Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 181
Filtrar
1.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 37(1): 19-26, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) Paradigm is an effective advance care planning tool. However, barriers to implementation persist. In the United States, POLST program development occurs at the state-level. Substantial differences between states has left POLST implementation largely unstandardized. No peer-reviewed studies to date have evaluated state-based POLST program development over time. OBJECTIVE: To assess and learn from the successes and barriers in state-based POLST program development over time to improve the reach of POLST or similar programs across the United States. DESIGN: An exploratory, prospective cohort study that utilized semistructured telephone interviews was conducted over a 3-year period (2012-2015). Stakeholder representatives from state POLST coalitions (n = 14) were repeatedly queried on time-relevant successes, barriers, and innovations during POLST program development with levels of legislative and medical barriers rated 1 to 10. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using techniques grounded in qualitative theory. RESULTS: All coalition representatives reported continuous POLST expansion with improved outreach and community partnerships. Significant barriers to expansion included difficulty in securing funding for training and infrastructure, lack of statewide metric systems to adequately assess expansion, lack of provider support, and legislative concerns. Medical barriers (mean [standard deviation]: 5.0 [0.2]) were rated higher than legislative (3.0 [0.6]; P < .001). CONCLUSION: POLST programs continue to grow, but not without barriers. Based on the experiences of developing coalitions, we were able to identify strategies to expand POLST programs and overcome barriers. Ultimately the "lessons learned" in this study can serve as a guide to improve the reach of POLST or similar programs.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados/organização & administração , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/organização & administração , Assistência Terminal/organização & administração , Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados/economia , Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados/legislação & jurisprudência , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço/organização & administração , Entrevistas como Assunto , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/economia , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Assistência Terminal/normas , Estados Unidos
2.
Pediatr Neurol ; 91: 20-26, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559002

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We describe the frequency and timing of withdrawal of life-support (WLS) in moderate or severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and examine its associations with medical and sociodemographic factors. PROCEDURES: We undertook a secondary data analysis of a prospective multicenter data registry of regional level IV Neonatal Intensive Care Units participating in the Children's Hospitals Neonatal Database. Infants ≥36 weeks gestational age with HIE admitted to a Children's Hospitals Neonatal Database Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between 2010 and 2016, who underwent therapeutic hypothermia were categorized as (1) infants who died following WLST and (2) survivors with severe HIE (requiring tube feedings at discharge). RESULTS: Death occurred in 267/1,925 (14%) infants with HIE, 87.6% following WLS. Compared to infants with WLS (n = 234), the survived severe group (n = 74) had more public insurance (73% vs 39.3%, P = 0.00001), lower household income ($37,020 vs $41,733, P = 0.006) and fewer [20.3% vs 35.0%, P = 0.0212] were from the South. Among infants with WLS, electroencephalogram was performed within 24 hours in 75% and was severely abnormal in 64% cases; corresponding rates for MRI were 43% and 17%, respectively. Private insurance was independently associated with WLS, after adjustment for HIE severity and center. CONCLUSIONS: In a multicenter cohort of infants with HIE, WLS occurred frequently and was associated with sociodemographic factors. The rationale for decision-making for WLS in HIE require further exploration.


Assuntos
Hipotermia Induzida/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/estatística & dados numéricos , Suspensão de Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida/economia , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/economia , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/economia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/economia , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/economia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Suspensão de Tratamento/economia
4.
Pediatrics ; 142(5)2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279236

RESUMO

Many foreign parents bring their children to the United States for medical treatments that are unavailable in their own country. Often, however, parents cannot afford expensive treatments. Doctors and hospitals then face a dilemma. Is it ethically permissible to consider the patient's citizenship and ability to pay? In this Ethics Rounds, we present a case in which a child from another country needs an expensive treatment. His parents cannot afford the treatment. He has come to a public hospital in the United States. We present responses from experts in pediatrics, bioethics, and health policy.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/ética , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/ética , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/ética , Criança , Dissidências e Disputas , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Ética Médica , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/economia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/ética , Humanos , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/economia , Masculino , Pais , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Estados Unidos
6.
Recenti Prog Med ; 108(9): 350-354, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28901341

