference in the number of RBC units when rHuEPO + iron was given preoperatively (MD -0.09, 95% CI -0.23 to 0.05; participants = 1420; studies = 6; I2 = 2%; moderate-quality evidence due to imprecision).  There was probably little or no difference in the risk of mortality within 30 days of surgery (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.39 to 3.63; participants = 230; studies = 2; I2 = 0%; moderate-quality evidence due to imprecision) or of adverse events including local rash, fever, constipation, or transient hypertension (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.28; participants = 1722; studies = 10; I2 = 0%; moderate-quality evidence due to imprecision). The administration of rHuEPO + iron before non-cardiac surgery did not clearly reduce the length of hospital stay of preoperative anaemic adults (MD -1.07, 95% CI -4.12 to 1.98; participants = 293; studies = 3; I2 = 87%; low-quality evidence due to inconsistency and imprecision). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-quality evidence suggests that preoperative rHuEPO + iron therapy for anaemic adults prior to non-cardiac surgery reduces the need for RBC transfusion and, when given at higher doses, increases the haemoglobin concentration preoperatively. The administration of rHuEPO + iron treatment did not decrease the mean number of units of RBC transfused per patient. There were no important differences in the risk of adverse events or mortality within 30 days, nor in length of hospital stay. Further, well-designed, adequately powered RCTs are required to estimate the impact of this combined treatment more precisely.


Assuntos
Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Eritropoetina/uso terapêutico , Ferro/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Adulto , Anemia/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia , Hemoglobina A/metabolismo , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade
13.
Am Surg ; 86(8): 1022-1025, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809851

RESUMO

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains one of the most common surgical operations. Common bile duct stones (CBDS) are estimated to be present in 10%-20% of individuals with symptomatic gallstones. Preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) remain the most common methods of evaluation, with subsequent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for stone extraction if positive for CBDS. We examined our experience with preoperative MRCP versus IOC for the management of the jaundiced patient with cholelithiasis. This is a retrospective single-institution study that examined all laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed over a 15-month period between 2017 and 2018. Outpatient elective cases were excluded from the analysis. Charts were reviewed for demographics, operative details, and whether an MRCP, IOC, or ERCP was performed. Data were evaluated using a 2-sample t-test. A total of 460 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy over a 15-month period. Of those, 147 underwent either an MRCP or an IOC for clinical suspicion for CBDS. ERCP after MRCP was nontherapeutic in 11/32 (34%) compared with 2/12 (17%) of patients following IOC. The sensitivity and specificity of MRCP were 91% and 80%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 66% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The sensitivity and specificity of IOC were 83% and 97%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 83% and a negative predictive value of 97%. MRCP and IOC have unique advantages and disadvantages. MRCP has greater sensitivity, but poor specificity, resulting in unnecessary ERCPs with associated morbidity and increased costs to the patient.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Colangiopancreatografia por Ressonância Magnética , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Cálculos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagem , Icterícia Obstrutiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Desnecessários/estatística & dados numéricos , Colangiografia/métodos , Cálculos Biliares/complicações , Cálculos Biliares/cirurgia , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Icterícia Obstrutiva/etiologia , Icterícia Obstrutiva/cirurgia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21252, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664180

RESUMO

Laparoscopic surgery performed through a single incision is relatively new. Here, we investigated the importance of radiological anatomical evaluation of the umbilicus prior to such surgery.Umbilical images of 500 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) in 2019 were evaluated retrospectively, using both transverse and sagittal sections.Spearman rank correlation analysis indicated a significant positive relationship between age and the sagittal and transverse umbilical measurements (all patients: P < .01; men: P = .001; women: P < .01). Mean transverse and sagittal measurements were 5.63 ±â€Š1.9 and 6.2 ±â€Š2.0 mm in women and 5.49 ±â€Š1.9 and 6.2 ±â€Š1.8 mm in men.Umbilical anatomy can be evaluated radiologically as a component of preoperative evaluation.


Assuntos
Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Laparoscopia/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Umbigo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Umbigo/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
JAMA ; 324(3): 279-290, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692391

RESUMO

Importance: Perioperative cardiovascular complications occur in 3% of hospitalizations for noncardiac surgery in the US. This review summarizes evidence regarding cardiovascular risk assessment prior to noncardiac surgery. Observations: Preoperative cardiovascular risk assessment requires a focused history and physical examination to identify signs and symptoms of ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and severe valvular disease. Risk calculators, such as the Revised Cardiac Risk Index, identify individuals with low risk (<1%) and higher risk (≥1%) for perioperative major adverse cardiovascular events during the surgical hospital admission or within 30 days of surgery. Cardiovascular testing is rarely indicated in patients at low risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. Stress testing may be considered in patients at higher risk (determined by the inability to climb ≥2 flights of stairs, which is <4 metabolic equivalent tasks) if the results from the testing would change the perioperative medical, anesthesia, or surgical approaches. Routine coronary revascularization does not reduce perioperative risk and should not be performed without specific indications independent of planned surgery. Routine perioperative use of low-dose aspirin (100 mg/d) does not decrease cardiovascular events but does increase surgical bleeding. Statins are associated with fewer postoperative cardiovascular complications and lower mortality (1.8% vs 2.3% without statin use; P < .001) in observational studies, and should be considered preoperatively in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease undergoing vascular surgery. High-dose ß-blockers (eg, 100 mg of metoprolol succinate) administered 2 to 4 hours prior to surgery are associated with a higher risk of stroke (1.0% vs 0.5% without ß-blocker use; P = .005) and mortality (3.1% vs 2.3% without ß-blocker use; P = .03) and should not be routinely used. There is a greater risk of perioperative myocardial infarction and major adverse cardiovascular events in adults aged 75 years or older (9.5% vs 4.8% for younger adults; P < .001) and in patients with coronary stents (8.9% vs 1.5% for those without stents; P < .001) and these patients warrant careful preoperative consideration. Conclusions and Relevance: Comprehensive history, physical examination, and assessment of functional capacity during daily life should be performed prior to noncardiac surgery to assess cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular testing is rarely indicated in patients with a low risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, but may be useful in patients with poor functional capacity (<4 metabolic equivalent tasks) undergoing high-risk surgery if test results would change therapy independent of the planned surgery. Perioperative medical therapy should be prescribed based on patient-specific risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Revascularização Miocárdica , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Stents/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(2): 345-351, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711839

RESUMO

Limiting the spread of the disease is key to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. This includes identifying people who have been exposed to COVID-19, minimizing patient contact, and enforcing strict hygiene measures. To prevent healthcare systems from becoming overburdened, elective and non-urgent medical procedures and treatments have been postponed, and primary health care has broadened to include virtual appointments via telemedicine. Although telemedicine precludes the physical examination of a patient, it allows collection of a range of information prior to a patient's admission, and may therefore be used in preoperative assessment. This new tool can be used to evaluate the severity and progression of the main disease, other comorbidities, and the urgency of the surgical treatment as well as preferencing anesthetic procedures. It can also be used for effective screening and triaging of patients with suspected or established COVID-19, thereby protecting other patients, clinicians and communities alike.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Anestesia , Humanos
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