RESUMO

The story of Charlie Gard, an 11-month-old boy suffering from a rare inherited mitochondrial disease called 'infantile encephalomyopathic mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome' and kept alive thanks to life supports, rises some issues regarding the provision of healthcare. Is there a right of an individual person to buy any healthcare benefits only because he has enough money to do so? If the answer is 'yes', in light of the distributive justice principle how do governments balance this right with the obligation to regulate health care systems ensuring that all treatments are useful and affordable for everybody? Many considerations of the best interest of patients can be found in this debate, but we cannot ignore neither the value of the scientific method as the cornerstone of the medical profession nor a commitment to support the moral integrity of clinical practice by refusing to provide treatments that do not meet a reasonable threshold of scientific justification evidence-based.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/métodos , Direitos do Paciente , Justiça Social , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/economia , Masculino , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/economia , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/terapia , Recusa do Médico a Tratar
7.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 64(9): 1789-97, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27588580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine to what extent demographic, social support, socioeconomic, geographic, medical, and End-of-Life (EOL) planning factors explain racial and ethnic variation in Medicare spending during the last 6 months of life. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Health and Retirement Study (HRS). PARTICIPANTS: Decedents who participated in HRS between 1998 and 2012 and previously consented to survey linkage with Medicare claims (N = 7,105). MEASUREMENTS: Total Medicare expenditures in the last 180 days of life according to race and ethnicity, controlling for demographic factors, social supports, geography, illness burden, and EOL planning factors, including presence of advance directives, discussion of EOL treatment preferences, and whether death had been expected. RESULTS: The analysis included 5,548 (78.1%) non-Hispanic white, 1,030 (14.5%) non-Hispanic black, and 331 (4.7%) Hispanic adults and 196 (2.8%) adults of other race or ethnicity. Unadjusted results suggest that average EOL Medicare expenditures were $13,522 (35%, P < .001) more for black decedents and $16,341 (42%, P < .001) more for Hispanics than for whites. Controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, geographic, medical, and EOL-specific factors, the Medicare expenditure difference between groups fell to $8,047 (22%, P < .001) more for black and $6,855 (19%, P < .001) more for Hispanic decedents than expenditures for non-Hispanic whites. The expenditure differences between groups remained statistically significant in all models. CONCLUSION: Individuals-level factors, including EOL planning factors do not fully explain racial and ethnic differences in Medicare spending in the last 6 months of life. Future research should focus on broader systemic, organizational, and provider-level factors to explain these differences.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/economia , Assistência Terminal/economia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Comparação Transcultural , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/economia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Métodos de Controle de Pagamentos , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
9.
Crit Care Clin ; 32(1): 137-43, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26600450

RESUMO

Ethical issues that arise in the care of pregnant women are challenging to physicians, especially in critical care situations. By familiarizing themselves with the concepts of medical ethics in obstetrics, physicians will become more capable of approaching complex ethical situations with a clear and structured framework. This review discusses ethical approaches regarding 3 specific scenarios: (1) the life of the fetus versus the life of the mother and situations of questionable maternal decision making; (2) withdrawal of care in a brain-dead pregnant patient; and (3) domestic violence and the pregnant patient.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/ética , Feto , Relações Materno-Fetais , Obstetrícia/ética , Morte Encefálica , Parto Obstétrico/economia , Parto Obstétrico/ética , Violência Doméstica/ética , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/economia , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/ética , Estado Vegetativo Persistente/economia , Gravidez , Relações Profissional-Família/ética , Valor da Vida , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética
10.
Med Law Rev ; 23(4): 556-87, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26152652

RESUMO

In this article, we reassess the court's role in the withdrawal of clinically assisted nutrition and hydration from patients in the permanent vegetative state (PVS), focussing on cases where health-care teams and families agree that such is in the patient's best interest. As well as including a doctrinal analysis, the reassessment draws on empirical data from the families of patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness, on economic data about the costs of the declaratory relief process to the National Health Service (NHS), and on comparative legal data about the comparable procedural requirements in other jurisdictions. We show that, following the decision in the Bland case, the role of the Court of Protection is now restricted to the direct supervision of the PVS diagnosis as a matter of proof. We argue that this is an inappropriate role for the court, and one that sits in some tension with the best interests of patients. The blanket requirement of declaratory relief for all cases is economically expensive for the NHS and thus deprives other NHS patients from health care. We demonstrate that many of the ancillary benefits currently offered by declaratory relief could be achieved by other means. Ultimately, we suggest that reform to the declaratory relief requirement is called for.


Assuntos
Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/legislação & jurisprudência , Estado Vegetativo Persistente , Medicina Estatal/legislação & jurisprudência , Suspensão de Tratamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Causas de Morte , Custos e Análise de Custo , Comparação Transcultural , Inglaterra , Humanos , Responsabilidade Legal , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/economia , Estado Vegetativo Persistente/diagnóstico , Estado Vegetativo Persistente/economia , Médicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina Estatal/economia , País de Gales
11.
Injury ; 46(9): 1706-11, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25799473

RESUMO

Outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the elderly has not been fully elucidated. The present retrospective observational study investigates the age-dependent outcome of patients suffering from severe isolated TBI with regard to operative and non-operative treatment. Data were prospectively collected in the TraumaRegister DGU. Anonymous datasets of 8629 patients with isolated severe blunt TBI (AISHead≥3, AISBody≤1) documented from 2002 to 2011 were analysed. Patients were grouped according to age: 1-17, 18-59, 60-69, 70-79 and ≥80 years. Cranial fractures (44.8%) and subdural haematomas (42.6%) were the most common TBIs. Independent from the type of TBI the group of patients with operative treatment declined with rising age. Subgroup analysis of patients with critical TBI (AISHead=5) revealed standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) of 0.81 (95% CI 0.75-0.87) in case of operative treatment (n=1201) and 1.13 (95% CI 1.09-1.18) in case of non-operative treatment (n=1096). All age groups ≥60 years showed significantly reduced SMRs in case of operative treatment. Across all age groups the group of patients with low/moderate disability according to the GOS (4 or 5 points) was higher in case of operative treatment. Results of this retrospective observational study have to be interpreted cautiously. However, good outcome after TBI with severe space-occupying haemorrhage is more frequent in patients with operative treatment across all age groups. Age alone should not be the reason for limited care or denial of operative intervention.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/cirurgia , Hematoma Subdural/cirurgia , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas/mortalidade , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Escala de Resultado de Glasgow , Hematoma Subdural/etiologia , Hematoma Subdural/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/economia , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/mortalidade
12.
Monash Bioeth Rev ; 32(1-2): 43-62, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25434064

RESUMO

Disability might be relevant to decisions about life support in intensive care in several ways. It might affect the chance of treatment being successful, or a patient's life expectancy with treatment. It may affect whether treatment is in a patient's best interests. However, even if treatment would be of overall benefit it may be unaffordable and consequently unable to be provided. In this paper we will draw on the example of neonatal intensive care, and ask whether or when it is justified to ration life-saving treatment on the basis of disability. We argue that predicted disability is relevant both indirectly and directly to rationing decisions.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência , Ética Médica , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/ética , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/ética , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética , Austrália , Morte , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/economia , Expectativa de Vida , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/economia , Preconceito/ética , Qualidade de Vida , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/economia , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/terapia , Reino Unido
13.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 190(7): 818-26, 2014 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25271745

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The high costs of health care in the United States and other developed nations are attributable, in part, to overuse of tests, treatments, and procedures that provide little to no benefit for patients. To improve the quality of care while also combating this problem of cost, the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation developed the Choosing Wisely Campaign, tasking professional societies to develop lists of the top five medical services that patients and physicians should question. OBJECTIVES: To present the Critical Care Societies Collaborative's Top 5 list in Critical Care Medicine and describe its development. METHODS: Each professional society in the Collaborative nominated members to the Choosing Wisely task force, which established explicit criteria for evaluating candidate items, generated lists of items, performed literature reviews on each, and sought external input from content experts. Task force members narrowed the list to the Top 5 items using a standardized scoring system based on each item's likely overall impact and merits on the five explicit criteria. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: From an initial list of 58 unique recommendations, the task force proposed a Top 5 list that was ultimately endorsed by each Society within the Collaborative. The five recommendations are: (1) do not order diagnostic tests at regular intervals (such as every day), but rather in response to specific clinical questions; (2) do not transfuse red blood cells in hemodynamically stable, nonbleeding ICU patients with an Hb concentration greater than 7 g/dl; (3) do not use parenteral nutrition in adequately nourished critically ill patients within the first 7 days of an ICU stay; (4) do not deeply sedate mechanically ventilated patients without a specific indication and without daily attempts to lighten sedation; and (5) do not continue life support for patients at high risk for death or severely impaired functional recovery without offering patients and their families the alternative of care focused entirely on comfort. CONCLUSIONS: These five recommendations provide a starting point for clinicians and patients to make decisions leading to higher-quality, lower-cost care. Future work is needed to promote adherence to these recommendations and to develop additional ways for intensive care clinicians to take leadership in reining in health-care costs.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Sedação Profunda/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrição Parenteral/estatística & dados numéricos , Transfusão de Sangue/economia , Cuidados Críticos/economia , Estado Terminal/economia , Sedação Profunda/economia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/economia , Nutrição Parenteral/economia , Médicos , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
15.
J Palliat Med ; 16(7): 780-5, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23790184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospice care is important for patients with terminal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially in endemic areas of viral hepatitis. Differences between hospice care and usual care for geriatric HCC inpatients have not yet been explored in a nationwide survey. OBJECTIVE: The study's purpose was to analyze differences between hospice care and usual care for geriatric HCC inpatients in a nationwide survey. METHODS: This nationwide, population-based study used data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. Patients with terminal HCC who were ≥65 years old and received their end-of-life care in the hospital between January 2001 and December 2004 were recruited. The comparison group was selected by propensity score matching from patients receiving usual care in acute wards. RESULTS: We enrolled 729 terminal HCC patients receiving inpatient hospice care and 729 matched controls selected from 2482 HCC patients receiving usual care. Hospice care patients were treated mainly by family medicine doctors (36%) and oncologists (26%), while usual care patients were treated mainly by gastroenterologists (60.2%). The natural opium alkaloids were used more in the hospice care group than in the usual care group (72.7% versus 25.5%, P<0.001), whereas the length of stay (8±7.7 days versus 14.1±14.3 days, P<0.001), aggressive procedures (all P<0.005), and medical expenses (all P<0.001) were significantly less in the hospice care group. CONCLUSION: HCC patients in hospice wards received more narcotic palliative care, underwent fewer aggressive procedures, and incurred lower costs than those in acute wards. Hospice care should be promoted as a viable option for terminally ill, elderly HCC patients.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/economia , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/economia , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/economia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/economia , Cuidados Paliativos/economia , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/normas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/fisiopatologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/normas , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/normas , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Pontuação de Propensão , Padrão de Cuidado , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Doente Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
J Trauma ; 71(6): 1637-44; discussion 1644, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22182872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decompressive craniectomy has been traditionally used as a lifesaving rescue procedure for patients with refractory intracranial hypertension after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), but its cost-effectiveness remains uncertain. METHODS: Using data on length of stay in hospital, rehabilitation facility, procedural costs, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) up to 18 months after surgery, the average total hospital costs per life-year and quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) were calculated for patients who had decompressive craniectomy for TBI between 2004 and 2010 in Western Australia. The Corticosteroid Randomisation After Significant Head Injury prediction model was used to quantify the severity of TBI. RESULTS: Of the 168 patients who had 18-month follow-up data available after the procedure, 70 (42%) achieved a good outcome (GOS-5), 27 (16%) had moderate disability (GOS-4), 34 (20%) had severe disability (GOS-3), 5 (3%) were in vegetative state (GOS-2), and 32 (19%) died (GOS-1). The hospital costs increased with the severity of TBI and peaked when the predicted risk of an unfavorable outcome was about 80%. The average cost per life-year gained (US$671,000 per life-year) and QALY (US$682,000 per QALY) increased substantially and became much more than the usual acceptable cost-effective limit (US$100,000 per QALY) when the predicted risk of an unfavorable outcome was >80%. Changing different underlying assumptions of the analysis did not change the results significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Severity of TBI had an important effect on cost-effectiveness of decompressive craniectomy. As a lifesaving procedure, decompressive craniectomy was not cost-effective for patients with extremely severe TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/economia , Lesões Encefálicas/cirurgia , Craniectomia Descompressiva/economia , Custos Hospitalares , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Craniectomia Descompressiva/métodos , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/economia , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/métodos , Masculino , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Austrália Ocidental , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Bioeth ; 11(7): 7-14, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21745072

RESUMO

U.S. politicians and policymakers have been preoccupied with how to pay for health care. Hardly any thought has been given to what should be paid for--as though health care is a commodity that needs no examination--or what health outcomes should receive priority in a just society, i.e., rationing. I present a rationing proposal, consistent with U.S. culture and traditions, that deals not with "health care," the terminology used in the current debate, but with the more modest and limited topic of medical care. Integral to this rationing proposal--which allows scope to individual choice and at the same time recognizes the interdependence of the individual and society--is a definition of a "decent minimum," the basic package of medical treatments everyone should have access to in a just society. I apply it to a specific example, diabetes mellitus, and track it through a person's life span.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/ética , Cuidados Paliativos/ética , Justiça Social , Valor da Vida , Controle de Custos/ética , Características Culturais , Complicações do Diabetes/economia , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/economia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Educação , Emprego , Europa (Continente) , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/economia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/normas , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/ética , Seguro Saúde/ética , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Rim/economia , Transplante de Rim/ética , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/economia , Medicaid , Medicare , Cuidados Paliativos/economia , Poder Familiar , Diálise Renal/economia , Diálise Renal/ética , Justiça Social/ética , Justiça Social/legislação & jurisprudência , Justiça Social/normas , Estados Unidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA